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Food Additives

Food additives are anything that is added to food. Humans have been adding things to their food for centuries now for a number of reasons including preservation of the food and flavour enhancement.

Additives have been increasing in number and it has only been when adverse effects have been found that certain additives have been banned by different countries. Although there are side effects to many additives they are still allowed to be used and its a matter of "Consumer, beware!".

My concern with food addivities is that the majority of the population are unaware exactly what those numbers on the sides of packages means and what it is they are consuming. The majority of the population are also unaware that they may be unconsciously poisoning themselves and their children through their food choices. There is now enough evidence to show the effect that some foods and food additives have on behaviour and concentration in children and the adverse effects they have on people who have asthma. The Hyperactive Children's Support Group (HACSG) has made recommendations that certain food additives be avoided (as listed below) as these substances may cause allergic reactions.

Below is a list of the additives and some of their uses and potential adverse effects on health. I'm still working on the table, updating it as I find new information so it will be a constant "work in progress". If you have any suggestions or information that I can include in this table please email me and let me know.
Email Sue
Thank you.

FOOD ADDITIVES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON HEALTH
(listed by number)

CODE SOURCE CODE ADDITIVE DESCRIPTION HEALTH EFFECTS OF ADDITIVES
100   Curcumin orange-yellow colour, derived from turmeric, a member of the ginger family - canned beverages, baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yoghurts, yellow cakes, biscuits, popcorn-colour, sweets, cake icings, cereals, sauces, gelatines, direct compression tablets, etc Nil known but research is continuing into its possible prevention of colon cancer. Causes mutations in bacteria and increases the weight of the thyroid gland in pigs.
101  Riboflavin (vitamin B2) Riboflavin is yellow or orange-yellow in colour and in addition to being used as a food colouring it is also used to fortify some foods. It can be found in such foods as baby foods, breakfast cereals, sauces, processed cheese, fruit drinks and vitamin-enriched milk products as well as being widely used in vitamin supplements. Nil Known but is now mostly GM s it can be produced synthetically using genetically modified Bacillus subtilis.
102  Tartrazine A synthetic yellow azo dye found in fruit squash, fruit cordial, coloured fizzy drinks, instant puddings, cake mixes, custard powder, soups, sauces, ice cream, ice lollies, sweets, chewing gum, marzipan, jam, jelly, marmalade, mustard, yogurt and many convenience foods together with glycerin, lemon and honey products. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Rhinitis, Bronchospasm, Blurred vision, Skin problems, Insomnia, Night terrors, aspirin sensitivity; migraine, purple skin patches. Banned in Norway and Austria.
103 Alkanet (Chrysoine Resorcinol)Natural 'port-wine' colour from A. tinctoria plant. Listed in Australia in 1992. Banned in US in 1988.
104  Quinoline yellow Yellow colour found in ices, scotch eggs and smoked haddock. Not permitted in Australia - may produce an allergic reaction. HCSG recommend to avoid it. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Eczema, Insomnia
105  Fast Yellow AB Yellow colourant It is now delisted in both Europe and USA and is not used anymore, as toxicological data shown it is harmful.
106  Riboflavin-5-Sodium Phosphate Yellow food dye No known adverse side effects
107  Yellow 2G yellow colour, Typical products are soft drinks The HACSG recommends to avoid it. People who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Eczema, Insomnia. Its use is banned in Australia, Austria, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States.
110  Sunset yellow FCF yellow colour, Typical products are orange squash, orange jelly, marzipan, Swiss roll, apricot jam, citrus marmalade, lemon curd, sweets, hot chocolate mix and packet soups, trifle mix, breadcrumbs and cheese sauce mix. the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Some people show allergic reactions to it (rashes, swelling, vomiting), hyperactivity; allergies; aspirin sensitivity, kidney tumours, chromosomal damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food; Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Angioedema, seen increased incidence of tumours in animals.
111 Orange GGN (alpha-naphthol orange) Orange colourant  
1201Cochineal, carminic acid red colour, Rarely used the HASCG recommends to avoid it. Causes Hyperactivity, Asthma, Eczema, Insomnia.
122  Carmoisine red colour. Typical products are confectionary, marzipan, jelly crystals the HASCG recommends to avoid it. Sensitive people and asthmatics may show allergic reactions to it. Can cause Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Oedema, and aspirin sensitivity
123  Amaranth purplish-red colour. Typical products are cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals can provoke asthma, eczema, hyperactivity, urticaria and insomnia. It caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer. Banned in the United States in 1976, still used in Australia. Avoid it!
124  Brilliant scarlet 4R red colour the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Asthmatics and people with aspirin sensitivity may show allergic reactions. May cause hyperactivity, urticaria, insomnia and is a suspect for Cancer
127  Erythrosine red colour. Typical products are custard mix, biscuits, glace' cherries, canned cherries and strawberries the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Might increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism. Can cause sensitivity to light, was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990. May also cause urticaria, insomnia and asthma.
128  Red 2G red colour not permitted in Australia May cause hyperactivity, urticaria, insomnia and asthma.
129  Allura red AC red colour. Typical products are biscuits, cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings. may be an allergen in allergic skin conditions, has also been connected with cancer in mice.
131  Patent blue blue colour not permitted in AustraliaHyperactivity, Asthma, Skin sensitivity, Nausea, Low blood pressure, Tremor, Urticaria. Shock, Breathing problems.
132  Indigo carmine blue colour. Typical products are confectionary, biscuits, tablets, capsules, ice-cream. people with allergies should avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions, hyperactivity, pruritis and breathing problems.
133  Brilliant blue FCF blue colour. Typically used in tinned peas, bacon-flavoured snacks the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Causes hyperactivity, asthma, urticaria and insomnia
140  Chlorophyll green to olive colour naturally part of man's diet - no known side effects
141  Copper complexes of chlorophyll and chlorophyllins olive colour in oil and green colour in water - Can be found in some types of cheese, chewing gum, ice cream, Parsley sauce, soups and green vegetables and fruits preserved in liquids May cause asthma, skin irritation and hay fever
142  Green S green colour seems safe in small quantities but may cause hyperactivity, asthma, urticaria or insomnia.
150  Caramel dark brown colour. Typical products are oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles, drinks, soups, cakes, vinegar the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Causes hyperactivity. B6 deficiency has been seen in rats.
151  Brilliant black BN black colour, Synthetic colour; coal tar derivative, used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes; may be carcinogenic. the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Has caused intestinal cysts in pigs. Potentially dangerous to asthmatics, probable cause for ADD in children and may cause urticaria and problem to rhinitis sufferers. Also known to interfere with some digestive enzymes. Banned in Denmark, Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, USA, Norway and greatly restricted Sweden.
1532 Vegetable carbon, charcoal pigment; used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice; black colour banned in the United States, still used in Australia although only the vegetable derived type are allowed. Studies in the US have linked this to cancer.
154  Brown FK brown colour not permitted in Australia. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Genetic Mutation.
155  Chocolate brown HT brown colour. Typical products are chocolate cake mixes the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Skin sensitivity, Insomnia.
160(a)2 Carotene, alpha-, beta-, gamma- orange-yellow colour converts to vitamin A in the body. No known side effects.
160(b)  Annatto (bixin, norbixin)peach colour. Typical products are dairy products. the HACSG recommends to avoid it.
160(c)  Capsanthin * not permitted in Australia
160(d)  Lycopene * not permitted in Australia
160(e)  Beta-apo-8'-carotenal orange colour no adverse effects are known
160(f)  Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid orange colour no adverse effects are known
161  Xanthophylls yellow colour unlikely to produce adverse effects
161(b)  Lutein Yellow colour derived from plants, naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg yolks. Asthma, Skin irritation, Hay fever
161(g)2 Canthaxanthin orange colour no adverse effects are known
162  Beet red, betanin purple colour no adverse effects are known
163  Anthocyanins violet colour no adverse effects known
170  Calcium carbonate added calcium no adverse effects are known
171  Titanium dioxide white colour conflicting reports about this additive.
172  Iron oxides tinned fish, fish pastes toxic in high doses
173  Aluminium used to prevent caking not permitted in Australia. Kidney stress
174  Silver * not permitted in Australia. Blue-grey skin.
175  Gold * not permitted in Australia. Many harmful side-effects have been recorded for gold infections. None so far detected with gold taken by mouth.
180  Pigment rubine red colour not permitted in Australia. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Skin sensitivity, Insomnia.
181  Tannic acid, tannins clarifying agent in alcoholic drinks no known adverse reactions
200  Sorbic acid * possible skin irritant
201  Sodium sorbate * Asthma, Skin irritation, Hay Fever
202  Potassium sorbate * Asthma, Skin irritation, Hay Fever.
203  Calcium sorbate - Asthma, Skin irritation, Hay Fever.
210  Benzoic acid Typical products are soft drinks, juices, cordials, chilly pastes, confectionery, cheeses, baked goods the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Gastric irritation, Neurological disorders. Reacts with E222.
211  Sodium benzoate Typical products see 210 the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia
212  Potassium benzoate Typical products see210 People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia.
213  Calcium benzoate - see 212
214  Ethyl4-hydroxybenzoate - not permitted in Australia. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Numb mouth, Skin sensitivity.
215  Sodium salt - not permitted in Australia.Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Numb mouth.
216  Propybaraben - possible contact allergen. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Skin problems, Insomnia, Numb mouth.
217  Propyl4-hydroxybenzoate - not permitted in Australia. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Skin problems, Insomnia, Numb mouth
218 Methylparaben - allergic reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Insomnia, Numb mouth.
219  Methyl4-hydroxybenzoate - not permitted in Australia. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Skin problems, Insomnia, Numb mouth.
220  Sulphur dioxides typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products the HACSG recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, Irritation of the alimentary tract. Destruction of Vitamins E and B1 and causes hyperactivity
221  Sodium sulphite typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products the HACSG recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, destroys vitamin B1 and E.
222  Sodium bisulsulphite typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products the HACSG recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, destroys vitamin B1 and E, and causes hyperactivity
223  Sodium metabisulphite typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products the HACSG recommends to avoid it. Gastric irritation, Reduction of Vitamins B and E, Food aversion, Skin reactions, Asthma.
224  Potassium metabisulphite typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products the HACSG recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, destroys vitamin B1. Dyspnea, Cyanosis, Faintness, Unconsciousness.
225  Potassium sulphite typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products the HACSG recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, destroys vitamin B1
226  Calcium sulphite - not permitted in Australia. Gastric irritation, Reduction of Vitamins B and E, Asthma.
227  Calcium hydrogen sulphite - not permitted in Australia. Gastric irritation, Reduction of Vitamins B and E, Asthma.
228  Potassium bisulphite typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products the HACSG recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, destroys vitamin B1
230  Biphenyl can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are citrus fruit not permitted in Australia. Nausea, Vomiting, Irritation to eyes and nose.
231  2-Hydroxybiphenyl can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potato, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines not permitted in Australia. Nausea, Vomiting, Irritation to eyes and nose.
232  Sodium biphenyl-2-yl oxide can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potato, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines not permitted in Australia. Nausea, Vomiting, Irritation to eyes and nose.
233  Thiabendazole can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are citrus fruits, apples, pears, potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, meat, milk not permitted in Australia. Causes Skin disorders
2343 Nisin a natural antimicrobial agent used as a preservative in heat processed and low pH foods not currently approved as an allowable ingredient in organic food production as it can, in some instances, be the product of genetically engineered bacteria.
235  Natamycin sometimes used medically to treat candidiasis. Typical products are meat, cheese - its an antimyotic food additive used to protect cheese from mold and yeast growth Can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin irritation.
236  Formic acid - not permitted in Australia. Diuretic, Can cause skin problems, Urinary disorders
237  Sodium formate - not permitted in Australia. Diuretic, Kidney disorders.
238  Calcium formate - not permitted in Australia. Diuretic, Kidney disorders.
239  Hexamine - not permitted in Australia. Gastrointestinal upsets, Urinary upsets, Skin rashes, GENE MUTATIONS in animal studies, Cancer.
249  Potassium nitrite typical products are meat products may cause dizziness, headaches, difficult breathing, potential carcinogen. NOT SUITABLE FOR BABIES UNDER SIX MONTHS. Causes destruction of red blood corpuscles, Cancer, Asthma. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
250  Sodium nitrite alters the color of preserved fish and meats and also prevents growth of Clostridium botulinum, the bacteria which causes botulism. the HACSG recommends to avoid it (see 249), hyperactivity; Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Nausea, Vomiting, Dizzyness. Cancer in animals. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances. potentially carcinogenic, can be toxic for humans (lethal dose ca. 4g)
251  Sodium nitrate - see 250. Deoxygenation of the blood. Cancer. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
2522 Potassium nitrate - see 249. Gastro-enteritis, Severe abdominal pain, Vomiting, Vertigo, Muscular weakness, Irregular pulse, Deoxygenation of blood. Cancer. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
260  Acetic acid - No known side effects.
261  Potassium acetate Typical products are sauces, pickles Should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function.
262  Sodium hydrogen diacetate, - No known side effects
262  Sodium acetate and Sodium acetate (anhyrdrous) - NOT SUITABLE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Increased body fluid salt concentrations. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances. Where only the number 262 is used please check with the manufacturer as to which form of 262 has been used.
263  Calcium acetate- no known side effects
264  Ammonium acetate - can cause nausea and vomiting
2702 Lactic acid typical products are infant formula, confectionary, dressings, soft drinks NOT SUITABLE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
280  Propionic acid - -
281  Sodium propionate typical products are flour products may be linked to migraines
282  Calcium propionate flour products Migraine.
283  Potassium propionate - Migraine.
290  Carbon dioxide typical products are wine, soft drinks, confectionary may increase the effect of alcohol
296  DL-Malic acid - infants and young children should avoid it
297  Fumaric acid - no known side effects
300  Ascorbic acid vitamin C helps maintain the red color of cured meat and prevents the formation of nitrosamines, which promote cancer (see SODIUM NITRITE). It helps prevent loss of color and flavor by reacting with unwanted oxygen. It is used as a nutrient additive in drinks and breakfast cereals. Sodium ascorbate is a more soluble form of ascorbic acid. implicated in exacerbation of arthritic symtpoms. Large amounts of ascorbic acid may reduce the severity of colds and offer other health benefits. VERY LARGE DOSES can cause diarrhoea. More than 10gm per day could cause kidney stones in susceptible people. No known adverse effects in standard doses.
301  Sodium ascorbate sodium salt of vitamin C -
302  Calcium ascorbate vitamin C may increase the formation of calcium oxalate stones
303  Potassium ascorbate potassium salt of vitamin C -
304  Ascorbyl palmitate same function as vitamin C -
306, 307 308, 309  Tocopherols vitamin E prevents oils from going rancid Recent studies indicate that large amounts of vitamin E may help reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer.
310  Propyl gallate (anti oxidant) typical products are margarine, fats, salad dressings NOT SUITABLE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Gastric Irritation, REPRODUCTIVE FAILURES, Liver damage. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
311  Octyl gallate - NOT SUITABLE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Gastric Irritation. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
312  Dodecyl gallate - NOT SUITABLE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Gastric Irritation. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
317  Erythorbic acid very similar to ascorbic acid, but has no value as a vitamin. -
318  Sodium erythorbate - -
319  tert-Butylhydroquinone (anti oxidant) Typical products are fats, oils, margarine, packet chips The HACSG recommends to avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal.
320  Butulated hydroxyanisole (anti oxidant) Typical products are fats, oils, margarine, nuts, instant potato products, fried snacks, soft drinks, chewing gum The HACSG recommends to avoid it. Can cause hyperactivity; asthma; adverse reactions; allergies; NOT SUITABLE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Urticaria, Insomnia, Raised lipid and cholesterol in blood. Problems with liver metabolism. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
321  Butylated hydroxytoluene Typical products are nuts The HACSG recommend to avoid it. NOT SAFE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Skin rashes, Problems with liver metabolism. REPRODUCTIVE FAILURES. Blood cell changes. Cancer seen in animal studies. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
322 2Lecithins Vitamin - nutritious and non-toxic -
3252 Sodium lactate - young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions. NOT SAFE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Increases antioxidant effect of other substances. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
326 2Potassium lactate - NOT SUITABLE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Increases antioxidant effect of other substances. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.  
3272 Calcium lactate - see 325
3282 Ammonium lactate - see 325
3292 Magnesium lactate - see 325
330  Citric acid occurs naturally in citrus fruits has been indicated in exacerbation of arthritic symptoms. IN VERY LARGE AMOUNTS can have local irritant action, and/or cause erosion of teeth.
331  Sodium citrates - -
332  Potassium citrates - No known adverse effects, except for kidney patients.
333  Calcium citrates - Large amounts may cause mouth ulcers.
334  Tartaric acid - In large quantities can cause gastric irritations.
335  Sodium tartrates - -
336  Potassium tartrates - Kidney stress for people with impaired kidney or liver function.
337  Sodium potassium tartrate - -
338  Phosphoric acid - Digestive disorders.
339  Sodium orthophosphates - high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium. Digestive disorders.
340 Potassium orthophosphates - see 339
341  Calcium orthophosphates - Digestive disorders.
343  Magnesium phosphates - essential minerals
350  Sodium malates - -
351  Potassium malate - -
352  Calcium malates - -
353  Metatartaric acid - -
354  Calcium tartrate - -
355  Adipic acid - -
357  Potassium adipate - -
363  Succinic acid - not permitted in Australia.
365  Sodium fumarate - -
366  Potassium fumarate - -
367  Calcium fumarate - -
370  1,4-Heptonolactone - not permitted in Australia.
375  Niacin vitamin B3 -
380  Tri-ammonium citrate - may interfere with liver and pancreas function
381  Ammonium ferric citrates - essential mineral
385  Calcium disodium EDTA - not permitted in Australia. Vomiting, Diarrhoea, Abdominal cramps, Interference with absorption of minerals.
400  Alginic acid - No known adverse effects in small quantities. Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
401  Sodium alginate An edible, natural gum obtained from kelp, it is derived from a variety of brown seaweeds. It is used extensively in ice cream and restructured products such as restructured fruits and meats. see 400
402  Potassium alginate - see 400
403  Ammonium alginate - see 400
404  Calcium alginate - see 400
405  Propylene glycol alginate - -
406 Agar uses are as a laxative, a vegetarian gelatin substitute a thickener for soups, in jellies, ice cream and Japanese desserts such as anmitsu, as a clarifying agent in brewing see 400. Very large quantities can cause flatulence and distention, Possibly intestinal obstruction.
407  Carrageenan (emulsifier) They are widely used in the food and other industries as thickening and stabilizing agents. Used in ice-cream, jellies, cake decorations, cheese, salad dressings, beer, toothpaste, pates and processed meat. allergies; intolerances; Ulcerative colitis, Cancer.
410  Locust bean gum - may lower cholesterol levels. Asthma, Skin irritation, Hay fever.
412  Guar gum - Nausea, Flatulence and Abdominal cramps.
413  Tragacanth - possible contact allergy
414  Acacia An important ingredient in soft drink syrups, "hard" gummy candies like gumdrops, and in marshmallows. possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes. Allergic reactions.
415  Xanthan gum Natural gum polysaccharide used as a food additive and rheology modifier. Sometimes used as a substitute for gluten in baked goods. Asthma, Skin irritation, Hay fever.
416  Karaya gum - Asthma, Skin irritation, Hay fever. Possible allergen.
420  Sorbitol Typical products are dried fruits, confectionary, pastries, low calorie foods Not permitted in foods for infants and young children, VERY LARGE AMOUNTS can cause flatulence, diarrhoea and abdominal distension.
421  Mannitol (emulsifier) Typical products are low calorie foods, ice-cream, confectionery, low calorie foods Possible allergen may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea.
422 2Glycerin Typical products are liqueurs, confectionary, dried fruit, low calorie foods Large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels.
430 2 Polyoxyethylene (8) Stearate-Skin problems, gastrointestinal problems, urinary tract problems, kidney stones.
4312 Polyoxyethylene (40) Stearate-Skin problems, gastrointestinal problems, urinary tract problems, kidney stones.
4322 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monolaurate or Polysorbate 20 - not permitted in Australia. Conflicting reports. VERY LARGE AMOUNTS can cause flatulence, diarrhoea and abdominal distension.
433 2Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Mono-Oleate or Polysorbate 80 - may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
434 2Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monopalmitate - not permitted in Australia. Increases absorption of fat soluable substances. VERY LARGE AMOUNTS can cause flatulence, diarrhoea and abdominal distension
4352 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monostearate or Polysorbate 60 - Increases absorption of fat soluable substances. VERY LARGE AMOUNTS can cause flatulence, diarrhoea and abdominal distension
4362 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Tristearate or Polysorbate 65 - Increases absorption of fat soluable substances. VERY LARGE AMOUNTS can cause flatulence, diarrhoea and abdominal distension
440(a)  Pectin Under acidic conditions, pectin forms a gel, and it can be used as an edible thickening agent in processed foods. This effect is used for making jams and jellies. Large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
440(b)  Amidated pectin - -
441 1Gelatine Thickening agent used in jellies Possible allergen may contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites need to be cautious - best to avoid
442 2Ammonium phosphatides - May remove essential minerals.
450  Sodium and potassium polyphosphates - High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium. May remove essential minerals.
460  Powdered cellulose - -
461  Methylcellulose - can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction
463   Hydroxypropyl-cellulose - not permitted in Australia
464  Hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose - -
465  methylethylcellulose - -
466  Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose - Intestinal obstruction
4691 Sodium caseinate - -
470a2 Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids - not permitted in Australia. IN QUANTITY, can interfere with intestinal function.
470b2 Magnesium Stearate - not permitted in Australia. IN QUANTITY, can interfere with intestinal function.
4712, 3 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Black Forest gateau mix, cakes, hot-chocolate mix, aerosol creams, shaped crisps, quick custard mix, packet dessert topping, dehydrated potato and sponge puddings. -
472a2 Acetic & Fatty Esters of Glycerol used as coating for meat products, nuts and fruits where it improves appearance and extends shelf life. Can also be found in bread, dessert toppings and cheesecake and mousse mixes -
472b2 Lactic & Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol - -
472c2 Citric & Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol - -
472d2 Tartaric & Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol - -
472e2 Di-Acetyl Tartaric & Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol - -
472f2 Mixed Acetic and Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono- and Di-Glycerides of Fatty Acids - -
4732 Sucrose esters of fatty acids - -
474 2Sucroglycerides - not permitted in Australia
4752 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids - -
4762 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate - -
4772 Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids - -
4782 Lactylated Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol and Propane-1,2 Diol - -
479b2 Thermally Oxidised Soya Bean Oil Interacted With Mono- and Di-Glycerides of Fatty Acids - -
480  Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate - awaiting results of studies
4812Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate - -
4822 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate - -
4832 Stearyl tartrate - not permitted in Australia
4912 Sorbitan monos tearate - -
492 2 Sorbitan tristearate - may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
493 2Sorbitan monolaurate-not permitted in Australia
494 2 Sorbitan mono-oleate - not permitted in Australia
495 2 Sorbitan monopalmitate - not permitted in Australia
500   Sodium carbonades - Large amounts cause corrosion of the gut, gastric upsets, circulation problems.
501   Potassium carbonates - -
503   Ammonium carbonates - irritant to mucous membranes and stomache lining
504   Magnesium carbonate medically used as an antacid and laxative-
507   Hydrochloric acid - Intestinal ulceration, Haemorrhage, Perforation, Gastric ulceration, Nausea and Vomiting.
508   Potassium chloride - Intestinal ulceration, Haemorrhage, Perforation, Gastric ulceration, Nausea and Vomiting.
509   Calcium chloride - Intestinal ulceration, Haemorrhage, Perforation, Gastric ulceration, Nausea and Vomiting.
510   Ammonium chloride Typical products are flour products Should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function
511   Magnesium chloride - magnesium is an essential mineral
513   Sulphuric acid - not permitted in Australia. Poisonous.
514   Sodium sulphate - NOT SAFE FOR BABIES. Affects kidney and heart functions. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
515   Potassium sulphate - -
516   Calcium sulphate - -
518   Magnesium sulphate a laxative Problems with kidney patients.
519   Copper sulphate essential mineral -
524   Sodium hydroxide - not permitted in Australia
525   Potassium hydroxide - not permitted in Australia. Burning pain in mouth, throat and stomach. Swelling of lining membranes, vomiting, pain and shock.
526   Calcium hydroxide - no adverse effects in small quantities
527   Ammonium hydroxide - not permitted in Australia
528   Magnesium hydroxide - not permitted in Australia
529   Calcium oxide - safe in small quantities
530   Magnesium oxide - not permitted in Australia
535   Sodium ferrocyanide - Low level of toxicity.
536   Potassium ferrocyanide - low toxicity
540   Dicalcium diphosphate - not permitted in Australia. Small chances of adverse reaction
541   Sodium aluminium phosphate - not permitted in Australia. UNSAFE FOR SMALL BABIE OR PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM KIDNEY OR HEART PROBLEMS. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
542 1 Bone phosphate - -
544   Calcium polyphosphates - not permitted in Australia. Digestive disturbances due to blocked enzyme systems. Allergic reactions.
545   Ammonium polyphosphates - not permitted in Australia. Digestive disturbances due to blocked enzyme systems. Allergic reactions.
551   Silicon dioxide - -
552   Calcium silicate antacid -
553(a)   Magnesium silicates - not permitted in Australia
553(b)   Talc typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionary has been linked to stomach cancer
554   Sodium aluminium silicate - Aluminium is known to be neurotoxic and aluminium toxicity has been implicted with Alzheimers disease.
556   Calcium aluminium silicate - Aluminium is known to be neurotoxic and Aluminium toxicity has been implicted with Alzheimers disease.
558   Bentonite - -
559   Kaolins - -
570 2 Stearic acid - -
572 2 Magnesium stearate - Only harmful if the powder is inhaled.
575   Glucono delta-lactone (GDL) a naturally occurring food additive used as a sequestrant, an acidifier, or a curing, pickling, or leavening agent. Commonly found in honey, fruit juices, and wine. Being acidic, it adds a tangy taste to foods, though it has roughly a third of the sourness of citric acid. It is metabolized to glucose; one gram of GDL is equivalent to one gram of sugar. -
576   Sodium gluconate - not permitted in Australia
577   Potassium gluconate - -
578   Calcium gluconate - -
579   Ferrous gluconate - seems safe in small quantities
585 2 Ferrous Lactate - -
620   L-Glutamic acid - might cause similar problems as MSG(621), young children should avoid it
621   Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (flavour enhancer) prepacked meals, snacks, Chinese cooking NOT SAFE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Heart palpitations, Headaches, Dizzyness, Muscle tightening, Nausea, Weakness of the upper arms, Neck pain, Migraine, Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances. Can cause adverse reactions, allergies, aspirin sensitivity, obesity and up to 40% increase in apetite.
622   Monopotassium glutamate Typical products are low sodium salt substitutes NOT SAFE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Abdominal cramps, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhoea. HARMFUL TO PEOPLE WITH KIDNEY STONES. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
623   Calcium glutamate - NOT SAFE FOR BABIES . Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
624   Monoammonium L-glutamate - -
625   Magnesium di-L-glutamate - -
627   Disodiumguanylate   NOT SAFE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia. HARMFUL TO PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM GOUT OR RHEUMATISM. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
630 2 Inosinic Acid    
631 2 Disodium inosinate A flavour enhancer, often prepared from meat extract and dried sardines. It can also be a synthetic product made via a microbial synthesis process that begins with a vegetable source. NOT SAFE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia. HARMFUL TO PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM GOUT OR RHEUMATISM. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
635 2 disodium 5' ribonucleotide (flavour enhancer) flavoured crisps, instant noodles, party pies NOT SAFE FOR BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia. HARMFUL TO PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM GOUT OR RHEUMATISM. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances. Not easily broken down by body
636   Maltol Derived from the bark of larch trees, pine needles, chicory wood, oils and roasted malt; it may be produced synthetically. Artificial sweetener, flavour enhancer used in baked goods to give a 'fresh baked' taste and smell in bread and cakes, chocolate substitute, soft and fizzy drinks, ice cream, jam. NOT SAFE FOR BABIES. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances. In large quantities it can help aluminium pass into the brain to cause Alzheimer's disease.
637   Ethyl maltol Base for essences, synthetic artificial flavour and flavour enhancer NOT SAFE FOR BABIES. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia. As this substance is not suitable for babies under six months we suggest it would be advisable for pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid it also unless/until it is proven safe in these circumstances.
640 2 Glycine and its Sodium Salt Flavour modifier. Genetically coded amino acid used in dietary supplements. Can be mildly toxic if ingested.
900   Dimethylpoly-siloxane - -
901 1 Beeswaxes - occasionally causes allergic reactions
903   Carnauba wax - occasionally causes allergic reactions
904 1 Shellac - occasionally causes irritations of the skin
905   Paraffins Typical products are dried fruit, confectionary, collagen May inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative, there may be a link to bowel cancer. Anal seepage and irritation.
907   Refined microcrystalline wax - not permitted in Australia
920 2 L-cysteine and its hydrochlorides - Possible chelation (removal) of minerals.
921 2 L-Cysteine Hydrochloride Monohydrate Found in flour and bakery products (except wholemeal) where it is used as an improving agent and in chicken stock cubes where it is used as a flavour. Diabetics should be aware that there are some reports that it may interfere with insulin and there are anecdotal reports that it can react with monosodium glutamate (E621) in individuals who suffer from the so called Chinese restaurant syndrome, a set of symptoms, including headache, burning sensations, dizziness and disorientation.
924   Potassium bromate Typical products are flour products Large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, Convulsions, Disturbance of Vitamin E.
925   Chlorine Typical products are flour products Destroys nutrients, carcinogen, in some areas tap water is contaminated with it, to make it 'safer' to drink. Powerful irritant, Disturbance of Vitamin E.
926   Chlorine dioxide Typical products are flour products Destroys nutrients, carcinogen, in some areas tap water is contaminated with it, to make it 'safer' to drink. Powerful irritant, Disturbance of Vitamin E.
927   Azodicarbonamide - not permitted in Australia. Hyperactivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Insomnia, Disturbance of Vitamin E.
928   Benzol peroxide - asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE, see 210
931   Nitrogen - -
932   Nitrous oxide - seems quite safe in small quantities
950   Acesulphane potassium Used widely as artificial sweetener in low joule gums, drinks, diet foods, etc. 200 times sweeter than sugar, has a bitter after taste. Possible carcinogen in humans, caused cancer in test animals. Suggested that it is worse than Aspartame or Saccharin. Avoid it.
951   Aspartame (sweetener) artificial sweetener, diet drinks, diabetic confectionery, ice-cream Avoid this product
In 2005, the first such study was released. It found that even low doses of aspartame increased the incidence of lymphomas and leukemias in female rats and also might have caused occasional brain tumors. While the study does not prove with certainty that aspartame is unsafe, it indicates that companies and consumers should avoid using it. Some people have reported dizziness, hallucinations, or headache after drinking diet soda, and one independent study confirmed that aspartame can cause headaches in sensitive individuals. Obviously, anyone who thinks they have been affected by aspartame should avoid it. Also, the few people with the rare disease PKU (phenylketonuria) need to avoid it. Worth a visit to DORway for more information on this chemical. Pregnant women please click here
952   Cyclamic acid artifical sweetner known to cause migraines and other reactions, can be carcinogenic, caused damage to rats testicles and mouse embryos in tests. Banned in the US and UK due its links with cancer. Avoid it.
953  isomalt, isomaltitol artificial sweetnerSuitable for diabetics as it does not have a significant affect on blood glucose or serum insulin levels. Can cause softer than normal stool and intestinal gas. Not permitted in infant foods. Not listed for use in Australia.
954   saccharines alcohol-free beer, cider, desserts, fruit juice drinks, tinned or bottled fruits, ice cream, jams, jellies, margarine, marmalades, milk drinks, mustard, sauces, soft drinks and sweets, normally with the description 'no added sugar' or 'diet'. Synthesised from toluene, a colourless inflammable liquid, insoluble in water, derived from petroleum. Toluene is a well-known carcinogen and Saccharin was banned in the USA in 1977, but reinstated subject to strict labelling. It interferes with normal blood coagulation, blood sugar levels and digestive function. Banned in France, Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Spain. Banned as food additive in Malaysia and Zimbabwe. Banned as a beverage additive in Fiji, Israel, Peru, and Taiwan.
954   Sucralose, (trichlorogalactosucrose) Artificial sweetener 600 times sweeter than sugar. Found under the brand name of "Splenda". In animal test before being accepted in Australia, they showed detrimental effects to the thalamus glands, liver and kidney enlargement, and renal mineralisation.
956   Alitame Artificial sweetener 2000 times sweeter than sugar. Current research suggests that it is safe. Not endorsed for use in the USA.
957   Thaumatin Artificial sweetener and flour enhancer. A protein derived from the tropical plant Thaumococcus danielli; used to sweeten wines, chewing gum, Japanese cooking, bread and fruit. Has a liquorice after taste. -
959   Neohesperidine DC alcohol-free beer, cider, desserts, fruit juice drinks, tinned or bottled fruits, ice cream, jams, jellies, margarine, marmalades, milk drinks, mustard, sauces, soft drinks and sweets, normally with the description 'no added sugar'. Artificial sweetener 340 times sweeter than sugar from grapefruit seed. Little research on effects but is used in a large range of foods.
965   Hydrogenated glucose syrup breakfast cereals, chewing gum, cocoa based products, desserts, ice cream, jams, jellies, mustard, sauces and sweets, normally with the description 'no added sugar'. mild laxative
966 2 Lactitol breakfast cereals, chewing gum, cocoa based products, desserts, ice cream, jams, jellies, mustard, sauces and sweets, normally with the description 'no added sugar' Can have a laxative effect and, in large amounts, diarrhoea
967   Xylitol Humectant, artificial sweetener, stabiliser, bulking agent, sugar substitute. Found in raspberries, plums, lettuce and endives, though produced for commercial purposes from wood pulp. low-joule foods and carbohydrate modified sweets, ice-cream chocolate, and jams laxative in high concentrations.
999   Quillaia extract used in the production of foam on non-alcoholic beverages. Use is banned in a number of countries. Used medically as a stimulating expectorant.
1001   Choline salts and esters Emulsifier. Used in the treatment of Autism as it improves brain function and circulation to the brain.
1100 2 Amylase Flour treatment agent. Derived from mould mushroom or pig pancreas. No adverse effects have been reported.
1101   Protease's (Papain, bromelain, ficin) Stabiliser, flavour enhancer, flour treatment agent, meat tenderiser and used in alcoholic beverages. Some are known to be possible teratogenic in nature.
1102   Glucose oxidase Anti-oxidant. Little information known at this time.
1103   Invertase Derived from honey. seems safe in small doses
1104   Lipases Flavour enhancer -
1105   Lysozyme Anti-bacterial preservative. Found in human milk and a number of other species. -
1200   Polydextrose Humectant and modifying agent in baked foods, modified carbohydrates, confectionary, chocolate, jam, ice cream, low joule foods. seems safe in small doses. Not to be used for babies or small infants
1201   Polyvinylpyrrolidone Dispersing agent, colour stabiliser. Coating for tablets; used in artificial sweeteners in low joule foods and chewing gum. Made from formaldehyde - supposed to be inert and non-toxic. Excess may cause damage to the lungs or kidneys, gas and faecal impaction. Carcinogenic. Avoid it.
1202   Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Clarifying agent for wine, beer and vinegar; colour and colloidal stabiliser, almost completely unabsorbed when taken orally. Artificial sweetener . May cause damage to kidneys and stay in the system for up to a year. Avoid it.
1400   Dextrin roasted starch Thickener, vegetable gum, foam stabiliser in beer, artificial sweetener base from tapioca or corn. No known adverse effects, but not fully evaluated for safety. Foods are made more digestible to babies but the chemicals to create may be harmful to them.
1401   Acid treated starch Thickener, vegetable gum. No known adverse effects. See 1400.
1402   Alkaline treated starch Thickener, vegetable gum. No known adverse effects. See 1400.
1403   Bleached starch Used in baby food, jelly type sweets, wine gums, batter mixes - wide range off foods. may be bleached with sulphur dioxide (one of a choice), which is dangerous to asthmatics. Further testing required. See 1400.
1404   Oxidised starch Thickener, vegetable gum bleached with possible sulphur dioxide residue, which is dangerous to asthmatics. See 1403. Further testing required. See 1400.
1405   Enzyme treated starch Thickener, vegetable gum in baby foods. Occurs naturally in the body. No known adverse effects. See 1400.
1410&nnbspMono starch phosphate Thickener, vegetable gum. No known adverse effects, further testing required. See 1400.
1412   Distarch phosphate Thickener, vegetable gum used in baby food, carbohydrate modified foods, starch. Not recommended for infant formulas. No known adverse effects, further testing required. See 1400.
1413   Phosphated distarch phosphate Prepared for baby foods, frozen foods, refrigerated sweets, soy and other infant formula. No known adverse effects, further testing required.
1414   Acetylated distarch phosphate Thickener, vegetable gum for food in cans: thin soups, foods and cereals for young children, soy and other infant formula. No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.
1420   Acetylated starch Thickener, vegetable gum in iced lollies, confectionary, yoghurts, egg white mix, fruit flavoured fillings. No known adverse effects, further testing required.
1421   Starch acetate esterfied with vinyl acetate Thickener, vegetable gum No known adverse effects.
1422   Acelylated distarch adipate Thickener, vegetable gum to give improved 'mouth feel' in a wide range of foods such as relishes and pickles, fruit pies and fillings, baby food. No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required
1440   Hydroxypropyl starch Thickener, vegetable gum from potatoes, wheat, maize, rice, barley, or roots like cassava. No known adverse effects, further testing required.
1442   Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate Thickener, vegetable gum in frozen products. No known adverse effects, further testing required
1450   Starch sodium octenyl succinate Thickener, vegetable gum where oil and water must mix in salad dressings, drink whiteners, dry drink bases, essences. No known adverse effects, further testing required
1451   Acetylated oxidised starch Thickener, vegetable gum. No known adverse effects, further testing required.
1505   Triethyl acetate or citrate Whipping aid, thickener, vegetable gum for flavoured and sports drinks, egg white liquid or dried. Part becomes alcohol in the body.
1510   Ethanol, ethyl alcohol used in cough medicines, perfumes, mouth wash, antiseptic, hairspray as an additive carrier not listed except in alcoholic drinks. Alcohol. Not permitted in foods in Australia, Suspected neurotoxic hazard, danger to persons with candida and allergies.
1517   Glycerol diacetate - May cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhoea, thirst, dizziness and mental confusion.
1518 2 Glycerol Mono-, Di- and Tri-Acetate or Tracetin Binder for solid rocket fuels. Fungicide, humectant and solvent derived from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US, essences, cigarette filters. -
1520   Propylene glycol maintains the desired texture in dairy products, canned frosting, and other factory-made foods, thickens acidic foods (soda pop, salad dressing) and can stabilize the foam in beer. Total recall of all medications in USA (if you still have some old ones, throw them out!) and has been linked with fatal heart attacks (when given intravenously), central nervous system depression and cosmetic or pharmaceutical contact dermatitis. Suspected as a neurotoxic hazard. Material Data Safety Sheets recommend not have dermal contact, wear rubber gloves.
1521  Polyethylene glycerol 8000Artificial sweetener, anti-foaming agent.Known to cause renal failure in burns victims.

1 - food additive derived from animal products
2 - food additives that may be derived from animal products - for more information you will need to contact the manufacturer.
3 - possibly genetically modified

Further reading list:
http://www.bryngollie.freeserve.co.uk/Enumbers.htm
http://www.fedupwithfoodadditives.info/
http://society.guardian.co.uk/health/news/0,8363,1671820,00.html
http://www.drsref.com.au/foodaddcodes.html
http://topcat.iit.bme.hu/~joker/eec/2_eng.html
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Food_additives?OpenDocument
http://nac.allergyforum.com/additives/
http://www.lactose.co.uk/milkallergy/foodadditives100.html
http://www.wholefoods.com/healthinfo/nisin.html
http://www.foresight-preconception.org.uk/books/FIND%20OUT.html
http://www.bryngollie.freeserve.co.uk/Enumbers.htm