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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIJRAH AND JIHAAD

By Shaikh Husayn Al-'Awaayishah

From Al-Fasl-ul-Mubeen fee Mas'alat-il-Hijrah wa Mufaaraqat-il-> Mushrikeen (pg. 32-36)

Translated by Isma'eel Alarcon

It is essential for us to know that Hijrah done for the sake of Allaah, goes hand in hand with Jihaad, there being no difference between the two. In fact, it is the first stage from the (many) stages of Jihaad. This is because the person that migrates as a result of being harmed by the disbelievers, he will never sit down and stay lazy in the world. Instead, his yearning will be for Jihaad and he will make it his goal to fight in the Way of Allaah, hoping to gain Allaah's pleasure.

And whoever reflects on the Book of Allaah will see that there is a close link between the word "Jihaad" and the word "Hijrah". Just look at the following ayaat: "Verily, those who have believed, and those who migrated and waged Jihaad in the Cause of Allaah, all these hope for Allaah's Mercy. And Allaah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 218]

So the association between Hijrah and Jihaad is evidently clear, as there is no separation between the words "migrated" and "waged Jihaad", since both are relative to the same pronoun (i.e., those). This is since Allaah did not say: "Verily those who have believed, and those who migrated and those who waged Jihaad in the Cause of Allaah."

Allaah says: "So those who migrated and were driven out from their homes, suffering harm in My Cause, and who waged Jihaad and were killed (in My Cause), then verily, I will expiate for them their evil deeds and admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise). A reward from Allaah and with Allaah is the best of rewards." [Surah Aali-'Imraan: 195]

And He says: "Verily those who believed and migrated (made Hijrah) and strove hard in Jihaad with their wealth and their lives in the Cause of Allaah, as well as those who gave them asylum and help - they are all allies to one another. And as for those who believed but did not migrate, you owe no duty of protection to them until they migrate. But if they seek help from you in Religion, then it is your duty to help them, except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance. And Allaah sees all that you do." [Surah Al-Anfaal: 72]

And He says: "And those who believed and migrated and strove hard in Jihaad in the Cause of Allaah, as well as those who gave them asylum and assistance - they are true believers. They will have forgiveness and a generous provision (in Paradise)." [Surah Al-Anfaal: 74]

And He says: "And those who believed afterwards and migrated and strove hard in Jihaad alongside you, they are all from you. But kindred by blood are nearer to one another (regarding inheritance) in the decree mentioned by Allaah. Verily, Allaah has knowledge over all things." [Surah Al-Anfaal: 75]

And He says: "Those who believed and migrated and fought in Jihaad for the Cause of Allaah, with their wealth and their lives, they have the greatest rank in the sight of Allaah. They are the successful ones." [Surah At-Tawbah: 20]

And Allaah says: "Then verily your Lord - regarding those who migrated after they had been put to trials and thereafter fought in Jihaad and were patient - verily, your Lord afterward is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful." [Surah An-Nahl: 110]

So the foundation (asl) is to link the word "Jihaad" with "Hijrah". As for the ayaat that do not mention the link between Hijrah and Jihaad, then they are very few and they contain reprimanding and condemnation of those who don't migrate. An example of this is Allaah's statement: "Was not earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?" [Surah An-Nisaa: 97]

This individual has not even complied with the smallest of requirements, so is it possible that something greater (such as Jihaad) can be sought from him?

Another example of this is found in Allaah's saying: "So do not take any supporters from amongst them until they migrate in the Cause of Allaah." [Surah An-Nisaa: 89]

And His statement: "And as for those who believed but did not migrate, you owe no duty of protection to them until they migrate." [Surah Al-Anfaal: 72]

So is it likely that participation in Jihaad can be sought from one who doesn't migrate?!

In some places, the incitement for performing Hijrah is mentioned only, and so it is not linked to the word "Jihaad". An example of this is found in Allaah's saying: "And whosoever migrates in the Cause of Allaah, he will find many dwelling places and plenty (of sustenance) to live by." [Surah An-Nisaa: 100]

A majority of these kind of ayaat are mentioned in Surat-un-Noor because the context of their wordings relate to the one who refuses to make Hijrah. And Allaah knows best.

Also, when the scholars gave the reasons why Hijrah is recommended for an individual that is able to openly demonstrate and practice his Religion while not fearing fitnah, they mentioned that one of these reasons was so that the Muslims could have larger numbers and so that they could be prepared for Jihaad in the Cause of Allaah.

Furthermore, anyone that wants to research this issue of Hijrah will find the sources in the books of the scholars under the sections concerning Jihaad. And this is only because of the link and close relation between the two.

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Oum Abdul Aziz's Story and FAQ Regarding Hijrah to Oman & Other Muslim Lands: Over the past several years, I have fielded many questions from Muslims Sisters seeking to make Hijrah (i.e. emigrate) to the Muslim lands. Here are answers to the most common questions I am asked...

Click here to read more My Omani Journal: Hijrah To Oman

Recommended by Oum Abdul Aziz: You might also like a page called Living in Jordan: A Resource Guide. It includes practical and cultural information and looks valuable for anyone thinking to make Hijrah that way.

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SOME STATEMENTS OF THE SCHOLARS REGARDING HIJRAH

AUTHOR: Shaykh Husayn Al-'Awaayishah

SOURCE: His book Al-Fasl-ul-Mubeen fee Mas'alat-il-Hijrah wa Mufaaraqat-il-Mushrikeen

Chapter Six: Some Statements of the Scholars regarding Hijrah

Know, may Allaah have mercy on me and you, that there are many statements of the scholars [1] regarding the obligation of Hijrah on the person that:

1. Has the ability to make Hijrah,

2. Fears from fitnah, and

3. Does not have the ability to openly manifest his Religion amongst the disbelievers.

I will only mention those statements that I am able to. And I will also mention what I can from the statements of those (scholars) who viewed that Hijrah was recommended for the individual that:

1. Has the ability to make Hijrah, but

2. Also has the ability to openly manifest his Religion amongst the disbelievers.

The opinion of the majority of the scholars concerning Hijrah:

The great scholar Abu At-Tayyib Sideeq Ibn Hasan Ibn ‘Alee Al-Husaynee Al-Qinnawjee Al-Bukhaaree said in his book Al-‘Ibrah: "Al-Mawza'ee [2] said in Tayseer-ul-Bayaan [3]: ‘The majority of the scholars have stated that performing Hijrah (migrating) from the Lands of Harb to the Lands of Islaam is obligatory. This ruling applies to a person that is not able to openly manifest his Religion. It is not obligatory on a person that is able to do that (manifest his Religion), whether through his relatives or through the leadership, just as it was permitted for 'Abbaas (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) [to remain in Makkah]. However, performing Hijrah is much more preferable. This is how the ruling concerning Hijrah is in our time - it is obligatory on an individual that does not have the ability to manifest his Religion outwardly, and it is recommended for someone that does have the ability to manifest it outwardly. Innovations take the same status as disbelief, with regard to the obligation or recommendation of performing Hijrah. As for the remaining types of sins, then it is recommended that one perform Hijrah from them. In spite of this, Hijrah is not obligatory upon him for that purpose solely, unless the unlawful threatens to overtake him, for indeed seeking the lawful (halaal) is an obligation." [4] Imaam As-Sana’aanee said in Subul-us-Salaam after mentioning the hadeeth: "I am free from every Muslim that establishes his residence amongst the disbelievers": "The hadeeth is evidence for the obligation of making Hijrah (migration) from all of the lands of the disbelievers, and not just from Makkah. This is the opinion of the majority of the scholars."[5] Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdillaah, better known as "Ibn Al-‘Arabee" (d. 543H), said concerning Hijrah [6]: "It is divided into six categories:

The First: Leaving from the Land of War (Daar-ul-Harb) to the Land of Islaam.

The Second: Leaving from the land of innovation. Ibn Al-Qaasim said: ‘I heard Imaam Maalik say: ‘It is not permissible for anyone to reside in a land where the Salaf (predecessors) are reviled.’ This is correct, for if one is not able to change an evil, he must withdraw himself away from it. Allaah says: ‘And when you see those who engage in false conversation concerning Our Ayaat, by mocking at them, then stay away from them until they change their speech to another topic. But if the Devil causes you to forget, then after remembering, do not sit in the company of those who are wrong-doers.' [Surat-ul-Ana’aam: 68] I once said to my Shaikh, the ascetic Abu Bakr Al-Fahree: ‘Why don’t you migrate from this land of Egypt to your own country?’ So he responded: ‘I do not like to enter a land in which ignorance is vastly predominant and intelligence is minimal.’ I said: ‘Then go to Makkah and establish residence in the proximity of Allaah and His Messenger, for I have come to learn that leaving this country is obligatory due to the innovation and haraam that exists in it.' He then said: 'There is much guidance and direction for the creatures, that lies in my hands, in this land, as well as teaching Tawheed, restraining others from deviant beliefs and supplicating to Allaah, the Most High.’

The Third: Leaving from the land in which the unlawful is dominant and widespread, for indeed seeking the lawful is obligatory upon every Muslim.

The Fourth: Fleeing from those things that are harmful to one's body. This is a bounty from Allaah in which He has given us an allowance. So if a person fears danger for himself by staying in a place, then Allaah has permitted him to leave from it and to flee for his life’s sake, in order to free himself from that danger. [7]

The Fifth: Leaving for fear of getting sick in a land that has an unhealthy atmosphere and coming out from there to a land in which one can walk freely outside (without getting sick).

The Sixth: Fleeing from a land out of fear of harm being inflicted to one's wealth. Indeed, the sacredness of a Muslim's property is like the sacredness of his blood. And his family is equal in that respect, if not greater." [8]

Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee (d. 630H) said: "People are divided into three categories with regard to Hijrah:

The First: This includes the one who it is obligatory upon and he is the one that has the ability to do it (i.e. perform Hijrah) while not being able to manifest his Religion in that land. Nor is he able to establish the obligatory requisites of his Religion due to his position of being in the midst of the disbelievers. This type of individual is obligated to make Hijrah due to Allaah statement: 'Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves, they (angels) say (to them): In what (condition) were you? They will reply: We were weak and oppressed on the earth. They (angels) will say: Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to migrate therein? Such men will find their abode in Hell - what an evil destination!' [Surat-un-Nisaa: 97] The severe threat that is mentioned in this ayah is proof for the obligation (of Hijrah). Also, establishing the obligatory aspects of one's Religion is an obligation in itself, for the one who is able to do that. And Hijrah is from the prerequisites of the obligatory and it is that which makes it complete. And whatever is essential for the completion of an obligation becomes obligatory in itself.

The Second: The one who is not obligated to make Hijrah. This is the one who has difficulty in doing it, whether it is due to a sickness, his being forced to keep his residence, or a weakness, as is the case with women, children and their likes. Hijrah is not obligatory upon this type of individual due to Allaah's statement: 'Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. These are the ones whom Allaah is (most) likely to forgive, and Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Most Forgiving.' [9] And it is not described as being recommended because the one in this category is not able to do it.

The Third: The one who is recommended to do it, even though it is not obligatory upon him. He is the one who has the ability to make Hijrah, but yet he is also able to outwardly manifest his Religion while establishing his residence in the Land of Kufr. Thus it is recommended for him (to migrate to the believers), so that he may fight in Jihaad alongside them, add to the Muslim population and so that he can assist and support them. It is also so that he can free himself from adding to the population of the disbelievers, interacting with them and seeing the evil that occurs amongst them. Hijrah is not obligatory on him due to his ability to establish the obligatory aspects of his Religion, without having to migrate. This was the case with Al-'Abbaas (radyAllaahu ‘anhu), the paternal uncle of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), who used to reside in Makkah while he was Muslim." [10]

Imaam Majd-ud-Deen Abul-Barakaat (d. 652H) said in his book Al-Muharrir: "Migrating from the Land of War (Daar-ul-Harb) is recommended for a person that is able to openly display his Religion while residing in a Land of Kufr." [11]

Imaam Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Ansaaree Al-Qurtubee (d. 671H) said after quoting Allaah's saying: "And whosoever migrates in the Way of Allaah, he will find many dwelling places and plenty (of sustenance) to live by": "Maalik said: 'This ayah indicates that it is not (permissible) for anyone to reside in a land in which the Salaf are reviled and abused, without due right.'" [12]

Imaam An-Nawawee (d. 676H) said: "If it is the case that a Muslim is weak whilst residing in a Land of Kufr and he is not able to outwardly display and exercise his Religion, then it is forbidden for him to take residence there. In fact, he is obligated to migrate to a Land of Islaam. And if he is not able to do so, then he is excused until he attains the ability." [13]

The following occurs in the Majmoo'-ul-Fataawaa of Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah (d. 728H), where he (rahimahullaah) was asked on the land of Maarideen: “Is this a land at war with the Muslims or at peace with them? And is it obligatory for the Muslim who resides there to perform Hijrah from there to a Muslim land or not? If he is obligated to perform Hijrah, yet doesn’t migrate, and he assists the enemies of the Muslims with his body and his wealth, is he sinning by doing that? Is a person that accuses him of hypocrisy and who reviles him sinning or not?" So he (rahimahullaah) responded: "All praise is due to Allaah. The blood and property of a Muslim are forbidden (i.e. for other Muslims to abuse), even if they reside in Maarideen or elsewhere. Likewise supporting those who are outside the fold of the Religion of Islaam is forbidden, regardless if they are inhabitants of Maarideen or elsewhere. As for the one who resides there, if he has difficulty in establishing the application of his Religion, then he is obligated to make Hijrah from there. And if it is not this way, then it is recommended for him and not obligatory." [14]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr (d. 852H) (rahimahullaah) said in Al-Fath commenting on the hadeeth: "There is no (more) Hijrah after the Conquest": "So whoever resides there, [15] from the Muslims, then he falls into either one of the following three categories:

The First: He has the ability to migrate from there. And he cannot openly display his Religion nor can he perform his obligatory duties. So making Hijrah from this land is obligatory on him.

The Second: He is able to make Hijrah, however, he also has the ability to openly demonstrate his Religion and fulfill his religious obligations. In this case, it is recommended for him to make Hijrah, since he will be increasing the number of Muslims in the land he migrates to, he will be assisting them and he will be able to make Jihaad against the disbelievers. Likewise, he will be safe from the betrayal and treachery of the disbelievers and he will free himself from seeing the evil that occurs amongst them.

The Third: He doesn't have the ability to perform Hijrah. Thus he has an excuse for not migrating. Examples of this category are people such as those who are imprisoned or sick or other than that. In this case, his residing in that land is permitted. And if he encourages and forces himself to leave from there, then he will be rewarded." [16]

The great scholar 'Alaa-ud-Deen Abul-Hasan 'Alee Ibn Sulaymaan Al-Mardaawee [17] (d. 885H) said: "Hijrah is obligatory on the one who is not able to openly display his Religion in a Land of War (Daar-ul-Harb), without any disagreement. A Land of War (Daar-ul-Harb) is any land in which the laws of the disbelievers are superior. Some scholars, such as the author of Ar-Ri'aayatain and Al-Hawaayatain, have added to this by stating that it includes any land that has an oppressive ruler governing it or any land of innovation (bid'ah), such as that which contains Raafidah and Mu'tazilah ideologies. I say that this is what is most correct. And this (obligation) is restricted to only the one who has the ability to do it (i.e. perform Hijrah). So if he is able to do it, then Hijrah is obligatory on him." [18] Then he (rahimahullaah) said commenting on the phrase: "It is (only) recommended for the one who has the ability to do it (i.e. openly manifest and practice his Religion in that land)":"This is the opinion that a majority of the scholars adhere to and it is that which has been absolutely asserted in the books Al-Hidaayah, Al-Mudhahhab, Masbook-udh-Dhahab, Al-Khulaasah, Al-Mughnee, Ash-Sharh, Al-Muharrir, Al-Wajeez and others. And it has been mentioned in the introduction of Al-Furoo' and other books. However Ibn Al-Jawzee said that it was obligatory on him." [19]

The great scholar Al-Manaawee (d. 1031H) mentioned the words of Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr, while agreeing with them and he did not mention any statements that opposed or rejected them. [20]

Imaam Mar'ee Ibn Yoosuf Al-Karmee (d. 1033H) said in Daleel-ut-Taalib: "Hijrah is obligatory upon every individual that is not able to openly display his Religion in a place in which the laws of the disbelievers or misguided innovations are superior. But if he is able to openly practice and exercise his Religion, then it is (just) recommended." [21]

The great scholar Mansoor Ibn Yoonus Ibn Idrees Al-Buhwatee (d. 1051H), the legal jurist of the Hanbalee school of thought in his time, said: "Hijrah is obligatory on a person that is not capable of openly demonstrating and exercising his Religion in an area in which the laws of disbelief are dominant and superior, or in which the laws of misguided innovations are dominant, such as that of the Mu'tazilah. Hijrah, meaning leaving from that land to go to the land of Islaam and the Sunnah, must be performed. This is due to Allaah's statement: 'Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves, they (angels) will say: In what (condition) were you? They will reply: We were weak and oppressed in the earth. They (angels) will say: Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?'

Also the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, 'I am free from every Muslim that establishes his residence amongst the disbelievers. Their two (camp) fires should not be visible to one another.' Abu Dawood and At-Tirmidhee reported this hadeeth and its understanding is: that one should not remain in an area filled with evil sinning people. Hijrah is recommended for the one who has the ability to openly display and exercise his Religion, while in the regions of a disbelieving land. This (recommendation) is in order that he may extract himself from adding numbers to the ranks of the disbelievers and so that he can be able to make Jihaad against them." [22]

The great scholar Imaam Ash-Shawkaanee (d. 1255H) said: "If the main point of benefit (in this hadeeth) is the obligation of migrating from the Land of Kufr, then (know that) this obligation is not limited to just the Land of Kufr. Rather, this obligation of Hijrah is an instituted legislation and an established Sunnah. It is to be implemented when evil is openly proclaimed, when there is a lack of ability to stand up to enjoin the good and forbid the evil, and when there is a lack of people that are able to take away what is in the hands of those who consume the things that Allaah has made unlawful.

So it is an obligation upon the believer to save his soul and flee for the sake of his Religion, if he has the ability to do that. And he must look for a land that is void of the open manifestation of disobedience to Allaah, and (a land) that will result in no evil befalling him. If he cannot find such a place, then he is not able to do any better than what he is able to do. He must, however, enjoin the good and forbid the evil with his hand. And if he cannot do so, then with his tongue and if he cannot do that, then with his heart, as the most truthful of people (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has advised us to do. And if he is able to isolate himself by closing his door and placing a barrier between himself and the evil-doers, then this is from the least of matters that is binding upon him." [23]

He (rahimahullaah) also said: "If the open manifestation of disobedience found in another land is less than that found in his own land, that land becomes a prospective place for him to perform Hijrah to."

Then he (rahimahullaah) commented on the words of Al-Mahdee (rahimahullaah) "except for a beneficial reason", by saying: "Its meaning is apparent in that if the 'beneficial reason' is so that one can benefit a group of Muslims, so that they may remain victorious, such as by his participating in some events of enjoining good and forbidding evil or by his teaching the people the characteristics of good. If it is such that these things outweigh the benefit of him making Hijrah and fleeing for the sake of His Religion, then indeed (at that point) he is obligated to abandon Hijrah, in compliance with this legitimate beneficial reason." [24]

Some comments on these last words of Ash-Shawkaanee (rahimahullaah): 1. Ash-Shawkaanee, in his commentary and compliance with the statement of Al-Mahdee, does not mention that this view applies to all of the Muslims, since it is obligatory upon everyone that is not able to openly manifest his Religion amidst the disbelievers to migrate. Rather, what he states here, is directed for a specific group of people and a particular party from amongst the Muslims, who possess a strong foundation in the practice of their Religion, their calling (da'wah) towards it and their knowledge of its affairs. This is why the conditions of enjoining good and forbidding evil and teaching the characteristics of good were mentioned. 2. These people will naturally serve to assist those that have difficulty in making Hijrah as well as those who are not obligated to migrate. 3. If this (view) is realized by being put into practice practically, and not theoretically, then indeed there is soundness to this view with regard to leaving off Hijrah. This is contrary to what has been stated by Al-Wanshareeshee (rahimahullaah) in his essay, which I have included separately in this research, as shall soon follow, with the Will of Allaah. 4. This opinion is one of the two opinions of Ash-Shawkaanee (rahimahullaah) for he has stated something contradictory to it in Nail-ul-Awtaar, in his refutation of Al-Maawiridee’s (rahimahullaah) statement: "If one is able to openly manifest his Religion in one of the Lands of Kufr, then this land becomes a 'Land of Islaam' due to it.[25] Thus, taking residence in that land is better than leaving it for another, due to what can be expected from his causing others to enter into the fold of Islaam."

Ash-Shawkaanee refutes him by saying: "And it is not hidden what is in this opinion from its conflicting with the ahaadeeth of the previous chapter, which indicate the forbiddance of residing in the 'Land of Kufr'." [26]

A summary of Ash-Shawkaanee's words: In this fatwa (ruling) there is room for ijtihaad (further investigation) as well as a vast amount of discussion left to this matter. This (fatwa) does not apply to every Muslim, but rather to an exclusive group among them that consist of members that are strong in their Religion, knowledge and calling. And who can serve those that are not obligated to perform Hijrah or those that do not have the ability to do it. However, when any of these individuals is engulfed by or he fears the occurrence of affliction in his Religion, then indeed, he becomes obligated to make Hijrah from the Land of Kufr. Ash-Shawkaanee (rahimahullaah) also said: "Chapter: The permanence of performing Hijrah from the Land of War to the Land of Islaam: It has been related in Al-Bahr that migrating from the Land of Kufr is obligatory, according to the consensus of the scholars. This is such that if it is not done, it would be an encouragement to commit disobedience by doing the unlawful or abandoning the obligatory. Or the leader (Imaam) can seek it in order to strengthen his authority." [27]

Other notes:

Al-Hijrah is of two categories, obligatory in one circumstance and highly recommended in another circumstance. The proof that it is obligatory under the first circumstance is the statement of Allah,عز و جل : ( إن الذين توفاهم الملائكة ظالمي أنفسهم قالوا فيم كنتم قالوا كنا مستضعفين في الأرض قالوا ألم تكن أرض الله واسعة فتهاجروا فيها فأولئك مأواهم جهنم و ساءت مصيرا * إلا المستضعفين من الرجال و النساء و الولدان لا يستطيعون حيلة و لا يهتدون سبيلا * فأولئك عسى الله أن يعفو عنهم و كان الله عفوا غفورا )

" Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves, they say, ' In what condition were you?' They reply, ' We were weak and oppressed on earth.' They say, ' Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to emigrate therein? ' Those will find their abode in Hell, and what an evil destination. Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. For these there is hope that Allah will forgive them, and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving. "(An-Nisaa:97-99)

Ibn Katheer,رحمه الله تعالى, said in the explanation of this verse, "This noble verse is general for everyone who resides amongst the polytheists while he is able to make hijrah and he is not able to perform his deen, and in so, he is wronging himself and committing something forbidden by 'Ijmaa' (universal agreement of the Scholars) and by the explicit evidence of this verse." Therefore, whoever does not leave the lands of disbelief while he is able to leave, and while he is not able to perform the deen, nor openly perform the deen and announce this deen and show pride in it, then he, and Allah's refuge is sought, if he dies, he dies as a sinner committing a major sin.

Footnotes:

[1] There are many statements of the scholars on this topic that I have not mentioned here due to my having already mentioned them in the previous chapter "Some of the texts related to Hijrah and Separating from the Lands of Shirk and Disbelievers". However, this does not include the opinion of Ibn Al-'Arabee since I only mentioned it there in abridged form.

[2] This is an ascription to Mawza’, a large town in Yemen on the road from ‘Adan. Al-Mawza’ee died on 820H as is stated in Al-A’alaam (6/687). As-Saakhaawee described him in his book Ad-Daw-ul-Laami’ as: "The Imaam, the Usoolee."

[3] This is the book Tayseer-ul-Bayaan Li-Ahkaam-il-Qur’aan of Jamaal-ud-Deen Muhammad Ibn ‘Alee Ibn ‘Abdullaah, better known as Ibn Noor-ud-Deen. He completed it in 808H as is stated in Idaah-ul-Maknoon (1/343). It has been preserved. The first volume of it is located in Basrah and it has 500 pages.

[4] Al-'Ibrah (page 233)

[5] Subul-us-Salaam (4/79)

[6] From the most important types of Hijrah is that which is done for the sake of seeking knowledge. And how many are the sincere and hard working ones who rose to fulfill this duty - and history is filled with this - leaving behind their families and close ones and their homelands and comfort, seeking to get closer to Allaah and rushing to Paradise, the width of which is like the width of the heavens and the earth. They travel through he lands, crossing past deserts and barren lands and enduring hardships and afflictions.

[7] He uses as proof for this, the fleeing of Ibraaheem and Moosaa.

[8] Ahkaam-ul-Qur'aan (1/484)

[9] Surat-un-Nisaa 98-99

[10] Al-Mughnee (10/515)

[11] Al-Muharrir (2/170)

[12] Al-Jaami' Li-Ahkaam-il-Qur'aan (5/348)

[13] Raudat-ut-Taalibeen (10/282)

[14] Majmoo’-ul-Fataawaa (28/240)

[15] Meaning in a land that has not been conquered by the Muslims

[16] Fath-ul-Baaree (6/190)

[17] Abukl-Falaah ‘Abdul-Hayy Ibn Al-‘Imaad Al-Hanbalee said in his biography of him in Shadharaat-udh-Dhahab (7/340) concerning those who died in 885H: “In this year, among those who died was, ‘Alaa-ud-Deen Abul-Hasan ‘Alee Ibn Sulaymaan Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Mardaawee As-Sa’adee, who later became As-Saalihee, Al-Hanbalee. He was the Shaikh, the Imaam, the great scholar, the Muhaqqiq, the Expert in his field, the marvel of his time, the Shaikh, Imaam and Rectifier of his madh-hab. Rather, he was the Shaikh-ul-Islaam without exception and the source in Islamic sciences by consensus.

[18] Al-Insaaf fee Ma’arifat-ir-Raajihi min Al-Khilaaf ‘Alaa Madh-hab Al-Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (4/121)

[19] ibid

[20] Faid-ul-Qadeer (6/438)

[21] See Manaar-us-Sabeel fee Sharh Ad-Daleel (1/271)

[22] Sharh Muntahaa Al-Iraadaat (2/94)

[23] As-Sail-ul-Jaraar (4/576) of Imaam Ash-Shawkaanee

[24] As-Sail-ul-Jaraar (4/577)

[25] Here is the differing with regard to distinguishing the land of Islaam from the Land of Disbelief. Al-Maawiridee placed as a condition "one’s ability to manifest his Religion." He says: "Then this land becomes a 'Land of Islaam' due to it." So with this, the differing comes to an end. From that which the scholars defined the "Land of Islaam" with was: "The land in which the two Shahaadahs and the Prayer are manifest and in which an event of disbelief does not take place except with the permission of the Muslim authorities. It can be understood from his statement that the Muslims must be many and possessing power in that land and that there is a lack of disbelief and its people. This is how they will be able to make their Religion apparent and manifest and by that the land will turn into a Land of Islaam. And I don’t think anyone would say: "Traveling from the Land of Islaam is better than Residing in it." This is why the scholars have made it recommended to perform Hijrah for the one who is able to manifest his Religion in the Land of Disbelief, so that he can add to the numbers of the Muslims and prepare for Jihaad in the Way of Allaah.

[26] Nail-ul-Awtaar (8/178)

[27] Nail-ul-Awtaar (8/179)

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THINKING OF EGYPT FOR HIJRAH?

Welcome to the information/support group for Foreign Muslim Women living in Egypt. We are here to support one another and share information on living as foreign Muslimahs in Egypt. Some of us are married to Egyptians; some of us are not; some of us are not married at all. Whatever the case may be, we all need to give and take support at some time or another. And we all have information to share inshaa Allaah. The main topic of discussion is Hijrah, but we are open to talk about other islamic issues as well (withing Qur'an and Sunnah ONLY of course). Let's try to remember to practice good conduct too, as we ARE all sisters.

Women Only!

Join here today: Hijrah To Egypt

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HIJRAH FEESABEELILLAAH: GETTING OUT OF DODGE!

By Beatrice Jordan

Source http://www.positive-action.net/hijrah.htm

This is a compelling set of first hand accounts of brothers and sisters who have made, or attempted to make hijrah feesabeelillaah out of western lands over to Muslim countries. The accounts portray the realities from conception to the hardships of implementation.

A large percentage of the Muslims in North America and Europe are converts to Islam and because of their enthusiasm for the deen, they are interesting in exploring the possibility of moving to a Muslim country. The problem with moving to a Muslim country is that there are no clear guidelines as to what can happen, outside of a few stories that people may hear from those who have been there. Unfortunately, these stories are either over glorified fairy tales or sad stories of despair that may not tell the entire story.

“Getting Out of Dodge", the second edition, is a compelling 122 page downloadable E-Book which provides first hand accounts from Muslims who have made, or attempted to make hijrah (migration) for the sake of Allah out of western lands over to Muslim countries. Getting Out of Dodge provides insight into the realities of hijrah from conception to the hardships of implementation. It fills that gap by providing detailed insight into one family’s journey from London to the United Arab Emirates, and two other families’ who moved from America to Sudan and Lebanon. It is a must read for anyone considering moving to a Muslim country or anyone interested in finding out how life is as a westerner in a Muslim country. The second edition of the book includes additional insights into two of the primary methods of making hijrah to a Muslim country.

Finding a job in a field that is in demand – insights on teaching English, jobs in the medical field, typical salaries and benefits, and more.

Entrepreneurship in Muslim countries - hard to find information on setting up a business enterprise in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. Information about residency visas, business licenses, taxation, legalities, financial investment requirements, foreign ownership of land, entrepreneurship in the Gulf, free trade zones, legal resources, business etiquette, and more… “Entrepreneurship is one surefire way of establishing yourself and your family in a Muslim country without having to worry about getting fired or upsetting your sponsor. If you lose your job, not only do you lose your source of income, but in many cases they also kick you out of the country. Brothers with financial backing and business acumen should explore this option and read up on the new regulations that are making it easier to become an entrepreneur in some countries in the Gulf…”

Ordering Instructions

“Getting Out of Dodge”2nd edition is a 122 page E-Book. An E-Book is a book that is emailed to you that you can download and read on your hard drive or print at your convenience. This book is copyrighted and it should not be emailed to someone who has not paid for the book. The cost of the E-Book is $5.00

This link CLICK HERE will take you to a secure server where you will be able to order by Credit Card. If you do not have a credit card and would like to order by check or money order in dollars or pounds. Please make the check payable to 'Beatrice Jordan' and mail to :

Beatrice Jordan

c/o Getting Out of Dodge

1624 East Fayetteville Road

Riverdale, GA 30296

United States

After the payment has been received, you will be emailed the E-book within 24 hours inshallah in standard RTF format which is a widely used format compatible with WordPad, Word, WordPerfect ... on PCs and Macintosh. Please send an email to me at halimah@positive-action.net advising me that the check has been mailed to ensure a timely response, in case the check has been lost in the mail.

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GETTING OF AMERICA

By Mark Ehrman (mark@gettingoutofamerica.com)

Source http://www.gettingoutofamerica.com

Hello, Everyone...

Please forgive the form email, but my contact list has grown so large that this is the only way to keep everyone updated.

I wanted to thank you all for contacting me regarding the "Getting Out of America" guide. For those who haven't been updated in a while, I have set up a webpage at www.gettingoutofamerica.com, which outlines what the project is all about and lists questions and topics we're particularly interested in receiving input about. We've just updated it this week so there are some new questions that you might want to take a look at. If you've sent back your responses, thank you. If you haven't yet sent back your responses, there is still time and we'd love to hear from you. If you want to add to what you've sent, please do. And if you know of other Americans living abroad -- from students doing a semester in a foreign country to lifers who never want to return -- please feel free to pass this info along.

Many of you have asked how your answers are going to be used. So here goes: We have been researching as much relevant information in regard to moving out of the country and living abroad as humanly possible. But because we do not wish to present a dry resource guide, we would like to "illustrate" it, if you will, with as many first-person dispatches as possible. These will be inserted into relavant sections of the book so that people can read about, and hopefully be inspired and instructed, by people who are actually living the life that is presented in that section. What we are NOT doing is putting together some kind of literary anthology.

We are still planning to release the book in 2006.

If you have any questions about where things are at, please don't hesitate to get in touch and I will get back to you as soon as possible. If you are wondering about something you sent or just want an update or have emailed me and haven't heard anything, by all means get in touch. I've gotten hundreds of emails and sometimes, unintentionally, people do fall through the cracks. There is only me and a part time assistant working on this, so please bear with.

If I have included you on this email list by accident or you don't want to receive emails from me for any reason, I apologize. Please let me know and I'll take you off the list.

Thanks again.

All best wishes...

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HIJRAH: BEGINNING OF THE MUSLIM SOCIETY

Taken from Al-Ibaanah.com

The disbelieving chiefs of Makkah conspired to assassinate the last Messenger of Allah, Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). Allah, the Most High sent Jibreel (alaihis salaam) to inform His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) about the plots of the Qur'aish and to grant him the permission to leave Makkah and migrate to Madinah. The Qur'aish posted eleven assassins outside the Messenger's house. They were to keep a vigil throughout the night and attack the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) as soon as he would leave home. BUT, the One in Whose Hands lie all affairs of the heavens and the earths did not allow this devilish plan to succeed. “And (remember) when disbelievers plotted against you (O Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) to imprison you, or to get you out (from your home, i.e. Makkah); they were plotting and Allah too was planning, and Allah is the Best of planners.” [Soorah Al-Anfal (8): 30]

Despite of their (Quraish's) siege they laid to the Prophet's house, their plan failed; Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) came out of his room and cast a handful of dust at the assassins and managed to escape in the protection of Allah through them reciting the verses: “And We put a barrier before them, and a barrier behind them, and We have covered them up, so they cannot see.” [Soorah Ya-sin (36): 9]

Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) proceeded to the house of Abu Bakr (radiyallahu anhu) and both set out southwards, clambered up the lofty peak of Mountain Thawr, and decided to take refuge in a cave. They confined themselves to the cave for three nights. The Quraish continued their frantic efforts to get hold of them, they declared that whosoever would seize Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) will receive a hundred camels as reward, this spurred many people to try their luck, but none could succeed.

Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) reached Madinah safely in the protection of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic. The joyful news soon spread through the city, the shouts of “Alahu Akbar' resounded and the Muslims rushed out of their houses to greet their noble guest. Though not wealthy, every Ansar was wholeheartedly eager and anxious to receive the Prophet of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) in his house. It was genuinely an unprecedented day in Madinah, a triumphal (victorious) procession.

This emigration of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) to Madinah marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar and the beginning of a New Society “the Muslim Society” A Society that could stand for the Islamic Call for whose sake the Muslims had been put to unspeakable tortures for 10 years.

No doubt, the construction of a society cannot be accomplished overnight or a year, indeed it requires a long time to build during which legislations and legalizations will run gradually in a complementary process with mind cultivation, training and education. Allah, the All-Knowing undertook legislations and His prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) implementation and orientation.

The Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) established a code of brotherhood among the believers. It was by the Grace of Allah that he (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) erected the pillars of the new society, by wisdom and dexterity (skillfulness). He led the believers into the light of Islam, sanctified their selves, enjoined them to observe righteousness and praiseworthy manners and was keen on infusing into them the ethics of friendship, glory, honor, worship and first and foremost obedience to Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). He inculcated in the minds of the followers clusters of virtues:

Abdullah ibn Salam (radiyallahu anhu) said: “When the Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) arrived in Madinah, I went to see him and I immediately recognized through his features that he would never be a liar. The first thing he said was: “Extend peace greetings among yourselves, provide food to the needy, maintain upright relations, observe prayer at night while people are asleep, then you will peacefully enter the Gardens (Paradise).” [Tirmidhee, Mishkat Al-Masabih (1/168)]

Once a man asked the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) which of the merits is superior in Islam? He (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) remarked: “That you provide food and extend greetings to one whom you know or do not know.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

“The Muslim is that; one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

“He will not enter Paradise, he whose neighbor is not secure from his wrongful conduct.” [Muslim, Mishkat Al-Masabih (2/422)]

“None amongst you believes till one loves for his brother that which he loves for himself.” [Bukharee 1 /6]

“A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim; he neither oppresses him nor does he fail him. Whosoever removes a worldly grief from a believer, Allah will remove from him one of the griefs of the Day of Judgement. Whomsoever shields a Muslim, Allah will shield him on the Day of Resurrection.” [Mishkat Al-Masabih, (2/422), Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

“He is not a perfect believer, who goes to bed full and knows that his neighbour is hungry.” [Mishkat Al-Masabih, (2/424)]

“The bonds of brotherhood between Muslims are like parts of a house, one part strengthens and holds the other.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (2/890)]

“Believers in mutual love, are like the human body where, when the eye is in agony, the entire body feels pain, when the head aches, all the body will suffer.” [Saheeh Muslim]

“Do not have malice against a Muslim, do not be envious of other Muslims, do not go against a Muslim and forsake him. O the slaves of Allah! Be like brothers with each other. It is not violable for a Muslim to desert his brother for over three days.” [Bukharee (2/896)]

“Show mercy to people on earth so that Allah will have mercy on you in heavens.” [Mishkat Al-Masabih (2/424) ]

Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (radiyallahu anhu) once said: “If you are willing to follow a good example, then you can have a recourse in the tradition of the deceased, because the living are likely to fall in easy victims to oppression. Follow the steps of the Muhammad's (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) Companion. They were the best in the nation, the most pious, the most learned and the least pretentious. Allah chose them to accompany the Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) and establish His religion. Therefore, it is imperative to get to know their grace, follow their righteous way and adhere as much as you can to their manners and assimilate (study, understand) their biography. They were always on the orthodox path. There is then the great Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) whose morals visible attributes, aspects of perfection, talents, virtues, noble manners and praiseworthy deeds, entitle him to occupy the innermost cells of our heart, and become the dearest target that the self yearn for. Hardly did he utter a word when his companions would race to assimilate it and work in its light.” [Mishkat Al-Masabih (1/32)]

These are some of the practices with which Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) build a new society, the most wonderful, and the most honorable society ever-known in history, so that they could become models of virtue to be copied by subsequent generations. On theses grounds, he strove to resolve the longstanding problems, and later gave mankind the chance to breathe a sign of relief after a long wearying journey in dark and gloomy avenues. Such lofty morale lay at the very basis of creating a new society with integrated components immune to all fluctuations of the time, and powerful enough to the whole course of humanity.

Today, as his (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) followers and the Muslim Ummah, it rests upon us to be in the lead and step forward in guiding the Muslims of today in establishing a well-built, powerful, and effective Muslim society on the basis of the Book of Allah and the traditions of our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). We are also responsible for extending this Muslim society throughout the human race. May Allah guide us in building and extending this Muslim Society and may He make our actions sincerely for His Face

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON HIJRAH: EMIGRATING TO THE LANDS OF ISLAM

By Shaykh 'Abdur-Rahman al-'Adanee

Source http://www.ahl-ul-hadith.dk/ebooks/hijrah_emigration.pdf

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ADVICE TO MUSLIMS LIVING IN NON-MUSLIM COUNTRIES

By Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-’Uthaymeen

Source http://www.binuthaymin.co.uk/

Overview: A much needed advice to the Muslims, and the Salafiyyeen specifically, concerning the many dangers and downfalls of living the disbelieving western society. The speaker vividly proves the obligation of migrating and residing in the lands of the Muslims.

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THE OBLIGATION OF HIJRAH

By Imaam Muhammad Naasirud-Deen al-Albaanee

Source http://www.troid.org/audio/ibaadah/purificationofthesoul/targheeb/hijrah.htm

Overview: Much needed advice of the muhaddith of the era to the Salafiyyeen in Holland concerning their situation in that country and the obligation upon them to migrate to the land of the Muslims. The Noble Scholar also covers many principles and foundations for the Muslim who wishes to migrate for the sake of Allaah.

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HIJRAH OF THE HEART AND HIJRAH OF THE PERSON (AR-RISAALA AT-TABOOKIYYAH)

By Shaykh Ibn Al-Qayyim.

The Shaykh distinguished between two main general types of hijrah:

1. Hijra of the Heart (or spiritual hijra)

2. Hijra of the Person (or the physical hijra)

The first and most important Hijrah is the Spiritual Hijrah or the Hijrah of the Heart, and this comes before the physical. This Hijrah is waajib and never ends even after performing the physical hijra. This Hijrah means to flee to Allah as Allah said "And flee to Allah". Hijrah has two places, origin and destination. So one flees from the place of origin to the place of destination. How can this be with the heart? Well one flees from Shirk to Tawheed. From loving other than Allah, to loving Allah. From fearing other than Allah to fearing Allah. Fleeing from sins to the obedience of Allah. Fleeing from Bid'ah to the Sunnah.

The Physical Hijrah is a natural result of the Spiritual Hijrah. When a person performs the Spiritual Hijrah, he/she will eventually be fleeing from so much that his/her body physically can't take staying where he is and will naturally yearn a place where it can worship it's Lord comfortably. Not everybody is able to perform this physical Hijrah for any number of reasons, even though their hearts desire it. So what of those who remain in the lands of Sin, Kufr and Bid'ah? Are they to be forgotten? Are they bad muslims? Do they give up? No.

There is always a group of muslims in the non-muslim lands, these people are referred to by the scholars as the al-Aqalliyyaat. These people are necessary for supporting their own communities and to help spread Islam among the non-muslim people. The spiritual Hijra must continue always. Muslims need mosques, we need Halal Butchers, we need muslim schools etc.

Also, those who perform Hijra, is that it? Have they achieved everything? Do they stop performing Hijra since they are now where they want to be??? No. The spiritual Hijra must continue until death.

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THE RULING OF RESIDING IN THE LANDS OF DISBELIEF

By Shaykh Muqbil ibn Haadee Al-Waadi'ee

Ash-Sheikh Muqbil was asked when he went to America for treatment the following question as is mentioned in Umm Salamah's book: 'Ar-Rihlah Al-Akheerah li Imaam Al-Jazeerah' pages 189-190: "What is the ruling of residing in the lands of disbelief like America?" The Sheikh answered: "That which I am on the opinion of, may Allaah protect you all, is that residing in this land is not permissible except for he who fears destruction for himself, someone fleeing from an oppressive ruler or someone who is sick while the doctors of other than this land are not capable of treating him, the point is he who fears destruction for himself. We, when we used to hear in Yemen, and hearing about something is not like witnessing for verily it has been authentically reported on the Prophet, may the peace and blessings be upon him and his family, that he said: 'News is not like eyewitnessing' we used to hear and it is not like that which we have seen with our own eyes from the women. So whoever is able to set out to an Islamic land, because it, despite the evil therein, especially Yemen and Saudia, there is much good therein especially in Najd and the land of the two harams (Makkah and Madeenah) and likewise in other lands like the villages in Yemen, for, all praise is due to Allaah, you don't hear anything about this and that. As for here (America) immorality and corruption as you all can see. And the Messenger, may the peace and blesssings of Allaah be upon him and his family, says: 'I have not left a fitnah after me more harmful upon the men than the women.' And he also says: 'I have not seen from those deficient in intellect and deen she who has more ability to take away the heart of a man of resolve than one of you.' And he says: 'Verily the first fitnah of the children of Israa'eel was with the women, so beware of the dunyaa and beware of the women.' And Allaah the most high says (the english meaning is) '...then be not soft in speech lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire...' (Al-Ahzaab:32) This (is the case) so what do you think about that which we witness from that which you know better than me. While I was in the airplane going from that land to this land which we arrived, I don't memorize the names, and we found on the television (the screen on the plane) scenes to the point, by Allaah, I indeed wished for death, by my Lord, I indeed wished for death because of the scenes which we saw and the immorality and corruption. Allaah will not leave you to waste. How many students of knowledge are patient upon 3,000 (Yemeni Riyals) and 4,000 and 5,000. Allaah the most high glorified be he blesses him in that (small amount of money) and the blessing is from Allaah the mighty and sublime. And Allaah is the one whose help is sought."

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HIJRAH CAN BE WAAJIB OR HARAAM

From Hijrah Rulings by the Lajna ad-daa ima lil iftaa

1. The hijrah is Waajib: Where the rulers and those in authority do not uphold the limits set by Allaah and do not govern those who are under their care by the rules of Islaam, and in which the Muslims are not able to establish the rituals of Islaam.( From Hijrah Rulings by the Lajna ad-daa ima lil iftaa )

The hijrah is Haram: For those who are able to establish the rituals of Islam within their family and establish evidence against the rulers and people in authority, and bring about reform, making them change their ways, then it is prescribed for him to stay among them, because there is the hope that by staying there he may be able to convey the message and reform them so long as he is safe from temptation and fitnah..( From Hijrah Rulings by the Lajna ad-daa ima lil iftaa )

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