SLANDERING ALLAH AND THE PROPHET OF ISLAM
The Muslim Creed - Vol. 9 No. 8
The Muslim Ummah has always consented that the Muslims who curse or slander Allah, the Prophet or the religion of Islam will have nullified their Islam, thus deserving capital punish-ment. The Ummah has also agreed that if it was a non-Muslim who lives under Muslim control who curses the Prophet, then he will also have to be executed as a punishment. Imam ibn Al-Munthir has stated that there is an Ijmaa’ that it is a requirement of Islam to execute those who curse the Prophet. Furthermore, Imam Al-Khattabi said, “I know of no disagreement among the scholars regarding killing such a person if he was a Muslim.”
In addition, Imam ibn Qudamah said, “Whoever curses Allah will have committed Kufr, whether he was serious or just jesting, such as the case with those who jest regarding Allah, His Ayat, His Mes-senger or His Book. Allah said, what translated means, "If you ask them (about this), they declare, “We were only talking idly and joking.” Say, “Was it at Allah, and His Ayat (verses, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (Mohammad) that you were mocking?” Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed. [9:65-66].”
Also, Imam ibn ‘Hazm stated that, “There is no Muslim on the face of this earth who would disagree that cursing Allah constitutes clear Kufr. Only the Jahmiyyah and the Ash’ariyyah, two sects who do not deserve attention, said that it is a sign of Kufr, not that it is actual Kufr.” Then, ibn ‘Hazm refuted the opinions of these two misguided sects that he mentioned, and then commented, “There is no doubt that it is true that whoever jested regarding some of Allah’s Ayat or regarding one of Allah’s Messengers, then he is a Kafir, Murtadd (as those who revert from Islam are called).” He also stated that, “After the proofs that we have produced, we should state that it is certain that those who curse Allah or jest regarding Him, or curse one of the angels or jest regarding them, or curse one of the Prophets, or curse one of Allah’s Ayat or jest regarding them, will have become Kuffar and Murtaddeen, and hence deserve the treatment of the Murtadd. This is our position, and all success comes from Allah alone.” [Al-Mu’halla].
Furthermore, Shaykh Al-Islam ibn Taymiyyah said under chapter: “Cursing Allah”, “If such a person was Muslim, he shall be killed according to Ijmaa’, because he is a Kafir, a Murtadd, and even worse. The Kafir respects the Lord and thinks that the creed that he follows, which is false, does not constitute ridiculing Allah or cursing Him.” [As-Sarim Al-Maslool]. He also stated that, “When a non-Muslim curses or slanders Allah, it is like if he has cursed or slandered the Prophet (meaning they both carry the same punishment). We have mentioned Imam Ahmad’s statement that whoever disrespects the Lord shall be killed whether he was a Muslim or a Kafir. Also, our scholars have stated that whoever shows disrespect for Allah, His Book, His religion or His Messenger, deserves the same pun-ishment (meaning capital punishment for all these offenses).
The same is also the position of Imam Malik and his followers, as is also the case with the followers of Imam Ash-Shafii. They have all stated that the same ruling applies for whoever curses or slanders Allah, His Messenger or His Book, even if such people were from Ahlu Ath-Thimmah (as non-Muslims who live under Muslim control are called).” [As-Sarim Al-Maslool].
Also, Shaykh Al-Islam stated that Imam Ahmad said, “Whoever mentions the Lord with disrespect shall receive the death penalty, whether he was a Muslim or a Kafir. This is the ruling of the scholars of Madinah.” [As-Sarim]. He also mentioned that Imam Ahmad had said, “All those who curse the Messenger, whether they were Muslims or Kuffar, deserve to be executed.” The type of slander and cursing that we have stated their ruling in the religion entail cursing, humiliation, ridiculing, jesting and disrespect. It does not include the various religious beliefs of the nations of Kufr, which are also slander in reality. The Jews, for example, claim that Allah rested on the seventh day due to exhaustion and that He is poor. The Christians claim that Allah has a son. This is a type of slander in reality, but it is not the subject that we are discussing here, and thus, has a different ruling. Shaykh Al-Islam said, “The cursing and slander that we have stated their ruling are that speech that entail disrespect and insults, and which are equal to the cursing that all people of different faiths consider cursing. It is also the slander that is entailed by what Allah said, "And insult not those whom they (disbelievers) worship besides Allah, lest they insult Allah wrongfully without knowledge." [6: 108].
This type of speech is the worst of what the mouths can ever utter. The ruling of what is in reality slander, but some people think that it is a part of their religion and think that it is valid, and also think that it does not entail insults or disrespect, is that this is a type of Kufr (but as we have stated, is not our subject in this ar-ticle). The ruling concerning such people is the same ruling concerning the Murtadd who announces the Riddah and the hypocrite who conceals hypocrisy. This is not where we discuss in detail the words that lead to Kufr and that which not, or the beliefs that constitute Kufr or only Bid’ah. What we sought to affirm is that this type is not included in the cursing and slander that we have discussed its ruling...”
The Proofs that Require Executing those who Commit this Act
The evidence and proofs that justify the Ijmaa’ to execute those who commit this act against Allah, His Messenger, His Book or the religion of Islam, are derived from the Quran and Sunnah.
First The Quran: Allah said, what translated means, "The recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter." [5:33]
and, "If you ask them (about this), they declare, “We were only talking idly and joking.” Say, “Was it at Allah, and His Ayat and His Messenger (Mohammad) that you were mocking?” Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed. [9:65]."
Second The Sunnah: In Muntaqha Al-Akhbar it is narrated under chapter: “Executing those who commit slander against the Prophet”:
1– Imam Ash-Shi’bi narrated that Ali bin Abi Talib said that there was a Jewish woman who used to curse the Prophet and utter words of disrespect about him. Then, a man suffocated her until she died. The Prophet annulled her Diyyah (blood money, meaning he declared that killing her was justified). [Abu Dawood, and Al-Albani rendered it authentic].
2 – Ibn Abbas narrated that a blind man had a wife who used to curse and slander the Prophet and who would frequently insult him. The blind man used to forbid and advise her not to do that, but she would not listen. Consequently, one night while she was cursing the Prophet and heralding insults against him, her husband took an ax and pushed it against her stomach and killed her. In the morning, what had happened was mentioned to the Prophet, and the Prophet gathered the people and said, “I ask the man who did this, if he pronounces that I have a right on him, that he stands up.” The blind man stood up passing by the people, until he sat between the hands of the Prophet, saying, “O Messenger of Allah! I did it. She used to curse and insult you, and I used to forbid her, but to no avail. And I advised her against this conduct, but to no avail. I have two daughters with her who are just like two pearls (meaning they are dear and precious to him), and she used to be good to them. Then last night, she started to curse and insult you, so I took the ax and pushed it against her stomach and killed her.” The Prophet then said, “Be witnesses that her blood is Hadar (permissible to be shed, meaning killing her was justified).” [Abu Dawood & An-Nasaii].
The approval by the Prophet for this man‘s deed indicates the ruling that we have mentioned.
Sabb means to curse, insult and slander someone. Sabb of Allah, the Prophet or the religion of Islam is a grave act that takes the person out of the folds of Islam. We previously proved this ruling, and now we will elaborate on this most devastating act that millions of Muslims commit unaware of its danger.
The Acceptance of Repentance
Many scholars have agreed that those who commit Sabb against Allah, His Messenger or the religion, that they are to be executed without asking them to repent. Some scholars, on the other hand, said that such people are like the Murtadd who deserves a chance to repent or else will be killed. Thus, many scholars have stated that when a person repents from the Sabb of Allah, His Book, His Prophet or His religion, then he will not be immediately executed. Furthermore, some drew a distinction between the Sabb of Allah and the Sabb of the Prophet, thus requiring execution for those who curse the Prophet even if they repent, while averting capital punishment from those who repent from cursing Allah. This is the opinion of Shaykh Al-Islam
Ibn Taymiyyah, as he has stated in As-Sarim Al-Maslool. Shaykh Al-Islam said, “If such a person was a Muslim, he shall be executed according to the Ijmaa’ because he will have become a Murtadd, a Kafir and even worse. The Kafir respects the Lord, all the while believing that his false creed does not constitute jesting regarding Allah or Sabb for Him. Thereafter, our scholars have disagreed regarding accepting repentance from such people, thus averting capital punishment if they repent, just as is the case when the Murtadd repents. There are two opinions regarding this matter..” Then Shaykh Al-Islam stated that, “Some scholars, such as Imam Abu Hanifah, have indicated that there is a difference between those who commit Sabb against Allah and those who commit Sabb against the Prophet. They stated that committing Sabb against Allah is clear Kufr, and that this is an aggression against Allah. They have also stated that repentance by those who fall into Kufr or those who are Kuffar shall be accepted, thus averting capital punishment according to Ijmaa’.
What testifies to this fact is that the Christians commit Sabb against Allah by claiming that He is one in trinity and by saying that He has a son. The Prophet informed us that Allah said in a Qudsi Hadith, ‘The son of Adam has insulted Me, and he has no right to do so, and the son of Adam has also accused Me of lying, and he has no right to do so. As for his insulting Me, he says, ‘Allah has begotten a son,’ while I Am the One, the Ever-Sustainer.’ [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]. It is a well-known fact that Allah will forfeit His Right of retribution regarding those who repent from Kufr. If a person brings forward the earth’s fill of Kufr and sin and he then repents, Allah will forgive him. In addition, when Allah is insulted, His status will not decrease in the slaves’ hearts and hence, the harm of Sabb in this case only touches those who commit it. Allah’s status is far more honored and revered than being harmed by those who dare to commit Sabb against Him. This is the difference between Allah and His Messenger with regards to Sabb.
The Sabb for the Prophet, on the other hand, constitutes breaching the rights of the son of Adam (the Prophet in this case), and thus the punishment for this offense is not averted when one repents from it. Also, the Prophet will be humiliated and insulted because of this Sabb, since his status and respectability are solidified by refraining from cursing him. Furthermore, and since such insults and cursing will decrease the Prophet’s status with many people, we are obliged to guard these limits by punishing the aggressors. Otherwise, widespread evil will be the result.’” [As-Sarim].
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