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The Assassination of Grigory Rasputin and the Reaction of the Royal Family

 

[1]

Rasputin was many things to many different people in Russian. To his daughters he was a loving man who would never harm anyone and who helped the tsarevich when no one else could. The Empress Alexandra saw him through these eyes as well, believing that he was a “holy man” and should be listened to and obeyed at all costs. But to the rest of Russia he was something very different. Not only did the public see him as a filthy peasant, but the police, secret police, government officials and members of the Duma saw him as the filthy peasant as well. To them he represented everything that was wrong with the country and everyone but Alexandra and her family wanted him dead. The people of Russia could not understand why an illiterate peasant was allowed to visit the palace and the royal family court. By allowing Rasputin into the palace when they first met him, the Tsar and Empress were only damaging their reputation but as time went on and Rasputin became more scandalous, he did more then hurt the reputation of the Royal family for he angered many powerful men by his rude bahaviour and abuse of his power. The History of Rasputin is very complicated. He has been studied by many scholars and still no one can come to a conclusion about the “holy man” who was able to save the life of the young tsarevich Alexander. Was Rasputin a key figure in the downfall of the Romanov family or was he a minor figure who only contributed to the destruction of the monarch. It is no mystery why the people of Russia wanted Rasputin dead, from low class peasants to the upper class, for he made everyone look bad, including the Empress. After his unusual death the reaction of the royal family shows how Nicholas really felt about this man who controlled his wife and country.

The public opinion of Rasputin lead to the few assassination attempts before his actual murder in the winter of 1916. Rasputin was a terrible image for the crown to be associated with.[2] There were countless roomers spreading around Moscow and the rest of Russia about his relations with the Empress Alexandra, one being that he had hypnotized her and through hypnoses he was able to control her and therefore her husband.[3] People often questioned Nicholas’ wisdom and power when they saw Rasputin going into the palace.[4] The upper class, which Yusupov was a member of, feared that Rasputin was undermining Nicholas and the government to plan a revolution.[5] This opinion did not start until a few years after he had made known his power over the Empress. In 1905 Rasputin had very few enemies but as his power increased so did his number of enemies.[6]

[7]

A comic satirizing the power Rasputin had over the Tsar and Empress. He is depicted as a puppet master and they the puppets.

 

Rasputin’s power over the Empress caused everyone to fear him, including the police who were scared to go close enough to arrest him for his horrible public behavior.[8] The apartment Rasputin took in Moscow was under constant surveillance by the police and other spies but all the police could do was take accounts of his behavior and a log of his visitors.[9] The head of the police in charge of Rasputin at the time was Khvostov who hated Rasputin with a passion and the feeling was mutual. Rasputin embarrassed Khvostov many times, by using his power over Alexandra to have any charges Khvostov had against Rasputin dropped, that Khvostov finally exclaimed that “Rasputin must be killed.”[10] After months of trying to expose the crimes of Rasputin, Khvostov finally decided to search the apartment of the “holy man.” When roomer of this reached the Tsar, Nicholas told Khvostov that he should “retire” from the force.[11]

When World War One broke out no country in Europe was prepared for the ultimate cost of the war. Russian was one of the least equipped countries in Europe to go to war, not only because there was a revolution slowly rising but also because of the total lack of supplies and munitions. In Russia like all other countries there was the ever present fear of German spies which some people believed Rasputin to be.[12] People often saw Rasputin as useful to the German cause because they believed he was a part of the “dark forces” that were destroying Russia internally.[13] Rasputin often made it clear to Alexandra that he loathed all foreigners during the Great War, enemies or Allies.[14] The military upper class knew that Rasputin saw their ally Kitchener as a threat to Russia. In a dream Rasputin saw Kitchener betraying Russia and he told this dream to Alexandra who then proceeded to tell Nicholas not to trust their Allies.[15] After Nicholas made the terrible decision to take control over the army – which he did on the advise of Rasputin and Alexandra – things started to go even worse due to Rasputin’s involvement in the army.[16]  The commanders were outraged that a peasant with no experience in war and without any military training was giving Nicholas military advise on the battles.[17]  In one letter from Alexandra to Nicholas, Rasputin was giving advise on where to place the attacks;

 

“He bids we should not yet strongly advance in the north because he says, if our successes continue being good in the south, they will themselves retreat from the north, or advance & then their losses will be very great – if we begin there, our losses will be very heavy – He says this is an advise.”[18]

 

 Aside from the commanders the soldiers were also becoming angry due to Nicholas’ indecisiveness on the front. They were not keen on a leader who could not make a decision without first calling his wife, Alexandra or the peasant Rasputin.[19] Nicholas was under the spell of his wife who was under the spell of Rasputin. In her letters to Nicholas she writes; “they must learn to tremble before you – you remember Mr. Ph. & Gr. Say the same things too. You must simply order things to be done, not asking if they are possible (you will never ask anything unreasonable or a folly) . . . hearken unto our Friend, beleive (sic) Him.”[20] To further complicate matters with the war, public opinion and Rasputin, Alexandra often told Rasputin top secret military information that Nicholas would tell her to keep secret from anyone. This only added to the people’s suspicion and credibility in thinking Rasputin was a German spy and if they did not people were still outraged that the Empress would tell a peasant top secret information.[21]

During this chaotic time in Russia there was a group of government biased on the British idea of Parliament called the Duma. Like Parliament, the Duma experienced some difficulty when first establishing its power but Rasputin only made matters worse. The Duma’s nickname for Rasputin was “the beast.”[22] In return Rasputin had a name for the Duma that was equally unpleasant. There were often occasions when he referred to the Duma members as “a pack of dogs collected to keep other dogs silent.”[23] The Duma was created by the people of Russia to give the peasants a voice and some say in how their country was run. However, Rasputin informed Tsar Nicholas that none of the peasants supported the Duma.[24] When the war started to be less in favour of Russia and things were starting to go ill on the home front, Rasputin advised Alexandra not to call a Duma meeting.[25]

State officials were under the constant watch of Rasputin and often lived in fear of losing their job. It was well known by everyone in government that Rasputin planned on having a friend of his in every part of government.[26] An example of this being the case with Protopopov, a pudgy little man whose only ability was to make friends with Rasputin. He was appointed the “Minister of the Interior” because Alexandra wrote a letter to Nicholas at the front stating that “he [Protopopov] has liked our friend for at least 4 years.” Nicholas was not planning to give the little useless man the position until he was pressured from Alexandra who was pressured by Rasputin.[27] When certain members did or said something to offend him, Rasputin would then go to Alexandra and recommend that whomever upset him should be removed from office and often this had nothing to do with religion.[28] Though Rasputin was a disgusting illiterate man he was not stupid when it came to using him power for he “knew that the way to Nicholas was through Alexandra. If Rasputin persuaded her that someone was fit to hold an office, she would recommend the man, and he was often appointed.”[29] Not only did Rasputin have the power to decide if a man should be fired but he was often able to convince the Empress how to fire the man.[30] This in turn set powerful men and groups against the Royal family and many powerful men began to believe that Rasputin was undermining the government and Nicholas.[31] Rasputin warned Nicholas that the Duma was trying to take away power of the throne and constantly advised Alexandra and Nicholas that they should fight the Duma in order to keep as much power as they could on the throne.[32] By alienating himself from the ministers whom he was not friends with, his list of enemies grew. It is only natural that these men would in turn hate Rasputin, especially after Rasputin told Alexandra that his enemies had sold their souls to the devil to gain strength in order to destroy him.[33]

            Over the years of knowing the royal family Rasputin’s power and hold over Alexandra and to a lesser extent Nicholas grew immensely. Early in their relationship he had managed to convince Alexandra that his judgment came from God alone.[34]  He was able to make her believe this because he was the only man who could stop the bleeding of the young Tsarevich. With this ability he was able to demand anything he wanted from Alexandra, including power.[35] Rasputin abused this power to no end. He alone had the power to convince Nicholas to remove a man from the front line during the war or the military altogether and even from a prison.[36] With this power he charged people money, food or sex if they came seeking his help, which they did from all over Russia. Anyone who tried to talk to Alexandra or Nicholas about the public view of Rasputin, or any other kind of honest opinion of Rasputin, from police officers to her sister, were dismissed at once.[37] Rasputin was not the least modest about his power over the royal family and once shouted to a small meeting of government officials; “don’t you dare go against Mama’s wishes! Make sure I don’t turn my back on you! Then you’ll be done for!”[38] To increase the publics annoyance the Royal family took Rasputin with them for their travels during the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty.[39]

[40]

A picture of Rasputin’s last supper with the Royal family and friends.

 

            Everyone in Moscow knew of the great sway Alexandra held over her husband Nicholas and of the power Rasputin possessed over Alexandra.[41] Before Nicholas left for war Rasputin often urged Alexandra to speak her mind as often as possible and to use her influence over the Tsar.[42] When Nicholas went to war he left Alexandra in charge but Rasputin had her convinced she could not run the country on her own, so she began to search for other men to help her rule Russia on orders from Rasputin.[43] The men she searched for to help her were judged solely on whether they like Rasputin and are in his good favor.[44] She was suspicious of everyone and anyone who did not feel the same way she did about him.[45] In one of her letters to Nicholas, Rasputin’s hold on the Empress can be seen for he had Alexandra convinced that “when He says not to do a thing and one does not listen, one sees ones fault always afterwards.”[46] From another letter Alexandra sent a request to Nicholas asking him to “forbid any intrigues against our Friend or talks about Him, or the slightest persecution.”[47]

            The behavior of Rasputin in public damaged the reputation of the royal family more then any of his other acts. While under surveillance the police recorded most of Rasputin’s troublesome behavior. It is recorded that Rasputin was constantly coming home drunk,[48] one night he is recorded to have consumed three bottles of vodka alone.[49] His apartment was always full of people into the early hours of the morning and many of which were prostitutes. In early histories he supposedly rapped many women but modern researches have now shown that most of the rape accounts did not actually happen. Instead he would ask women seeking his help for a kiss or to come back wearing something more revealing which offended some women so greatly they claimed to have been rapped by Rasputin.[50] If he wanted sex from women then he usually wanted money from men in return for using his power over the Empress.[51] When he was out at restaurants he was regularly getting in to fights with other men in drunken fits which caused people to wonder why he of all men were allowed at the palace.[52] He would claim that Alexandra was under his control and he had the power to make her do his every command. These comments often lead to the roomers that Alexandra and Rasputin were lovers.[53] In the mists of all his drunken fighting, sex and other appalling behavior, there are two major instances that have stood out through all the history books about the holy man Rasputin. The first took place on a steamboat;

 

 “On 9 August at 11:00 he boarded the steamboat, where he took a separate cabin, and set out for Polrovskoe. He emerged drunk from his cabin about an hour later an went to see the soldiers of the local escort detachment, who were traveling on the same steamboat. Giving them twenty-five roubles, he made them sing songs . . He withdrew to his cabin . . . When he came back he gave  the soldiers one hundred roubles . . . the singing few louder, and Rasputin joined in. The singing continued until 1:00, and he took the soldiers to second class, meaning to treat them to dinner. But the captain would not allow the lower ranks to be present. He then ordered them dinner, paid for it, and sang again. Then he started arguing with the passengers, ran into the steamboat waiter, and calling him a crook, told him that on their arrival a police report would be filled out, he withdrew to his cabin. Resting his head on a little table by the open window, he muttered something to himself for a long time, while the public ‘admired’ him. Rasputin fell from the table to the floor and lay on the floor the rest of the way to the village.”[54]

 

This caused a huge scandal because after the boat docked the captain and crew tried to press charges but they were not allowed. When the police tried to arrest him all charges were dropped by the Empress. Following that the most known scandal surrounding Rasputin was the night he was having dinner at the Yar restaurant.

 

 “ ‘See this belt?’ he bellowed. ‘it’s her majesty’s own work. I can make her do anything – Yes, I Grishka Rasputin, I could make [the old girl] dance like this if I wished!’ (At this point Rasputin was making an obscene gesture.)

      ‘Rasputin attracted considerable attention by this time. Several people were offended. When challenged to prove he was really the infamous starets, Grigory dropped his pants and waved his penis at the spectators. . . ‘there was more coming and going of waiters and policemen, and the scratching of heads and holding of councils. The cause of the disturbance was Rasputin – drunk and lecherous, and neither police nor management dared evict him.”[55]

 

Rasputin was viewed as “destructive work from within”[56]  by the public, police and government officials. Even members of the upper class despised this man who had so shamelessly spoken ill of the Royal family and used his power to better himself in troublesome ways.

            Due to the above facts Rasputin was hated by hundreds, many of which were men of power who did not like the government in the hands of a disgusting peasant they viewed as a stain upon the royal family. The upper class believed that the only way for Alexandra to be free of Grigory’s spell he had over her was to kill Rasputin which would then permit Nicholas to allow for a constitutional government.[57] In the view of the people who wanted that change in government, it was better to kill him then the Emperor.[58] The Grand Duke believed that “eliminating Rasputin would be the last and most effective attempt to save Russia.”[59] There were many attempts on his life and plots conceived for his murder long before it was actually done by Yusupov. Other members of government made plans to kill him that fell through unsuccessfully[60] and even some officers were attacking him in public.[61] There is one account in June of 1915 when Rasputin was almost run down by a would be assassin, but the sled they were driving just missed him. When the police officer arrived he told the people who had tried to kill Rasputin “better luck next time”[62] under his breath.

            After Yusupov made his arrangements for the murder he went to meet with Rasputin many times to gain his confidence.[63]  Yusupov, like many other people in Russian at the time, believed that while Rasputin was in control the life of the Tsar was at risk. Rasputin did nothing to help himself and when he told Yusupov that “the empress is a very wise ruler. She is a second Catherine; but as for him, well, he is no Tsar Emperor, he is just a child of God,” Yusupov took that as a direct threat on the life of Nicholas and knew Rasputin must be killed.[64]

            The infamous death of Rasputin has puzzled people since it happened. Yusupov and the other conspirators lead Rasputin into Yusupov’s house where Rasputin was had a late appointment to heal Yusupov’s wife at approximately midnight. Yusupov spent the day arranging the basement to look more comfortable with the fear that leading Rasputin into his basement would create suspicious in the holy man. The poison used for the murder was potassium cyanide crystals. It was mixed into the wine and Yusupov put some into the tops of cakes for Rasputin. When Rasputin arrived he had two of the poisoned cakes and two glasses of wine. However the poison did not take effect on Rasputin, the most it did was give him a stomach ache. The time was now 2:20 AM and Rasputin was quite alive. In a panic the conspirators decided to send Yusupov down with a revolver to shoot him. Yusupov shot him once in the heart area and believed Rasputin to be dead though there was not much blood. Rasputin had other plans and dying was not one of them. He moved off the floor and began to threaten Yusupov and was heading for the door when Dmitry took the gun and fired twice more, hitting Rasputin once in the back and once in the head. The he ran up to the fallen Rasputin and kicked him in the temple several times with his shoe. This was followed by Yusupov beating the body and head with two pound rubber fist-knuckles. Finally he stopped moving and they were able to burn most of his clothes, load him into their car and dump him into the river. Unfortunately in their haste they forget to chain the body and Rasputin did not sink to the bottom but floated and was discovered only a few days later. When his body was discovered the autopsy showed that there was water in his lungs, proving that he was still alive when the men threw him into the freezing river and he died by drowning.[65]

[66]

This is a comic drawn sterilizing the unusual death of Rasputin.

 

            When the public learned of his death everyone cheered and felt that change would soon come to Russia.[67] Everyone was happy and relieved to hear about the death of Rasputin.[68]

            The royal family was not so happy to hear of Rasputin’s death. When she first heard the news, Alexandra did not believe that her friend Rasputin had been killed and she write to Nicholas asking him to come home from the front.[69] Even in his death her faith in him never changed, she still believed he was a holy man sent from God.[70] During the funeral Alexandra wept the entire time and Nicholas too was saddened which is clear from his journal entry; “ my family and I witnessed a sad scene, the burial of the unforgettable Grigory, assassinated by monsters at the home of Yusupov on the night of the 16th and 17th of December.”[71]  However there are accounts of Nicholas looking relived when the officers came to tell him of Rasputin’s death, and at the state his country was in he probably was.[72] To prove this further there was no real punishment given to the murders. Alexandra quickly exiled the assassins which was supported by Nicholas.[73] There was no real trial given to Dmitry[74] but he was forced to live out the rest of his life in Persia in combat. The rest of the murders were put under house arrest and Yusupov was forced to live in his country house.[75] When Yusupov’s wife tried to have a lighter punishment forced upon her husband, all Nicholas said was that “no one has the right to commit murder.”[76] Though Nicholas did not appear too saddened by the death of Rasputin, Alexandra was heart broken. In her mind “his death only deepened her idea of corruption in high circles”[77] She now knew for certain that the blue-blooded people were evil.[78] A court official “was stunned by Alexandra’s ‘agonized features’ and her ‘inconsolable grief.’ ‘Her idol had been shattered. The only person who could save her son was killed. Any misfortune, any catastrophe was possible now that he was gone. The time of waiting began, that terrible waiting for the disaster which could not be escaped.’”[79] Alexandra tried to stay strong for she believed her country needed her and because of that she still assisted Nicholas in the running of Russia like before only now she did so with heavy melancholy.[80] Her heart was broken and she never forgot Rasputin for she often put new flowers on his grave.[81]After the death of their father, Rasputin’s daughters were saddened as well. The Tsar and Empress were kind to the daughters after the murder, they often had the girls over to the palace to spend time with the princesses.[82] Rasputin’s death marked the beginning of the end for the Romanov family. Nicholas was tired of fighting politics and Alexandra walked around the home with a broken heart.[83]

            In modern society Rasputin is seen more as a joke to people studying the Russian Revolution or the Romanov family. Some people now see him as a hero or to a lesser extent as a man who is admired by many. There have been many movies made about his power over the Tsar and Empress most of which are done poorly and contain very little history to them. As they continue to be made they grow slightly more historically accurate but like most movies based on historical events, not completely. Fox made a cartoon movie about the life of Anastasia where Rasputin is portrayed as a demon from hell who sold his soul to have eternal life and power. [84] A scene from the cartoon of Rasputin.

 However in Rasputin’s song he sings; “my curse made each of them pay” which contains some truth when looking at his last letter to Alexandra when he states; “if I am  murdered by boyars, nobles, and if they shed my blood, their hands will remain  soiled with  my  blood, for twenty-five  years  they  will  not  wash  their  hands  from my blood. They will leave Russia. Brothers  will kill brothers,  and  they  will kill each  other and hate each other, and for twenty-five years there will be no noblers (sic) in the country. Tsar of  the land of Russia, if you hear the sound of the bell which will tell you that Grigory  has been killed, you must know this: if it was your relations who have brought my death then no one of your family, that is to say, none of your children or relations will remain alive for more than two years.  They will be killed by the Russian people...”[85] Rasputin also appears in pop music. The song by Booney M sings about the life of Rasputin and his death. Unfortunately it is not completely historically accurate but it is very fun to listen to for people who study Rasputin.

            When reading a book about the Russian Revolution, Rasputin often usually has a small chapter or sometimes even less. However large books have been written about him and his involvement in the lives of the Romanov family. Rasputin needed to be assassinated so the Tsar could be free of the holy man’s hold over his family. The “Friend” was constantly giving Alexandra terrible advise on how to run the government and what to tell her husband in her letters or to his face. He slandered members of the Duma on a regular basis and told Alexandra that the people of Russia, who had fought for the Duma, did not support it. In public Rasputin flaunted himself shamelessly along with his power over the Empress Alexandra. His disrespect for anyone but himself made him hated by all of Moscow and any man of power other then the one man who really mattered, Nicholas. It is no wonder why Rasputin was constantly under attack and why the police did nothing to stop these assassination attempts on the man they were not allowed to arrest. When Rasputin was finally killed everyone in all of Russia cheered except for the royal family and his daughters. People believed change would come quickly in favour of the people. It is no mystery why people of Russia wanted Rasputin dead, from low class peasants to the upper class, for he made everyone look bad, including the Empress. After his unusual death the reaction of the royal family shows how Nicholas really felt about this man who controlled his wife and country. Rasputin is a minor figure in the Russian Revolution but a major figure leading to the down fall of the Romanovs. 

 

 

 

 

Links about Rasputin:

http://homepage.tinet.ie/~pbarry/ras2/

http://www.celebritymorgue.com/rasputin/

http://www.historyhouse.com/in_history/rasputin/

http://it.stlawu.edu/~rkreuzer/indv5/rasp.htm

 

Links for Fun:

http://bloodbath.host.sk/elizabethbathory/data/index.php (Elizabeth Bathory)

http://www.englishhistory.net/byron.html (Byron)

http://www.walrus.com/~gibralto/acorn/germ/GGByron.html (Byron)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

 

1.      Almedingen, E.M.. The Empress Alexandra. London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961.

 

2.      Cherniavsky, Michael. Prologue to Revolution. New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, 1967.

 

3.      Fuhrmann, Joseph T. Rasputin: A Life. United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990.

 

4.      Fulop-Miller, Rene. Rasputin the Holy Devil. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1975.

 

5.      Golder, Frank Alfred. Documents of Russian History 1914-1917. United States of America: Century Company, 1927.

 

6.      Healy, Ann Erickson. The Russian Autocracy in Crisis, 1905-1907. United States of America: Archon Books, 1976.

 

7.      Kochan, Lionel. Russia in Revolution, 1890-1918. Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd., 1929.

 

8.      Lieven, D.C.B. Russia and the Origins of the First World War. United States of America: St. Martin’s Press Inc., 1983.

 

9.      Liepman, Heinz. Rasputin and the Fall of the Imperial Russia. United States of America: Robert M. McBride Co. Inc., 1959

 

10.  Radzinsky, Edvard. Rasputin: The Last Word. Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000

 

11.  Radziwill, Princess Catherine. The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina. Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929.

 

12.  Ricker, John. Europe and the Modern World. Canada: Clark Irwin and Company Ltd., 1969

 

13.  Rodzianko, M.V. The Reign of Rasputin: An Empire’s Collapse. Great Britain: C. Tinliny and Company Ltd., 1927.

 

14.  Romanov, Alexandra. Letters of the Tssaritsa to the Tsar, 1914-1916. United States of America: Robert M. McBride Company, 1987.

 

15.  Wilson, Colin. Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs. United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1964.

 

Internet web sources:

 

16.  http://homepage.tinet.ie/~pbarry/rasputin/lastletter.htm

 

17.  http://homepage.tinet.ie/~pbarry/ras2/

 

18.  http://www.harperchildrens.com/anastasia/rasputin.htm

 

19.  http://www.emory.edu/HISTORY/graduate/ModEur%20Program.htm

 

20.  www.times.spb.ru/archive/ lifestyl/107/where.html

 

21.  www.occultopedia.com/ r/rasputin.htm

 

22.  home.comset.net/freshspb/ museums/rasputin.html 

 

 

 

 

 



[1] www.occultopedia.com/ r/rasputin.htm

[2] The Empress Alexandra 127 (tea)

[3] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 161.

[4] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 129.

[5]Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 196.

[6] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 147.

[7] http://www.emory.edu/HISTORY/graduate/ModEur%20Program.htm

[8] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 149

[9] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 148.

[10] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 392.

[11] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 397.

[12] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 160.

[13] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 191.

[14] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 142.

[15] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 182.

[16] Web 15

[17] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 241.

[18]Alexandra  Romanov. Letters of the Tssaritsa to the Tsar, 1914-1916 (United States of America: Robert M. McBride Company, 1987) no. 277

[19] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 197.

[20] Alexandra  Romanov. Letters of the Tssaritsa to the Tsar, 1914-1916 (United States of America: Robert M. McBride Company, 1987) no. 81.

[21] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 355.

[22] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 127.

[23] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 169.

[24] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 169.

[25] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 215.

[26] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 174.

[27] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 183.

[28] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 128.

[29] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 172.

[30] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 169.

[31] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 199.

[32] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 153.

[33] Rene Fulop-Miller, Rasputin the Holy Devil (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1975) 290.

[34] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 127

[35] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 126

[36] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 123.

[37] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 232.

[38] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 411.

[39] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 151.

[41] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 140.

[42] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 312.

[43] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 242.

[44] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 228.

[45] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 214.

[46] Alexandra  Romanov. Letters of the Tssaritsa to the Tsar, 1914-1916 (United States of America: Robert M. McBride Company, 1987) no. 88.

[47] Alexandra  Romanov. Letters of the Tssaritsa to the Tsar, 1914-1916 (United States of America: Robert M. McBride Company, 1987) no. 88.

[48] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 385.

[49] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 119.

[50] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 149.

[51] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 181.

[52] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 119.

[53] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961)   139.

[54] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 331.

[55] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 423.

[56] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 423.

[57] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 200.

[58] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 241.

[59] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 431.

[60] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 179.

[61] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 192.

[62] Colin Wilson, Rasputin and the Fall of the Romanovs (United States of America: Citadel Press Inc., 1967) 166.

[63] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 198.

[64] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 198.

[65] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) Ch. “Mruder”

[67] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 250.

[68] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 208.

[69] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 182.

[70] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 210

[71] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 211.

[72] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 210.

[73] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 250.

[74] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 486.

[75] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 486.

[76] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 487.

[77] E.M. Almedingen, The Empress Alexandra (London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1961) 183.

[78] Princess Catherine Radziwill, The Intimate Life of the Last Tsarina (Great Britain: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1929) 248.

[79] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 210.

[80] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 212.

[81] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 212.

[82] Joseph T  Fuhrmann, Rasputin: A Life (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 1990) 214.

[83] Edvard Radzinsky, Rasputin: The Last Word (Great Britain: Butler and Tanner Ltd., 2000) 431.

[84] http://www.harperchildrens.com/anastasia/rasputin.htm

[85] Web 16