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WHWT - Part 2 - history(cont)

In the early 1900's Scottish, West Highland White and Cairn terriers could
come from the same litter and often were interbred. It wasn't until 1917
that the AKC decreed that no Cairn could gain registration if its pedigree
carried a West Highland White Terrier ancestor within the first three
generations. The Kennel Club followed soon after, in 1924, with a decree
that white pups born in litters of Cairns could no longer be registered as
West Highland Whites.

Between 1880 and 1900 there was a tendency to elongate the heads of all the
breeds emanating from the basic 'Scotch' blood. (pictures #10&11)
As the Westie assumed its autonomy, heads were modified and forefaces
shortened to more closely resemble earlier progenitors of the breed.

By the 1930's the type was well set (picture #12).
Tom Horner, in his 1984 book on Terriers, describes Westie type as being
". . . neither as low-to-the ground and stocky as the Scottish Terrier, nor
so lithe and wiry as the Cairn. He is strongly built with well-boned
straight legs of medium length which are placed under the body, so that
though he is not a tall dog he is still upstanding. . ." Barbara Hand's
description of a Westie, in her 1987 book, is ". . .small and compact with
a level back and powerful rear end, it should not resemble the more elegant
long-legged terriers in any way . . ."

General comments:

A comparison of the AKC, Eng. and FCI standards shows that there are many
more similarities then differences. The AKC standard goes into a little
more detail on the various sections of the standard and is often a little
more descriptive on each aspect. None of the differences are
contradictory, rather the majority are minor wording variations. Some of
the differences are: The FCI and Eng. standards, under General Appearance,
ask for a level back while the AKC standard asks for a straight back under
Gen. Appearance, and wants a level back under Body. Also, under the
Characteristic section the FCI and Eng. standards have added "with a
varminty expression" to the statement "possessed of no small amount of self
esteem". When describing stop under Head and Skull, the FCI standard
asks for a slight indentation between the eyes and for a foreface well made
up, the AKC standard asks for a broad skull and powerful muzzle and defined
stop, and the Eng. standard asks for a distinct stop formed by heavy, bony
ridges immediately above and slight overhanging the eyes with a slight
indentation between the eyes. Regarding eyes, the AKC standard is the
only one that mentions that they should be almond shaped and that the eye
rims should be black. There is an interesting variety of wordings in the
sections on ears. The FCI standard states " hair short and smooth
(velvety). Should not be cut" while the Eng. Standard says the ear should
be "free from any fringe on top", and the AKC standard says ears are to be
on the "top outer edge of the skull" and states hair is "smooth and
velvety" and "trimmed short". The FCI and Eng. standards only allow a
scissors bite while the AKC standard allows a level bite as well.

Neither the FCI nor Eng. standards mention body overhang, while the AKC
standard mentions it twice. The AKC standard gives several proportions:
the distance from withers to elbow is equal to that from elbow to ground,
also the dog is slightly shorter from withers to root of tail than from
withers to ground. There are no references to proportions in either of
the other two standards. Some other differences are that the FCI and
Eng. standards have only one height (11") for both dogs and bitches while
the AKC standard has a size for dogs (11") and one for bitches (10").
With regard to tails both the Eng. and FCI standards want a tail 5-6" long
while the AKC asks for the tail to be relatively short and when erect never
to extend above the top of the skull. The AKC standard is the only one to
specifically state the feet may turn out slightly.

Comparison of the three 'cousins':

Comparing the three 'cousins' today will find some common features and some
important differences.(picture # 13)
The Westie falls between the Cairn and Scottie for size and bone, with not
as much bone as the Scottie but more than the Cairn, and taller than
either of the others by about 1 inch. The Westie is higher on leg and
shorter bodied than either cousin. It is closer to the Cairn stamp than
the Scottie, but larger all around. Compared to the Scottie the Westie
needs a shorter foreface than backskull and is not as long in body. The
Scottie's body has a greater spring of ribs then either the Cairn or Westie.

Links part 3