Thursday Night Hikes: East Summit Avenue Hike Architecture Notes 1.5

Thursday Night Hikes: Summit Avenue East Hike Architecture Notes 1.5


Observations on Architectural Styles

Summit Avenue East Hike I

Assembled by

Lawrence A. Martin

Webpage Creation: August 10, 2001

Specific Structures:

240 Summit Avenue: James Jerome Hill House Built between 1888 and 1891 (1918 according to the National Register of Historic Places;) Richardsonian Romanesque in style; Peabody, Stearns & Furber, original architects; and Irving & Casson, replacement architects. In its time, the mansion was the largest and most expensive home in Minnesota and its grounds covered three acres. It contained 36,000 square feet (44,552 square feet according to Ramsey County property tax records) in 32 rooms on five floors, including 13 bathrooms, 22 fireplaces, 16 crystal chandeliers, a two-story skylit art gallery, a 100-foot reception hall, and a profusion of elaborately carved oak and mahogany woodwork. Sophisticated technical systems throughout the mansion provided central heating, gas and electric lighting, plumbing, ventilation, security, and communication. The house was built at a cost of $280,000 (Minnesota Historical Society; $200,000 according to the Historic American Buildings Survey.) The final cost for the entire property reportedly was $931,275.01, including construction, furnishings, and landscaping for the three-acre estate. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The first house built on Summit Avenue, the predecessor to the Hill mansion, was built on this site. Built in 1856, the predecessor house belonged to Edward D. Neill, first pastor of House of Hope Presbyterian Church. The church's modest sanctuary lay at the base of the hill. In 1890, Neill's home gave way to the James J. Hill mansion. The 1930 city directory indicates that the St. Paul Diocesan Teachers College was located at this address. The Hill mansion is generally rectangular, and has two projecting pavilions flanking a massive porte cochere. Its foundation is granite and its walls are rock-faced red sandstone from East Longmeadow, Massachusetts. Its main entrance, with porte cochere, has three massive arches and a balustrade. The house has a sandstone porch to the west side and sleeping porches in the north projecting pavilion. The house has eight sandstone chimneys that serve 35 fireplaces. Its slate roof is complex, with hipped projections on numerous gabled dormers. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. Ramsey Nininger and Miss Kate MacKubin all resided at this address. The 1893 and 1895 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Hill, their daughter, Louis Hill, and J. N. Hill all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Patrick McDonald was a houseman at this address. The book of Minnesotans: a biographical dictionary of leading living men of Minnesota, edited by Albert Nelson Marquis, indicates that James Jerome Hill and James N. Hill both resided at this address in 1907. In 1910, Celia Tauer Forstner was a cook's helper and Lena Olson was the head cook at the Hill House. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mrs. J. J. Hill and her daughter both resided at this address. Born in Rockwood, southern Ontario, and educated at the Rockwood Academy, James J. Hill (1838- ) began his career in transportation in 1856 as a 17 year-old clerk on the St. Paul levee. Hill's first job in St. Paul was with the Brunson, Lewis & White, agents for Dubuque Packet Company, as an accountant. In 1860, Hill worked for Borup & Champlin, wholesale grocers and forwarding and commission merchants. Hill volunteered for military service in 1861, but was rejected and did not serve in the military during the American Civil War because he only had sight in one eye, having lost the sight in his right eye in 1847 in an archery accident. After 20 years working in the shipping business on the Mississippi and Red rivers, first as J. J. Hill & Company, a partnership with Egbert S. Litchfield that functioned as a transfer warehouse contracting with the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad, then as Hill, Griggs & Company in 1869, and then as Hill & Acker. In 1870, Hill entered the steamboat business on the Red River and, in 1872, he merged his business with Norman Kittson's. In 1877, Jesse P. Farley (1813-1894) was the receiver of the Saint Paul & Pacific RailRoad Company. Hill and several other investors purchased the nearly bankrupt St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad in 1878. Over the next two decades, he worked relentlessly to push the line north to Canada and then West across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. W. T. Steiger was an attorney for the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad Company in 1873. It was renamed the Great Northern Railway in 1890. In 1881, Hill became involved in the Canadian Pacific Railroad (CPR,) allying himself with George Stephen, Donald Smith and others of the CPR Syndicate, and was an important voice in the decision to construct the railroad along its southern route, close to the United States border where in could compete effectively with the recently completed Northern Pacific RailRoad. Allied with banking magnate J. P. Morgan, Hill worked to control a vast railroad network stretching from Chicago to the Pacific Northwest, including three railroads: the Great Northern RailRoad, the Northern Pacific RailRoad, and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RailRoad. From 1879 to 1881, Hill was the general manager of the railroad, then he was its vice-president from 1881 to 1882, then he was the president of the railroad from 1882 to 1907, when he retired, and then chairman of the board of the railroad from 1907 to 1912. Between 1887 and 1892, there was litigation between Jesse P. Farley and James J. Hill over the Saint Paul & Pacific RailRoad Company, in Jesse P. Farley vs. James J. Hill, the St. Paul Trust Company, as executor of the last will of Norman W. Kittson, deceased, and the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Railway Company. By the turn of the 20th century, Hill was a multi-millionaire and was one of the nation's most important entrepreneurs. Hill also pursued a broad range of other business interests, including coal and iron ore mining, Great Lakes and Pacific Ocean shipping, banking and finance, agriculture and milling. In 1911-1912, Hill was in close contact with Gaspard Farrer of Baring Brothers & Company of London regarding the formation of the Brazilian Iron Ore Company. Hill was a major figure in the effort, launched by J. P. Morgan, to float the Anglo-French bond drive of 1915, which allowed the Allies to purchase much-needed foodstuffs and other supplies during the early days of World War I. Hill oversaw the planning, contruction and furnishing of his house as if it were a new branch of the railroad. The architectural firm of Peabody, Stearns & Furber was eventually dismissed when it ignored Hill's orders to the stone cutters. Hill then hired Irving & Casson to finish the building of his home instead of Peabody, Stearns & Furber. The home served as the center for the public and private lives of the Hill family for 30 years. Mary Theresa Mehegan Hill (1846-1921) was born in New York, was the daughter of Timothy and Mary McGowan Mehegan, came to Minnesota in 1850, and married James J. Hill in 1867. The Hills had seven daughters and three sons, Katherine Hill, Mary Frances Hill (Mrs. Samuel) Hill of Tarrytown, Ruth Hill (Mrs. Anson) Beard of New York, Gertrude Hill (Mrs. Michael) Gavin of New York, Charlotte Hill (Mrs. George T.) Slade of New York, Clara Hill (Mrs. E. C.) Lindley of New York, Rachel Hill (Mrs. Egil) Boeckmann of St. Paul, James Norman Hill of St. Paul, Walter Hill of St. Paul, and Louis Warren Hill of St. Paul. James Norman Hill, the son of James J. Hill and Mary Mehegan Hill, was born at St. Paul, was a railway official, was the first vice president of the Great Northern RailRoad since 1902, was the president of the Montana Central RailRoad, was the vice president of the Willmar & Sioux Falls RailRoad, and officed at the Great Northern Railway Building in 1907. Walter Jerome Hill was married three times, first to Dorothy Barrows (about 1908) and had a daughter, Dorothy Hill, then to Pauline Gilson, and then to Mildred Richardson. Samuel Hill (1857-1931,) the son of Nathan Branson Hill, a Quaker abolitionist physician, and Eliza Leonora Mendenhall Hill, was born at Uwahree/Deep River, North Carolina, moved to Minneapolis in 1865, graduated from Haverhill College in 1878, graduated from Harvard University with a second bachelor's degree in 1879, graduated with a law degree from Penn College, was the Life President of the Harvard University Class of 1875, entered the practice of law, became James J. Hill's lawyer in 1886 after winning a number of lawsuits against James J. Hill, and married Mary Hill in 1888. Sam Hill resigned his position with the Great Northern RailRoad, and, in 1900, became the president and principal owner of the Seattle Gas & Electric Company, formed from the consolidation of the Union Illuminating Company and the Union Electric Company. Sam Hill was the president of the Minneapolis Trust Company, was the president of the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Railway Company, was the president of the Montana Central Railway Company, was the president of the Eastern Railway Company of Minnesota, was the president of the Great Falls Water Power & Townsite Company, was the president of the Sand Coulee Coal Company, was the vice president of the Minneapolis Union Railway Company, was the vice president of the Minneapolis Athenaeum, was the General Manager of the Minneapolis Western Railway Company, was the presidentof the Pacific Highway Association, was the vice president of the Columbia Highway Association, was the honorary life president of the Washington Good Roads Association, was a member of the board of directors of the Great Northern Railway Company, was a member of the board of directors of the Willmar & Sioux Falls Railway Company, was a member of the board of directors of the Duluth, Watertown & Pacific Railway Company, was a member of the board of directors of the Northern Steamship Company, was a member of the board of directors of the Lakewood Cemetery Association, was the president of the Alumni Association of the Minneapolis High Schools, was the president of the Minneapolis Gas Company, was the president of the Minneapolis Telephone Company, was the honorary Consul General of Belgium for Idaho, Oregon and Washington, was a member of the Society of Earth Knowledge of Germany, was a commander of the Order of the Crown, was a member of the Royal Household of King Albert of Belgium, was the president of the Seattle Harvard Club was a member of the Rainier College Club, was a member of the Harvard Club of New York, University, was a member of the Minnesota of New York, was a member of the Cosmos Club of Washington, was a member of the Chevy Chase Club of Washington, was a member of the Arlington Club of Portland. Oregon, was a member of the Minnesota Club, and was a member of the Chicago Club. After a price war with a competitor, the Citizens' Light & Power Company, formed by some of Sam Hill's prior gas company associates, Hill left the gas business in 1904. Sam Hill formed the Washington State Good Roads Association with 14 other business leaders andits subsequent campaign led to the formation of the Washington State Highway Department. From 1909 until 1917, Hill operated the Home Telephone and Telegraph Company in Portland, Oregon, competing with the Bell Systems Portland Telephone & Telegraph Company until his company went into receivorship. Sam Hill was estranged from his wife after 1903, had a daughter who developed a mental illness and was eventually declared incompetent, had a son who did not live up to Hill's expectations of ambition or academic excellence, and had three other children with other women, but named the mansion and 7,000-acre ranch that he developed after 1905 "Maryhill" after his wife and his daughter. In the 1920's, Sam Hill's fortune began to wane, but suffering from likely manic depression, he engaged in ventures as diverse as the development of a resort at Semiamhoo, British Columbia, a coal mine in Alabama, the writing of three history books, the production of a motion picture, and the building a world-wide chain of peace memorials patterned after King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. Maryhill is now the Maryhill Museum of Art. Mrs. Mary T. Hill maintained the house after James J. Hill's death until her own death. In 1925, Hill family members purchased the mansion from the Hill estate and presented it to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Paul. For the next half century, the structure served as an office building, school, and residence for the Roman Catholic church until it was acquired by the Minnesota Historical Society in 1978. Gertrude Hill Gavin was educated at Miss Spence's School, a New York boarding school now known as the Spence School, and was self-educated after that. In 1903, she married Michael Gavin, whom she probably met at Yale University, where her two younger brothers went to college. She served as president of the Catholic Women's Association for part of her life and, being very interested in Europe, collected Italian religious art. Anson Beard played football for Yale University in 1894 and appears on a Mayo Cut Plug memorabilia football card, one of the rarest football cards in existence. In 1953-1954, Anson Beard was the Comodore of the Bayberry Yacht Club, on the south shore of Long Island in Islip, New York, on a canal that leads to the Great South Bay. Clara Hill Lindley wrote James J. Hill and Mary T. Hill, An Unfinished Chronicle By Their Daughter in 1948 and also donated $30,000 to the Clergy Benefit Fund of the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis in 1949, augmenting the original James J. Hill donation of $125,000. The Clergy Benefit Fund was the source of settlement money for some of the sex abuse settlements involving the St. Paul Archdiocese. George Theron Slade (1871-1941) was born in New York City, graduated from Yale University, class of 1893, where he was a classmate of Louis Hill, entered railway service in 1893 with the Great Northern RailRoad as a clerk, was successively timekeeper and assistant roadmaster with the Great Northern RailRoad, was made chief clerk to the superintendent of the Eastern Railway of Minnesota in 1895, was advanced to assistant superintendent of the Eastern Railway of Minnesota in 1896, was appointed superintendent of the Eastern Railway of Minnesota and of the Duluth Terminal Railway in 1897, became general manager of the Erie & Wyoming Valley RailRoad and the Delaware Valley & Kingston RailRoad, was a member of the Jekyll Island, Georgia, Club, was the president of the Absaroka Oil Developemnt Company, was the president of the Tide Water Oil Company, was made superintendent of the Wyoming and Jefferson Divisions of the Erie RailRoad and then the general superintendency of the Erie Division of Erie & Wyoming Valley RailRoad in 1901, was the president of the Erie RailRoad in 1903, went to the Great Northern RailRoad in 1905 as general superintendent, became the general manager of the Northern Pacific RailRoad in 1907, was chosen the third vice-president of Northern Pacific RailRoad in 1910, and then was elected first vice-president of the Northern Pacific RailRoad. Slade was known as the "Great Big Baked Potato killer," when the Northern Pacific RailRoad dropped the "Great Big Baked Patato" moniker at his insistence, and was sent to France with the U. S. Army in 1918 as a Lieutenant Colonel/Deputy Director of Transportation. The Hill mansion replaced prior residences of this portion of the bluff, including the prior residence at 242 Summit Avenue. Alexander Ramsey Nininger (1844-1918,) the son of John Nininger and Catherine Ramsey Nininger, the nephew of Alexander Ramsey, and the nephew of Ignatius Donnelly, was born in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was educated at the Mount Joy Academy in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and at the Churchill Military Academy in Sing Sing, New York, from 1859 to 1861, served in the Civil War with the 84th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry from 1862 to 1863 and as the assistant to the provost marshal and to the adjutant general in Minnesota from 1863 to 1864 and in the South from 1864 to 1866, mustered out with a brevet rank of lieutenant colonel, held various post-war military assignments during the period 1867-1870, and received various public service appointments in Minnesota and Alabama after the Civil War, including U.S. Marshall for the northern district of Alabama. After the Civil War, Alexander Ramsey made various efforts as a U.S. senator from Minnesota to obtain promotions or commissions for Nininger. Nininger was a notary public for Ramsey County, was a member of the St. Paul Academy of Natural Sciences, attended the 1881 presidential inaugural reception, was a donor to the Republican Party in 1890, and attended the Republican national convention in Minneapolis in 1892. Catherine K. Ramsey Nininger (1826-1882) was born near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, married John Nininger in 1843, moved to Minnesota in 1855, and died in St. Paul. Alexander Ramsey "Sandy" Nininger, Jr., (1917-1942) was a 1941 graduate of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, was a second lieutenant, and was a posthumous recipient of the first Congressional Medal of Honor awarded during World War II for his anti-sniper actions against the Japanese Army with the Phillipine Scouts near Abucay, Bataan, Phillipines. To honor Alexander Ramsey Nininger, Jr., the First Division of Cadet Barracks at West Point was named in his honor, the transport ship APC-117 was named the "Alexander R. Nininger", a Victory ship was named "USAT Lt. Alexander R. Nininger," Fort Lauderdale, Florida, erected a statue in his honor, the State Veterans' Nursing Home in Pembroke Pines, Florida, was named for him, and the Association of Graduates of the United States Military Academy has recently named for him an award, endowed by Doug and Jean Kenna, that is given to a West Point graduate who is an exemplar of heroic action in battle. The Nininger burial plot at Oakland Cemetery includes the graves of John Nininger (1821-1878,) his wife, Catherine Ramsey Nininger (1826-1882,) M. Pauline Nininger (1848-1921,) Alexander Ramsey Nininger (1841-1918,) and his wife, Mary Fay MacKubin Nininger (1853-1929.) Jesse P. Farley (1813-1894) was born in Tennessee, moved with his family to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1817, was a lead smelter in Galena, Illinois, from 1827 until 1833, moved to Dubuque, Iowa, in 1833 and worked for John Johnson in a grocery and general store, subsequently became the head of the wholesale dry-goods firm of Farley, Norris & Company, became a partner of the wholesale grocery firm of Farley, James & Company, a partner of Farley & Christman, wholesale dealers in hardware, and a partner of Farley, Rouse & Company, dealers in heavy machinery, established a line of steamboats between St. Paul and St. Louis in 1850, entered the railroad business after the Panic of 1857, moved to Minnesota in 1873, was appointed a receiver of the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad, resided in St. Paul while engaging in various railroad enterprises, subsequently organized the sash and door manufacturing concern of Farley, Loetscher & Company, also served as Dubuque, Iowa, city alderman and mayor, and died in Dubuque, Iowa. Farley married Mary P. Johnson ( -1844,) daughter of his first partner in Dubuque, Iowa, in 1833, and the couple had four children, Charles W. Farley, John P. Farley, George W. Farley, and Francis A. Farley, and married Mary L. Johnson, a niece of his first wife, in 1845 and the couple had five children, Harry G. Farley, Edwin B. Farley, Jesse K. Farley, Fred H. Farley, and Warren C. Farley. Patrick McDonald ( -1913) died in Hennepin County. James J. Hill (1838-1916,) Mary Theresa Mehegan Hill (1846-1921,) Katie T. Hill (1875-1876,) Louis Warren Hill (1872-1948,) Maud Van Cortlandt Taylor Hill (1870-1961,) Mary Francis Hill (Mrs. Samuel Branson) Hill (1868-1947,) Walter Jerome Hill (1885-1944,) and George Norman Slade (1902-1975,) the son of George T. Slade and Charlotte Hill Slade ( -1923,) are all buried in Resurrection Cemetery, Mendota Heights, Minnesota. In 1879, James J. Hill, the general manager of the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba RailRoad, located at 82 Lower Levee Street, resided at the corner of Ninth Street and Canada Street. James Jerome Hill ( -1916,) George T. Slade ( -1941,) and Louis Warren Hill ( -1948) all died in Ramsey County. Maud Van Cortlandt Taylor Hill (1870-1961) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Foulke, and died in Ramsey County. George Norman Slade (1902-1975) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hill, and died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is Minnesota Historical Society, located at 690 Cedar Street. Additional photo of the Hill Mansion. The James J. Hill House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Rev. Edward D. Neill resided at this address from 1856 to 1858, that A. Ramsey Nininger resided at this address from 1879 to 1885, and that the residence was razed in 1887 to allow for the construction of the James J. Hill house. The 1879 city directory indicates that Helena Neilson was a domestic at the former nearby 241 Summit Avenue. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Henry M. Hart resided at the nearby former 243 Summit Avenue from 1884 to 1887, that James E. Moore resided at the nearby former 243 Summit Avenue from 1888 to 1892, and that the residence was razed in 1936. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. Ramsey Nininger and Miss Kate Mackubin all resided at the former nearby 242 Summit Avenue and that Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Hart, their daughter, S. T. Hart, and W. L. Hart all resided at the former nearby 243 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Daniel Miller Robbins (1832-1905,) the husband of Delia M. Robbins, who was born in Maine to parents born in the United States and who died of fatty degeneration of the heart, resided at the nearby former 243 Summit Avenue in 1905. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mrs. M. D. Robbins and Mr. and Mrs. F. Clark Miller all resided at the former nearby 243 Summit Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. C. Miller, Robbins H. Miller, and Mrs. David N. Robbins all resided at the former nearby 243 Summit Avenue. The 1930 city directory indicates that Frederic C. Miller resided at the former nearby 243 Summit Avenue. Daniel Miller Robbins (1832- ) was born in Phillips, Maine, moved to Anoka, Minnesota, in 1855, moved to St. Paul in 1865, was in the real estate business, constructed a portion of the Manitoba RailRoad, and was the president of the Northwestern Elevator Company after 1883. The Robbins-Miller burial plot at the Oakland Cemetery contains the graves of Bertha Robbins Miller (1867-1935,) Frederic C. Miller (1863-1942,) Daniel Robbins (1807-1884,) his wife, Mary G. Robbins (1809-1895,) Daniel Miller Robbins, Jr. (1775-1875,) Daniel Miller Robbins (1832-1905,) Delia Barton Robbins (1846-1929,) Harry Miller Robbins (1880-1970,) Elena Driscoll Robbins (1889-1973,) Arthur D. Robbins (1919-1945,) and Willard Charles Shull II (1912-1919.) Daniel Miller Robbins and Delia Roseanna Barton Robbins were the parents of Bertha Delia Robbins (1867- ,) the wife of Frederick Clark Miller (1863- .) Frederick Clark Miller and Bertha Delia Robbins Miller were the parents of Robbins Huntington Miller (1904- ,) born in New Haven, Connecticut, and Frederic Huntington Miller (1907- ,) born in Englewood, New Jersey. Willard C. Shull was the president of the Oryg Gyro Club of St. Paul in 1969. Robbins Huntington Miller was the president of the Iktinos Society, the Honorary Architectural Society at Yale University in 1929 and in 1930. Robbins H. Miller was a member of the Civic Center and City Hall Committee in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1956. D. M. Robbins (1833-1905) was born in the United States and died in Ramsey County. Frederic C. Miller ( -1942) died in Ramsey County. [See note for the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad.] [See note for the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note for the Northern Pacific RailRoad.] [See note for the Eastern Railway of Minnesota.] [See note for the Eastern Railway of Minnesota.] [See note for the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba RailRoad.]

245 Summit Avenue: Gordon-Finch House/Charles Paul House Built in 1882 (1883 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Altered mildy Italianate in style; Abraham M. Radcliffe (1827-1886,) architect. The structure is a two story, 5683 square foot, 15 room, six bedroom, two bathroom, one half bathroom, stucco house, with a detached garage. The house cost $10,000 to build. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Charles Paul resided at this address from 1883 to 1885, that George Finch resided at this address from 1892 to 1942, and that the house was heavily remodeled from a frame exterior to a stone exterior between 1903 and 1916. The original owner of the house was Charles Paul, who only lived in the house until 1885. He was a real estate agent in St. Paul in 1887. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Charles Paul resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Odell resided at this address. The 1889 city directory indicates that Richards Gordon, his daughter, and C. W. Gordon all resided at this address. In 1890, Richards Gordon resided in the house. The 1891 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Richards Gordon, their daughter, and C. W. Gordon all resided at this address. The 1893 and 1895 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. G. R. Finch, their daughter, and George C. Finch all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Louise C. Greene, the widow of Cuyler F. Greene, boarded at this address. The book of Minnesotans: a biographical dictionary of leading living men of Minnesota, edited by Albert Nelson Marquis, indicates that George R. Finch resided at this address in 1907. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that George Rolin/Ralsey Finch (1839-1910,) the husband of Mary Chapman Finch, who was born in Ohio to parents who were born in the United States and who died of arteriosclerosis, resided at this address in 1910. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Louise Chapman Greene (1834-1913,) the widowed sister of Mary G. Finch, who was born in Ohio to parents born in the United States and who died of arteriosclerosis, resided at this address in 1913. In 1914, G. R. Finch and George C. Finch both lived in the house. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mary Gertrude Finch (1845-1916,) the widowed mother of George C. Finch, who was born in New York to parents born in the United States and who died of interstitial nephritis, resided at this address in 1916. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Sherman Finch, Mrs. G. H. Finch, her daughter, George C. Finch, and W. V. S. Finch all resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that George C. Finch, assistant secretary of Finch, Van Slyck & McConnville, resided at this address and that Nellie Finch boarded at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that G. C. Finch and Miss Nellie Finch both resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Nellie Finch and George C. Finch II, a vice president of Finch, Van Slyck & McConville, both resided at this address. In 1934, Miss Helen Finch and George C. Finch resided at this address. Miss Helen Finch was a member of the Women's Club of St. Paul in 1934. The Finches lived in the house for 40 years. George R. Finch (1839-1910,) the son of Sherman Finch and Eliza Shepherd Finch, was born in Delaware, Ohio, was educated in the public schools of Delaware, Ohio, was a clerk in a dry goods store, E. L. Baldwin & Company of Cleveland, Ohio, from 1852 until 1860, was in the general merchandise business at Bellevue, Ohio, as Woodworth, Finch & Green, from 1860 until 1863, first married Nellie T. Chapman ( -1869) at Bellevue, Ohio, in 1862, subsequently married Mary G. Chapman at Bellevue, Ohio, was a wholesale dry goods merchant, moved to St. Paul in 1863, and was a partner, with J. L. Forepaugh and Maurice Auerbach, in a St. Paul wholesale dry goods firm, J. L. Forepaugh & Company, was a senior member of its successor, Finch, Young & McConville, wholesale dealers dry goods, notions, carpets and upholstery and manufacturers of ladies and gentlemen's furnishings, was the president of the Minnesota State Agricultural Society in 1878, was the first president of the St. Paul Jobbers' Union, was the president of first St. Paul Winter Carnival and Ice Palace, was a charter member of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, and officed at the North West corner of Fourth Street and Sibley Street in 1907. Nellie T. Chapman Finch was the first wife of George R. Finch and her sister, Mary G. Chapman Finch, was his second wife. Clemence E. Finch (Mrs. Richard) Stockton was a daughter from the first marriage. George Chapman Finch ( -1943,) Nellie G. Finch, and William Van Slyck Finch ( -1937) were the children from the second marriage. Nellie Chapman and Mary Chapman were two of eight children of Frederick A. Chapman (1796-1861), the son of Michael Chapman, and Clemence A. Follett Chapman, the daughter of Eliphalet Follett and Tryphena Dimick Follett. The siblings of Nellie Chapman and Mary Chapman were Arabella Chapman Woodward ( -1902,) Julia T. Chapman (Mrs. Charles) Roberts ( -1855,) Louise/Louisa C. Chapman (Mrs. Cuyler) Greene, Frederick A. Chapman ( -1861,) Florence Chapman (Mrs. John H.) Davis, and Kate Chapman (Mrs. R. W.) Matthews. Cuyler Greene was a prominent lawyer in Rushville, New York. Mildred Violet Stockton (1894- ,) George C. Finch's niece, had an "affair" with the 12 year old F. Scott Fitzgerald in 1910, when Violet Stockton was on a visit from her home in the South. Richards Gordon (1829-1911) was born in Wexford, Ireland, emigrated from Wexford, Ireland, to America in the 1840's to seek his fortune and found his niche in the fur trade, and moved to St. Paul in 1854, and married Virginia Borup. In 1871, with Paul Ferguson, Gordon founded his fur trading company, the fifth oldest corporation in the State of Minnesota. Working with James J. Hill, founder of the Great Northern Railroad, the "Empire Builder," Gordon opened the frontier of the American West to commerce from the East. In the early 1900's, Richards Gordon expanded and developed his outdoor business and began using the "Field & Stream" trademark on its products. Focusing on furs, the company produced all manner of outdoor apparel including buffalo-hide and mink coats. Because of its stellar reputation as a maker of fur coats, the Gordon & Ferguson Company was asked to supply the fur coats worn by Admiral Richard E. Byrd on his famous expedition to the Antarctic. Gordon Aerotogs was formed to supply flight suits to the emerging flight industry. The company manufactured all manner of flight apparel, including fur-lined flight suits for open-cockpit bi-planes. The company was selected by Minnesotan Charles Lindbergh to supply the flight suit he wore when flying "The Spirit of St. Louis" on the first non-stop flight from the United States to Paris. After becoming a major supplier to the armed forces in the United States during World War II, the company evolved into a major supplier of apparel products to the retail marketplace throughout the United States. Richards Gordon's son, Charles W. Gordon, took over the St. Paul company and also became a founder of Somerset, the exclusive, understated country club tucked away west of St. Paul. Charles W. Gordon's son, Richards Gordon (1911- ) graduated from St. Paul Academy, then Princeton University, and developed much more interest in playing golf at Somerset Country Club than in his father's business and drifted away from wholesale clothing into sportswriting. Dick "Scoop" Gordon was a nightside reporter for the St. Paul Pioneer Press, then was a sportswriter at the Chicago Daily News, was a correspondent for Sports Illustrated, and retired from the Minneapolis Star in 1976. Richards Gordon was commemorated by having a former St. Paul elementary school named for him. The Beaux Art Style brick Richards Gordon School, with an ornate detailed classic entrance, is located at 1619 Dayton Avenue, and was constructed in 1911 at an estimated cost of $38,703. The Richards Gordon School building was designed by Ray R. Gauger, who was the son of August F. Gauger and who was associated with his father in the early 20th Century and took over his father's practice when August F. Gauger retired in 1929. Cartoonist Charles Schultz attend the Richards Gordon School as a pupil. The Richards Gordon School was closed during the 1970's, is now owned by The Family Tree, Inc., dba Richards Gordon Building, and now houses many nonprofit organizations, including the St. Paul Teachers Retirement Fund Association. It also houses the Quatrefoil Library, with 8,000 volumes of interest to the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered community, which were donated by Freedom From Religion Foundation members David Irwin and Dick Hewetson. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mary R. Robbins (1810-1895,) who died of old age, resided at the former nearby 243 Summit Avenue in 1895. Daniel M. Robbins was the son of Mary R. Robbins. Louise Greene ( -1913) and Louise Greene ( -1917) both died in Hennepin County. The current owners of record of the property are Jeanne Alyce Hinz Junge and Thomas F. Surprenant. Jeanne Hinz Junge has a degree in acting and directing from the University of Minnesota, studied dance at the American School of Dance-New York, studied acting with Anthony Mannino, and studied voice with Harold Fonville, is the creator and producer of the Women of Courage series of children's recordings, is the winner of three American Library Association Notable Children's Recordings awards, is the winner of a Parent's Choice Gold Seal, and has been the artistic director of Songs of Hope since 1991. Thomas F. Surprenant was on the program staff of the Dartmouth, New Hampshire, Outward Bound School for four years, is a licensed attorney with considerable experience representing nonprofit corporations, writes children's fiction and nonfiction, with several credits for published works of nonfiction, and has been program director of Songs of Hope since 1991. Thomas F. Surprenant, located at 5900 Rowland Road, Minnetonka, Minnesota, represented respondent Stahl Construction in the 1996 Minnesota Court of Appeals case Minnesota Chapter of Associated Builders and Contractors, Inc., et al., vs. Minnetonka Independent School District No. 276, et al.. The 1879 city directory indicates that William Carter, a lumberman, and and William Carter, Jr., a student, both resided at the nearby former 249 Summit Avenue and that Martha Hanson was a domestic at the nearby former 249 Summit Avenue. The January 1, 1880, St. Paul Daily Globe indicates that William Carson resided at the former nearby 249 Summit Avenue. [See note on Finch, Van Slyck & McConnville for 969 West Osceola Avenue.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.] [See note on James Jerome Hill for 240 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.]

251 Summit Avenue: Horace P. Rugg House Built in 1887 (1886 according to Eileen R. McCormack and 1911 according to the National Register of Historic Places;) Romanesque Revival/Renaissance Revival/Victorian Romanesque/Richardsonian Romanesque in style; Edgar J. Hodgson and Alan Stem, architects. Unit #1 is a 4000 square foot, three bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, stone condominium, which last sold in 1991 for $261,300, and which is currently owned by J. Dennis O'Brien and Mary J. O'Brien. Unit #3 is a 1700 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, stone condominium, which last sold in 1996 for $174,900, and which is currently owned by Evelyn N. Littlejohn, who resides in Boynton Beach, Florida. J. O'Brien, an attorney employed by the State of Minnesota, contributed to the John McCain for President campaign in 2007-2008. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The original owner and resident of this single family house was Horace P. Rugg, who owned the Horace P. Rugg & Co., Wholesale Pumps, Railway & Plumber Supplies. The house was built for $24,500. The 1885 city directory indicates that H. P. Rugg resided at this address. The 1887 and 1889 city directories indicate that H. P. Rugg, Mrs. P. D. Rugg, and Mrs. M. E. Culver all resided at this address. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Horace P. Rugg resided at this address from 1888 to 1895. The 1891, 1893, and 1895 city directories indicate that H. P. Rugg and Mrs. George Culver both resided at this address. In 1900, T. F. Shearn resided in the house. Darius Miller, a second vice-president of the Great Northern RailRoad, resided at this address until 1902, when he moved to Chicago. Clara Hill and Charlotte Hill, daughters of James J. Hill, lived at this address during the first decade of the 20th Century. Charlotte Hill Slade and her new husband, George Slade, moved to this address in 1903. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Frederick P. Wright, a member of the church since 1876, and Belle I. (Mrs. F. P.) Wright, Douglas H. Wright, and Frederick Cushing Wright, members of the church since 1900, all resided at this address. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that John R. Mitchell resided at this address in 1907. In 1914, the residents of the house were C. O. Kalman and Arnold Kalman. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Arnold Kalman (1844-1917,) the husband of Sarah W. Greve Kalman, who was born in Germany to parents born in Germany and who died of chronic myocarditis, resided at this address in 1917. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Kalman, their daughter, and C. O. Kalman all resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Silas Morris Ford (1875-1924,) the husband of Claire W. Ford, who was born in Illinois to parents born in the United States and who died of carcinoma of the stomach, resided at this address in 1924. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. The house eventually became the Catholic Education Center. Thomas J. Shearn, a Radio Man, and William J. Shearn were both World War I veterans from St. Paul who both resided in 1919 at 1615 Selby Avenue. George C. Culver (1818-1879) was born in Cayuga County, New York, settled in Long Prairie, Minnesota, in 1848, and engaged in the Indian trade, moved to St. Paul in 1853, was a St. Paul businessman, and eventually was the proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel. George Culver was an investor and a member of the first board of trustees of the Minnesota Valley Railroad Company in 1865, along with Henry Hastings Sibley, Russell Blakeley, R. H. Hawthorne, W. F. Davidson, E. F. Drake, Henry Mower Rice, J. L. Merriam, Horace Thompson, Franklin Steele, John S. Prince, J. E. Thompson, J. C. Burbank, T. A. Harrison, John Farrington, W. D. Washburn, and C. H. Bigelow. Mary Eleanor Culver Rugg (1849- ) was the daughter of George C. Culver. Henry Mower Rice (1816-1894) was involved in the court-martial of Horace P. Rugg of the 59th New York Volunteers (1864-1909.) Colonel Rugg of the 59th New York Volunteers was dismissed from the service for incompetency and disobedience of orders in the movement on the Boydton plank road in October, 1964, by General Court-Martial Order No. 45, headquarters Army of the Potomac, November 17, 1864. The disability arising from this dismissal was removed by letter from the Adjutant General's Office in 1865, on report of the Judge Advocate General, and the Governor of New York was authorized to re-commission the officer. At the Boydton plank road action, the First Minnesota Battalion was under the overall command of Horace P. Rugg. Rugg's Brigade also was reported by Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles, U. S. Army, commanding the First Division, and by 1st Lieutenant George Kellogg Dauchy, 12th Battery New York Light Artillery U. S. Volunteers, as having panicked and fled from the battlefield during the battle of Ream's Station, August 25, 1864, at a time when Lieutenant Colonel Rugg could not be located by the unit's commanding officer. Arnold Kalman was the secretary and treasurer of the St. Paul Union Stockyards Company in 1886. In 1889, Rugg, Fuller & Company of Minneapolis were dealers in brass goods for plumbers, steam and gas fitters, and steam engine builders, sanitary specialties, wrought iron pipe, lead pipe, boiler tubes, malleable and cast iron fittings, radiators, rubber hose and packing, tools for plumbers, steam and gas fitters, and a complete line of wood and iron pumps and cylinders. The Bellew-Campbell genealogy indicates that Horace Palmer Rugg (1842- ) was born in Wilmington, Windham County, Vermont, the son of Mirandus F. Rugg (1813-1882) and Phebe Dustin Rugg (1821-1889,) enlisted as a Lieutenant First Class in Company E, 59th New York Infantry Regiment in 1861, was promoted to Full Lieutenant Colonel in 1863, was discharged, married Mary E. Culver (1847- ) in 1874, and the couple had three children, Margaret C. Rugg (1875- ,) George C. Rugg (1877- ,) and Mary Virginia Rugg (1881- .) Horace P. Rugg was insolvent in 1895, entered into two promissory notes before Minnesota enacted a bankruptcy debt discharge law, and unsuccessfully attempted to exempt his residence from attachment by the bank under the Minnesota law in Union Bank of St. Paul v. Horace P. Rugg, 78 Minn. 256 (1899.) Frederick P. Wright (1854-1916) was born in Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, was a Republican, engaged in newspaper work, was a mayor of St. Paul from 1894 to 1896, was a Presbyterian, died in Florida Keys, Monroe County, Florida, and was buried in Oakland Cemetery. As mayor, Frederick P. Wright appointed Albert Garvin of Stillwater, Minnesota, to succeed John Clark as chief of police and appointed John C. McGinn to succeed John J. O'Connor as chief of detectives. John R. Mitchell (1868-1933,) the son of John L. Mitchell and Harriet Mitchell, was born in Franklin, Pennsylvania, graduated from Yale College in 1889, married Mary E. Lamberton in 1896, was a banker, was the president of the Capital National Bank of St. Paul, was the president of the Winona, Minnesota, Deposit Bank, was the president of the Duluth, Minnesota, Savings Bank, was a partner of Archibald M. Chisholm in the founding of the Elizabeth mine, the Philbin mine, and the Chisholm mine in the NorthEast Minnesota Iron Range in the late 1890's, was a president of the Minnesota Bankers Association, was a member of the executive committee of the American Bankers Association, was a member of the board of trustees of the Illinois Life Insurance Company in 1904, was a member of the board of trustees of the Security Trust Company of St. Paul in 1905, was a member of the board of trustees of the Minnesota Mutual Insurance Company in 1905 and 1906, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was one of 24 bankers who were financial supporters of the J. J. Hill Professorship of Transportation at Harvard University in 1915, was the president of the Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank from 1924 until 1933, resided at 370 Summit Avenue in 1918, and officed at the Capital National Bank in 1907. Horace P. Rugg ( -1913,) Arnold Kalman ( -1917,) Silas Morris Ford ( -1924,) and Sarah W. Kalman ( -1937) all died in Ramsey County. Charles Kalman (1872-1956) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Greve, and died in Ramsey County. Mirandus F. Rugg and Phebe Dustin Rugg both died in St. Paul. Mrs. Mary E. Culver ( -1926) died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that George W. Armstrong resided at the nearby former 252 Summit Avenue from 1871 to 1886 and that the residence was razed in 1887 after being purchased by James J. Hill. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mrs. G. W. Armstrong, G. C. Armstrong, William N. Armstrong, and J. D. Armstrong all resided at the former nearby 253 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mary Catherine Dean (1841-1920,) the wife of William B. Dean, who was born in Maryland to parents born in the United States and who died of chronic myocarditis, resided at the nearby former 253 Summit Avenue in 1920. George W. Armstrong (1827-1877,) the son of John Armstrong (1793-1865) and Elizabeth McKaig Armstrong, was born in Ohio, apprenticed in the printing trade on the Mt. Vernon, Ohio, Banner, served as the paper's joint editor and proprietor from 1847 to 1850, moved to Keokuk, Iowa, where he owned and published a local newspaper, moved to St. Paul in 1853, was appointed Minnesota territorial commissary general in 1856, was the treasurer of the Minnesota Territory from 1857 to 1858, was treasurer of the State of Minnesota from 1858 to 1860, subsequently engaged in the real estate business, and died of a stroke. George W. Armstrong married Anna Miller ( -1852) in 1852 and married Jane Caroline "Jenny" Colman (1838- ) in 1859. Jane Armstrong and George W. Armstrong had seven children, George Coleman Armstrong, William Newington Armstrong, James Douglas Armstrong, Caroline Isabel Armstrong, Thomas Miller Armstrong, John Milton Armstrong, and Albert Armstrong. George Washington Armstrong was the brother of John Milton Armstrong, the former owner of the 1886 Armstrong-Quinlan house currently located at 227 Eagle Street. George Coleman Armstrong ( -1926) died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. James Douglas Armstrong ( -1939) died in Ramsey County. [See note on the White Bear Yacht Club for 18 Kenwood Parkway.] [See note for the Great Northern RailRoad.]<;/a> [See note for Minnesota Valley Railway Company.] [See note for St. Paul Union Stockyards for 537 Ohio Street.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the Minnesota Mutual Life Insurance Company for 1730 Portland Avenue.] [See note on William Blake Dean for 353 Summit Avenue]

255-257 Summit Avenue: W. E. Howard House/V. K. Arrigoni House Built in 1884 (1900 according to Ramsey County property tax records) with alterations in 1899 (Larson;) Altered Queen Anne in style; Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., initial alteration architect; Carl Thomas Gray, restoration architect. The structure is a two story, 4367 square foot, five bedroom, three bathroom, brick house. It was originally built as a double house, largely for rental or investment purposes. The double house was built by Lane K. Stone and G. B. Bacon. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Lane K. Stone resided at 255 Summit Avenue and that Mr. and Mrs. G. V. Bacon and their daughter all resided at 257 Summit Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Lane K. Stone resided at 255 Summit Avenue and that Mr. and Mrs. C. I. Warren and W. S. Mullen all resided at 257 Summit Avenue. The 1889 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Lane K. Stone resided at 255 Summit Avenue and that Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Seymour resided at 257 Summit Avenue. In 1890, Lane K. Stone (1849-1903,) a real estate broker, resided at 255 Summit Avenue and F. A. Seymour resided at 257 Summit Avenue. The 1891, 1893, and 1895 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. Lane K. Stone resided at 255 Summit Avenue and that Mr. and Mrs. Frank A. Seymour resided at 257 Summit Avenue. The 1895 city directory indicates that Nellie Green was a domestic at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that William E. Howard resided at this address in 1896. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that H. J. (Mrs. W. E.) Howard, a member of the church since 1887, and Lawrence Howard, a member of the church since 1904, resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Isabella McHarg Mason (1839-1915,) the widowed mother of Jarvis W. Mason, who was born in Pennsylvania to parents born in Scotland and in the United States, and who died of carcinoma of the intestine, resided at this address in 1915. In 1916, Jarvis W. Mason was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Jarvis W. Mason and Miss R. C. Mason both resided at 255 Summit Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that J. W. Mason and his daughter all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Rachel C. Mason resided at this address. In 1934, Miss Rachel C. Mason resided at this address and was a member of the Women's City Club of St. Paul, the Town & Country Country Club, and the White Bear Yacht Club. Lane K. Stone (1849-1903) was born in Winnebago County, Wisconsin, graduated from Lawrence University, moved to Minnesota in 1869, founded the town of Montevideo, Minnesota, in 1871, was engaged in the mercantile business in Chippewa County, Minnesota, with his brother, H. Ward Stone (1849-1913,) and in banking, was a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives representing Chippewa, Kandiyohi, Ramsey, and Swift Counties (Districts 40 and 27) from 1875 to 1877, from 1881 to 1883, and from 1891 until 1893, moved to St. Paul in 1882, was associated with the St. Paul Area Chamber of Commerce and was a partner in the formation of the North St. Paul Land Company with Captain H. A. Castle, Frederick Driscoll, W. S. Morton, and George A. Sexias, which developed the City of North St. Paul, Minnesota, on the shore of Silver Lake, moved to Keystone, North Dakota, in 1895, and died in San Antonio, Texas. H. Ward Stone (1849-1913) was born at Waukau, Winnebago County, Wisconsin, attended the public schools of Eureka, Winnebago County, Wisconsin, attended Lawrence Univer­sity at Appleton, Wisconsin, moved to Minnesota in 1870, resided at Beaver Falls, Renville County, Minnesota, in 1870, moved to Montevideo, Chippewa County, Minnesota, in 1871 and opened a general merchandise store and bank in Montevideo, Minnesota, and in Benson, Minnesota, married Clara L. Lowell, the daughter of Julius Caesar Lowell and Frances Marie Lowrey Lowell, in 1874, was appointed receiver of the United States land office at Benson, Minnesota, organized the Swift County, Minnesota, Bank with Senator Z. B. Clark, operated a live stock breeding farm, established yellow pine lumber sawmills in Texas and Oklahoma, had valuable timber holdings in British Columbia, moved to Minneapolis in 1908, was a grain commission merchant as a partner with H. G. Atwood, engaged in the real estate business, was a Republican, was a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives representing Big Stone, Chippewa, Lac Qui Parle, and Swift Counties (District 43) from 1897 to 1899, was a member of the Minnesota Senate representing Big Stone, Chippewa, Lac Qui Parle, and Swift Counties (District 56) from 1903 to 1907, was a member of the the Chamber of Commerce, was a member of the Civic & Com­merce Association of Minneapolis, summered in Minneapolis and wintered in Florida, was a Mason, was a member of the Minneapolis Club, was a member of the Minneapolis Automobile Club, and was a member of St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Minneapolis. Frank A. Seymour (1854-1903) was born in Syracuse, New York, moved to Minnesota as a child, was the cashier of the Merchant's National Bank from 1883 to 1897, and also pursued other financial interests. In 1891, Frank A. Seymour, cashier of the Merchant's National Bank, primarily owned by the family of Governor William R. Merriam, represented Merriam as a major investor in the Chicago, Fort Madison & Des Moines RailRoad, a railroad formed by C. C. Wheeler, E. C. Long, a Northwest timber contractor, D. B. Dewey, former president of the American Exchange National Bank of Chicago, Edwin S. Conway, manager of the W. W. Kimball Company, W. S. Mellen, general manager of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and Henry C. Barlow, traffic manager of the Wisconsin Central RailRoad. Ultimately, in 1901, the Chicago, Fort Madison & Des Moines RailRoad, a narrow gauge railroad from Fort Madison, Iowa, to Ottumwa, Iowa, that was established in 1890 and that was only 71 miles in length, was folded into the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RailRoad. In 1895, Frank Seymour, A. H. Lindeke, and Peter S. MacGowan, general manager of the St. Paul company, were appointed the receivers of the Walter A. Wood Harvester Company, on application of the Ewarts Manufacturing Company of Illinois. In 1887, John Luger of the Luger Furniture Company entered into an agreement with the North St. Paul Land Company to move his entire furniture factory from Wabasha, Minnesota, to North St. Paul, Minnesota. The St. Paul Casket Company moved from 1222 University Avenue to 202 19th Avenue N. E., North St. Paul, Minnesota, before 1893. In the late 1890's, the North St. Paul Bank failed, and the North St. Paul Land Company, the North St. Paul Cottage Company, and the Casket Company were foreclosed upon. J. W. Mason was a Republican delegate for the Ninth Precinct of the Fourth Ward in 1896. The house is now the V. K. Arrigoni East House, a residence for recovering mentally ill male drug addicts in a home-style atmosphere that is owned by V. K. Arrigoni Incorporated and operated by a fundamentalist Christian family. There is also the V. K. Arrigoni West House, at 508 University Avenue SE, Minneapolis. The V. K. Arrigoni House received a 2002 St. Paul Heritage Preservation Award for the restoration and reconstruction of the 19th Century facade on this house. Virginia Katherine Kretschmer Arrigoni (1919-1988) was born in Minnesota, the daughter of Albert Kretchmer and Mary Schaffer Kretchmer, was married to Leo Nicholas Zengerle (1906-1955,) Julio "Chick" Arrigoni (1923-2003,) and DeWayne Blomberg (1931-2008,) was the mother of Michael A. Zengerle, Paul N. Zengerle, Mary Ann (Mrs. William) Dukek, Richard F. Zengerle, Steven T. Zengerle, Raymond A. Arrigoni, and William M. Arrigoni, and is buried at Resurrection Cemetery, Mendota Heights, Minnesota. V. K. Arrigoni was a recovering alcoholic who, after completing treatment at Hazelden Treatment Center in St. Paul, decided to found a group home for alcoholics in her own home in 1972. V. K. Arrigoni, Incorporated, was sold to Supportive Living Solutions, LLC in 2001. Henry A. Castle (1841-1916,) the son of Timothy Hunt Castle and Julia Boyd Castle, was born in Quincy, Illinois, was educated in a seminary at Quincy, Illinois, graduated from McKendree College, Lebanon, Illinois, in 1862, was a private and a sergeant major with the 73rd Illinois Volunteers from 1862 until 1863, was a captain in the 137th Illinois Volunteers in 1864 during the American Civil War, was wounded in the Battle of Stone River, read the law with A. Wheat in Quincy, Illinois, was admitted to the practice of law in 1864, practiced law at Quincy, Illinois, from 1865 until 1866, married Margaret Jaquess at Quincy, Illinois, in 1865, moved to St. Paul in 1866, moved to St. Cloud, Minnesota, in 1867, returned to St. Paul in 1868, was engaged in the wholesale mercantile trade, was a lawyer and a journalist, was a Republican, was a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives from District 24, St. Paul, in 1873, was the Minnesota Adjutant General from 1875 until 1876, was the editor of the St. Paul Dispatch from 1876 until 1885, was the state oil inspector from 1883 until 1886, was the St. Paul postmaster from 1892 until 1896, was the president of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce in 1893, was an auditor in the Post Office Department from 1897 until 1903, was legal counsel for U. S. Postal Commission in 1907, authored The Army Mule and Other War Sketches in 1897, authored the article "Opdycke's Brigade at the Battle of Franklin" in Glimpses of the Nation's Struggle: MOLLUS Minnesota, Volume VI. in 1909, authored History of St. Paul and Vicinity: A Chronicle of Progress, Chicago, Lewis Publishing Company, 1912, authored Minnesota: Its Story and Biography, Chicago, Lewis Publishing Company, 1915, was a Department Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic, was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the National Geographic Society, was a member of the Sons of American Revolution, resided at 589 Summit Avenue in 1907, and died in Silver Lake, Minnesota. Henry A. Castle and Margaret Jaquess Castle were the parents of one son, Charles W. Castle and four daughters. Henry Anson Castle married Margaret Wesley Jaquess and the couple had at least one child, Charles W. Castle. Charles W. Castle graduated from the West Point Military Academy in 1894 and was a Captain in the 30th Infantry of the U. S. Army. Henry Anson Castle, the son of Timothy Hunt Castle and Julia Ann Boyd Castle, the grandson of James Boyd and Elizabeth Hastings Boyd, and the grandson of Philo Castle and Jerusha Dix Castle, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfathers Jonathan Hastings, a Corporal in the Massachusetts Militia, Timothy Castle, a Lieutenant in the Connecticut Militia, Ozias Dix, a Private in the Connecticut Militia, and Abram Boyd, a Private in Wheelock's Massachusetts Regiment during the Revolutionary War. Henry A. Castle ( -1908,) Isabella M. Mason ( -1915,) Albert H. Lindeke ( -1925,) Rachel C. Mason ( -1935,) and John N. Luger ( -1947) all died in Ramsey County. Virginia K. Arrigoni (1919-1988) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Schaffer, and died in Ramsey County. John Luger ( -1907) was born in Austria, had a mother with a maiden name of Volgenont, and died in Ramsey County. John Luger (1882-1959) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. John E. Luger (1889-1963) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Paul, and died in Ramsey County. Leo N. Zengerle (1906-1955) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Michael A. Zengerle (1947-1959) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Kretchner, and died in Ramsey County. Henry W. A. Stone ( -1919) Nellie F. Green ( -1931,) Nellie Green ( -1934,) Nellie Green ( -1936,) Nellie Green ( -1943,) and Frank A. Seymour ( -1944) all died in Hennepin County. William E. Howard ( -1932) died in Pine County, Minnesota. W. S. Morton ( -1923) died in Swift County, Minnesota. When sold in 1998, the sale price was $105,000. [See note for Frederick Driscoll for 266 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the White Bear Yacht Club for 18 Kenwood Parkway.] [See note for the St. Paul Northern Pacific Railroad.] [See note for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RailRoad.] [See note for the Wisconsin Central RailRoad.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.]

259 Summit Avenue: Built in 1900. The building is a two story, 4379 square foot, six bedroom, two bathroom, brick house. The 1910 city directory indicates that George H. Terrett, a restaurant owner, resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. E. M. McMahon resided at this address. World War I veteran Omar Miller resided at this address in 1919. The 1920 city directory indicates that Laurence V. Ashbaugh, a publisher who officed at the Mteropolitan Building, resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mrs. Mary Ashbaugh resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. Lawrence Vernon Ashbaugh ( -1923) and Geroge Hunter Terrett ( -1926) both died in Ramsey County. Omer Miller ( -1946) died in Hennepin County. Mary Anne Ashbaugh ( -1934) died in Traverse County, Minnesota. The current owner of record of the property is V. K. Arrigoni, Inc., located at 255 Summit Avenue.

260 Summit Avenue: Louis Hill House/Louis Warren Hill and Maud Van Cortlandt Taylor Hill House; Built in 1903 (according to Sandeen and Ramsey County property tax records; 1888 according to the National Register of Historic Places and 1902-1903 according to Larson,) with a major addition, the front half and portico, in 1913; Classical Revival/Beaux Art/Georgian Revival in style; Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., original architect and contractor; Louis Millet and John LaFarge, stained glass designers; William Yungbauer, woodcarver; Charles Frost, addition architect. The house was originally built for $40,000 (Sandeen and Larson; $60,000 according to Eileen R. McCormack.) The structure is a two story, 25664 square foot, 25 room, eight bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with a two story, 2705 square foot, six room, two bathroom, brick carriage house, and with two basement garages and one detached garage. When Louis Hill resided here, the house had five family bedrooms, one guest bathroom, and three servant bedrooms. The 1912 front addition had four additional guest bedrooms. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The former house on this lot, the Noble/Palmes House, built in 1857 by William Noble/Nobles, was demolished in 1902. The Noble/Palmes House was a two story, eight room, brick building, had a shingle roof, and lacked a cellar. The Panic of 1857 devastated Noble's affairs, and he lost the property to foreclosure. Louis Hargous was the subsequent owner, and he sold the property to George Palmes in 1870. In 1871, George Palmes convinced the city to vacate a triangular section of Walnut Street, adding 20 feet to the frontage of the lot. The 1879 city directory indicates that George Palmes, an importer of fine woolens, a draper, and a tailor located at 81 East Third Street, resided at the former 155 Summit Avenue. The 1885 city directory indicates that George Palmes and his daughters, Miss Lucy Hull, and Miss Nancy A. Hull resided at this address. The 1887 and 1889 city directories indicate that George Palmes, his daughter, Miss Lucy J. Hull, and Miss Nancy A. Hull all resided at this address. The 1891 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. Balfour, Miss Lucy J. Hull, and Miss Nancy A. Hull all resided at this address. The 1893 city directory indicates that George Palmes, Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Anderson, and Miss Lizzie Hull all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that George Palmes and Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Anderson all resided at this address. George Palmes (1828- ) was born in Le Roy, New York, moved to St. Paul in 1856, was a tailor, and retired to Waukegan, Illinois, in 1897. Palmes rented the house to William P. Abbott, the owner of Abbott Manufacturing Company, a door and window factory, around 1895. James J. Hill purchased the property in 1899 for $20,000 and had Walnut Street between Irvine Avenue and Summit Avenue vacated in 1901 (for a payment to the city of $7,218.28 to construct a public walk and steps where the street had been.) Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Louis W. Hill resided at this address from 1903 to 1949. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Louis W. Hill resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. L. W. Hill, their daughter, C. T. Hill, J. J. Hill, and L. W. Hill, Jr., all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Louis W. Hill, chairman of the board of directors of the First National Bank, his wife, Maud Hill, Jerome Hill, a student, Louis W. Hill, Jr., and his wife, Dorothy Hill, all resided at this address. Louis Warren Hill (1872-1948) was the third child of James J. Hill and the second son in a family of nine. George Palmes (1828- ) was born at LeRoy, Genesee County, New York, a son of George Palmes and Jenette Churchill Palmes, moved to Michigan in 1832, became a tailor, moved to St. Paul in 1856, entered a merchant tailoring partnership with George C. Mott, dissolved the partnership in 1860, then start his own tailoring business, purchased the land at this address in 1870, became associated with J. W. McClung in the St. Paul Mutual Building Association No. 1, married Mary Hull of Vermont in 1853, with the couple having two daughters, and was a deacon of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church. Louis Hill was educated at Philips Exeter Academy and Yale University's Sheffield Scientific School, graduating in 1893. In 1903, he became vice president of the Great Northern Railway, and moved up to the presidency when his father became board chairman in 1907. When James J. Hill retired in 1912, Louis Hill succeeded him, holding the chairmanship until 1929. As chairman, he played a significant role in developing the tourist industry around Glacier National Park, which was created by Congress in 1910, after he and others had lobbied hard for its inclusion in the national park system. Between 1911 and 1917, the Great Northern RailRoad funded the construction of a series of mountain chalets and lodges, the first roads along the eastern edge of the new park, and a network of scenic trails and tent camps throughout the rugged, glaciated back country. Louis Hill personally supervised all of these projects and selected the sites for each of Glacier Park's hotels and chalets, locating them with an eye toward their scenic backdrop and often ignoring more pragmatic considerations. The logs for the Going-to-the-Sun Chalet complex on upper St. Mary Lake had to be rafted in and hoisted up a cliff. The two-story chalet at Gunsight Lake sat in the middle of an avalanche chute and did not survive its second winter. Louis Hill's crowning achievements in Glacier were the two huge, luxurious hotels at East Glacier and Many Glacier. Louis Hill also came up with the mountain goat logo which eventually graced every Great Northern RailRoad passenger and freight car, plus all of the railroad's publicity fliers. The Great Northern RailRoad goat eventually became one of the most widely-recognized symbols in the history of American advertising. The Blackfeet tribe eventually adopted Hill into their tribe, re-christening him "Gray Horse." Louis Hill was the chairman of the First National Bank of St. Paul, participated in the Good Roads Movement, and chaired the Minnesota State Highway Commission from 1917 to 1920. He also was an enthusiastic booster of the St. Paul Winter Carnival, having charge of the celebrations in 1916 and 1917. He patronized the arts and was himself a serious amateur painter and photographer. His extensive private investments included timber, minerals, and oil. Great Northern #A-22 was used by Louis W. Hill, Sr., as a wooden business car from 1905 until 1948 and included a unique feature, the inclusion of automobile storage space, along with living and working quarters on the same railcar, which was painted standard Pullman green and had little interior decoration and no extra frills, and its austere elegance illustrated Hill's frugal nature when it was also used as the preferred method of transportation for Hill family vacations and hunting trips. In 1926, Queen Marie of Romania visited St. Paul and stayed with Louis Hill and Maud Hill. Louis Hill and Maud Hill had four children, James Jerome Hill II (1904-1972,) Cortlandt Hill (1905- ,) Louis W. Hill, Jr. (1902- ,) and Maud Van Courtland Hill Schroll (1903- .) Louis Hill and Maud Hill separated in 1934 and Maud Hill moved to the house at 475 Portland Avenue. After the separation, Louis Hill divided his time between this house, the Hill's North Oaks, Minnesota, farm, Glacier Park, Montana, and Pebble Beach, California, and died in St. Paul, at Miller Hospital, after a long illness. Maud Hill (1870-1961) was born in Staten Island, New York, to Cortlandt Mulcaster Taylor and Mary Beekman Foulke Taylor, married Louis W. Hill in 1901, played an active role in the work of local Red Cross chapters and European Relief organizations during both world wars, and died in St. Paul. In 1934, Maud Taylor Hill was a member of the Women's Club of St. Paul. The four Hill children purchased their mother's interest in this house in 1950. After a four year vacancy, the house was sold, for $50,000, in 1954, to the Catechetical Guild Education Society of St. Paul, an organization founded by Reverend Louis A. Gales in 1933. In 1961, the house was sold to the Daughters of the Heart of Mary, a religious order, as a retreat house, the Maryhill Retreat House, and it was operated by them for 36 years, closing in 1997. The Delva Foundation purchased the house in 1997, intending to operate a children's hospice center, the Delva Center, but after expending $550,000 and facing $1.2 million more in uncompleted work on the project, the Delva Foundation sold it to the Nicholsons. The 1908 city directory indicates that Rudolph Miller was a chaffeur at this address. The house is now owned by Richard and Nancy Nicholson, who plan to restore the house. James Jerome Hill was a painter, film maker, photographer, composer, and philanthropist. Louis W. Hill, Jr., (1902-1995) was born in St. Paul, the first child of Maud Van Cortlandt Taylor Hill and Louis W. Hill, Sr., was given a traditional Blackfeet name, Ot Que Kaitsup Imo or Little Yellow Pinto Pony Rider, by the hereditary Blackfeet tribal leader, Neok Ska Kio (Three Bears,) graduated from Yale University with a bachelor's degree in philosophy with high honors in 1925, developed a lifelong interest in Japanese culture, was an independent scholar at Balliol College, Oxford University, in England, served in the Minnesota House of Representatives from 1937 to 1951, established the North Oaks Company to develop a private residential community, was the founder of the Grotto Foundation, and was the founding board chair and the architect of the Northwest Area Foundation. Louis W. Hill, Jr., married Elsi Fors in 1943 and the couple had three children, Louis Fors Hill, Johanna Hill, and Mari Hill. Louis W. Hill, Jr., created the Grotto Foundation. The Louis W. and Maud Hill Postdoctoral Fellowship in Horticultural Science has been established at the University of Minnesota-St. Paul campus. The Louis W. and Maud Hill Family Foundation, originally incorporated in 1934 as the Lexington Foundation and now known as the Northwest Area Foundation, funded the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library at Saint John's Abbey in Collegeville, Minnesota, in 1965, and partially funded the Minnesota Interlibrary Teletype Experiment, or MINITEX, in 1969. The Louis W. Hill, Jr., Fellowship in Philanthropy was created in 2002 by the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, the Northwest Area Foundation, and the Grotto Foundation to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the birth of Louis W. Hill, Jr., and to recognize with a $100,000 stipend and infrastructure support an outstanding Minnesota community leader who has had a distinguished record in philanthropy and community service. Louis Fors Hill, a 1971 graduate of the University of Minnesota in geology, is the chairman of Rockwood Capital Management, Inc., a financial, personal and family heritage asset management firm, and, in 2005, was appointed to the Northwest Area Foundation board after having previously served on the board from 1968 to 1977 and from 1994 to 2003. Louis Fors Hill also is the chair of The Glacier Fund Board of Trustees, is the founder and president of Pacific Rim Equipment Corporation, is the owner and treasurer of Casting Technology, Inc., is the president of Silverthorn Exploration, Inc., is the president of Hill Hydrocarbons, Inc., is a member of the board of the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library of Saint John's University, is a member of the board of the United Hospital Foundation, is a member of the board of the Grotto Foundation, is a member of the board of the Hamline University, is a member of the board of the Performance Improvement Network, is a member of the board of the Shattuck-St. Mary's School and is a member of the board of the American Composer's Forum. Rev. Louis A. Gales, an assistant at St. Agnes Church, and the Rev. Paul C. Bussard were the creators of the Catholic Digest, which was born in 1936 in the cellar of the chancery of the Cathedral of St. Paul as the Catholic Digest of Catholic Books and Magazines and took its inspiration and format from the Reader's Digest. Louis J. Millet (1856-1923) was a designer and a professor at the Chicago Art Institute from 1886 to 1918, where he founded the Department of Decorative Design, and was a partner in the Chicago firm of Healy & Millet, the company responsible for executing the decorative schemes for most of architect Louis Sullivan's large-scale commercial projects. Millet designed the skylight at the Ryerson Library at the Chicago Art Institute, the stained glass in the Mississippi state capitol building in Jackson, Mississippi, and the stained glass in the Fannie Vick Willis Johnson house (now Stained Glass Manor-Oak Hall) in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Millet was the Superintendent of Architectural and Decorative Exhibits for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri. John LaFarge (1835-1910,) the son of John Frederick de LaFarge, a French naval officer, and Louise Josephine Binsse (de St. Victor,) attended college at Mount St. Mary's and Fordham University, was the student of Thomas Couture (1815-1879) and William Morris Hunt, married Margaret Mason Perry, was a painter and muralist who, in 1906, executed four great lunettes representing the history of religion for the Minnesota State Capitol. Lafarge also designed the decoration of Trinity Church in Boston and painted the mural for the chancel of the Church of the Assumption in New York City. Lafarge was the greatest innovator in the history of modern stained glass when, in 1879, he discovered and patented the techniques for making opalescent glass in the kiln fired stained glass fusion of small bits of glass in order to create stained glass images which previously had to be painted with metal oxides. Lafarge won the Cross of the Legion of Honour from France, was a member of the principal artistic societies of America, and was the president of the Society of Mural Painters. William Yungbauer was a Vienna-trained woodcarver who was brought to St. Paul in the early 1890's by James J. Hill to supervise the interior carving at the Hill mansion. Yungbauer remained after the construction of the Hill mansion, opened his own shop in St. Paul, and carved a number of pieces for the Louis Hill house. Yungbauer was an original member of the St. Paul Rotary Club in 1910 and was the president of the St. Paul Jaycees in 1932. Charles Frost was a Chicago architect who designed many railroad buildings, including the Minneapolis Great Northern RailRoad depot, the Minneapolis Milwaukee RailRoad depot, the St. Paul Union Depot (1923,) and the James J. Hill RailRoad and Bank building (1916.) William F. Yungbauer (1897-1982) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Franke, and died in Ramsey County. William O. Noble ( -1927) died in Beltrami County, Minnesota. Maud Van Cortlandt Taylor Hill (1870-1961) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Foulke, and died in Ramsey County. Charles Rankin Frost ( -1922,) William Noble ( -1927,) William Yungbauer ( -1935,) and Louis Warren Hill ( -1948) all died in Ramsey County. Louis W. Hill (1902-1995) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Taylor, and died in Ramsey County. Paul Bussard (1904-1983) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Howard, and died in Ramsey County. William Nobles (1852-1907) was born in New York and died in Blue Earth County, Minnesota. William Pitt Abbott (1880-1955) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Cross, and died in Cook County, Minnesota. In 2003, Richard Nicholson and Nancy Nicholson were contributors to the Randy Kelly for St. Paul Mayor campaign and resided at this address. Richard Nicholson and Nancy Nicholson recently made a $1 million endowment donation to the St. Paul Central Library. Richard Nicholson was appointed by Mayor Randy Kelly to the St. Paul Heritage Preservation Commission. Richard Nicholson is on the board of the Ramsey County Historical Society and on the board of the Friends of the St. Paul Public Library. Richard Nicholson is the vice president of PAN Inc., a non-investigative company that develops and implements customized loss prevention/human resource products designed to help a company minimize its risk of fraud. Lucius P. Ordway was Dick Nicholson's great-grandfather and had frequently vacationed with Louis Hill and Maud Hill. [See note on the First National Bank of St. Paul for 331 Maple Street.]

261 Summit Avenue: James H. Weed House/Caroline Moore House; Built in 1891 (1901 according to the National Register of Historic Places and 1890 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Jacobethan/Victorian/Neo-gothic/Gothic Revival in style; Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., architect. The house was built for $14,000 (Sandeen and Larson) by M. M. Kinny/Kenny, who apparently never lived in the house. The three story, 8224 square foot, building has become an apartment building. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that James H. Weed resided at this address from 1892 to 1928. The 1893 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Weed and their daughter resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Weed, their daughter, and P. C. Weed resided at this address. The 1900 federal census indicates that the residents at this address included Paul J. Weed (1843- ,) a crockery salesman who was born in Wisconsin to father who was born in Massachusetts and a mother who was born in Connecticut, and a servant, John Thompson (1861- ,) who was born in England to parents who were also born in England. The 1902 University of Minnesota Alumni Record indicates that Benjamin B. Weed, a 1902 graduate, resided at this address. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that James H. Weed, Agnes J. (Mrs. J. H.) Weed, and Benjamin B. Weed, members of the church since 1898, all resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Weed resided at this address. Johnston was also retained to design a garage and to remodel the house, in 1919, at a cost of $1,000. The house was owned and occupied by James H. Weed in 1892, who was a partner in Weed & Lawrence, Insurance and Loans. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Caroline W. Moore and Paul C. Weed resided at this address in 1921. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Weed resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Agnes Irene Weed (1846-1926,) the wife of James H. Weed, who was born in Illinois to parents born in the United States and who died of chronic myocarditis, resided at this address in 1926. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. James Henry Weed (1845- ,) the son of James Weed (1810-1903) and Abby Bartlett Weed (1810- ,) was born at Racine, Wisconsin, attended the Racine, Wisconsin, public schools, moved to Minnesota in 1863 or 1864, settled in Winona, Minnesota, initially worked for the general merchandising firm of Stevens & Lewis, then was employed by the Northwestern Union Packet Company, was a clerk on the steamboat "City of St. Paul," moved to St. Paul in 1867, then entered the insurance business as a senior partner at Weed & Lawrence, which became Weed, Parker & Company in 1898, was attorney for the purposes of service of process in Minnesota for the Franklin Fire Insurance Company of Philadelphia in 1876, was a director of the German American Bank, was a director of the Stockyards National Bank, was a trustee of the Northern Savings Bank, was a board member of the Dayton Avenue Presbyterian Church, was a Republican, was a member of the St. Paul School Board, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, and was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution as the great grandson of Lieutenant James Weed of Colonel John Mead's Regiment of Connecticut Militia in 1776. Weed married Agnes I. Curtis, the daughter of Orrin Curtis, in 1868 and the couple had three children, Caroline Weed (Mrs. A. R.) Moore, Paul C. Weed, and Ben B. Weed. Paul Charles Weed (1873-1947) married Emily Stickney (1878-1963,) the daughter of Alpheus Beede Stickney and Katherine "Kate" Wilt Hertzog Hall Stickney, and the Weed couple had five children, including Emily Stickney Weed (1901- ) and Abby Bartlett Weed (1902-1983,) who married Benjamin Edwards Grey (1883-1956) in 1929. In 1906, Paul C. Weed and Emily S. (Mrs. P. C.) Weed resided at 529 Holly Avenue. Abby Bartlett Weed was born in St. Paul, graduated from Vassar College in 1924, taught fifth grade in a private school for girls in Kansas City in 1926, married Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Edwards Grey, a career army officer and 20 years her senior, in 1930, moved around the country for 27 years as an Army wife, settled first in Deer Lake, Minnesota, then alternated between Minnesota and Salt Lake City, Utah, began collecting art in 1960, created the Ben and Abby Grey Foundation in St. Paul in 1961 in order to sponsor and encourage artists and to purchase their works for exhibition, established the annual Benjamin Edwards Grey Memorial Lecture in poetry as part of the summer writer's conference at the University of Utah, and, in 1974, established the Grey Art Gallery at New York University both as a permanent home for her art collection and to promote international artistic exchange in an academic setting. The Abby Weed Grey Collection of Modern Asian and Middle Eastern Art at NYU comprises some 700 works produced by artists from Japan, Thailand, India, Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. Benjamin Edwards Grey made a modest fortune investing in western railroad stocks and bonds before he died of cancer. Abby Weed Grey also died of cancer. The Weed family lived in the house for at least 35 years. The Weed burial plot at Oakland Cemetery includes James H. Weed (1845-1929,) Grace Curtis Weed (1869-1889,) Paul J. Weed (1843-1935,) Agnes L. Weed (1846-1926,) James Weed (1876-1879,) and Emily Stickney Weed (1901-1901.) James H. Weed, the son of James Weed and Abby Bartlett Weed and the grandson of James Weed and Emma Stevens Weed, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfather James Weed, a Lieutenant in the Ninth Connecticut Militia during the Revolutionary War. Paul Charles Weed, the son of James H. Weed and Agnes S. Curtis Weed, the grandson of James Weed and Abby Bartlett Weed and the great grandson of James Weed and Eunice Stevens Weed, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfather James Weed, a Lieutenant in the Ninth Connecticut Militia during the Revolutionary War. Clarence H. Johnston also designed a barn on the property in 1891, still extant, which was built for $2,000 (Larson.) The Northern Line Packet Company, formed in 1857 by Captain James B. Ward, Captain R. C. Gray, and others, merged with the La Crosse & Minnesota Packet Company, formed in 1860 by Commodore W. F. Davidson, to form the Northwestern Union Packet Company in 1864, utilizing the steamers the Moses McLellan, the Ocean Wave, the Itasca, the Key City, the Milwaukee City, the Belle, the War Eagle, the Phil Sheridan, the S. S. Merrill, the Alex. Mitchell, the City of St. Paul, the Tom Jasper, the Belle of La Crosse, the City of Quincy, and the John Kyle and the line controlled the general trade on the Mississippi River until 1874. Alpheus B. Stickney ( -1916,) Agnes I. Weed ( -1926,) James Henry Weed ( -1929,) Paul J. Weed ( -1935,) and Paul C. Weed ( -1947) all died in Ramsey County. The property is now a multi-family apartment house. Abby Grey (1902-1983) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stickney, and died in Hennepin County. Benjamin Edwards Grey (1881-1956) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Howell, and died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Carl T. Gray and Janet Ann Gray. John S. Robertson House/A. R. Dalrymple House, Built in 1885 (1881 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne in style; C. W. Mould, architect. The structure is a two story, 4416 square foot, 13 room, nine bedroom, three bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This house reportedly was built at a cost of $10,000 by John Robertson, who worked for B. Presley & Company, wholesale dealers in foreign and domestic fruits and fireworks. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. Howard Sanders resided at this address. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that John S. Robertson resided at this address from 1886 to 1898. The 1887, 1889, 1891, 1893, and 1895 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Robertson resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that John S. Robertson (1851-1898,) who died of chronic nephritis, and his wife resided at this address in 1898. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mrs. Oliver Dalrymple resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mary S. Dalrymple (1847-1920,) the widowed mother of William Dalrymple, who was born in New York to parents born in the United States and who died of apoplexy, resided at this address in 1920. The 1930 city directory indicates that Louis J. Foussard, the president of Model Launderers & Cleaners, and his wife, Marie A. Foussard, resided at this address. The 1991 St. Paul's on-the-Hill Episcopal Church directory indicates that Raymond Albrecht resided at this address. In 1920, Mrs. J. Howard Sanders, of St. Paul, announced the engagement of her daughter, Miss Helen W. Sanders, to H. Edgar Lewis of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. H. Edgar Lewis (1882-1948) was born in Pontardulais, Wales, the son of an immigrant Welsh tinmill roller, came to the United States in 1896, worked as steelworker in the Duquesne works of Carnegie Steel in 1899, left Carnegie in 1906, worked a short while for the Passaic Steel Company in New Jersey, then joined Bethlehem and ten years later was its executive vice president, left Bethlehem in 1930 to become chairman of the board of Jeffrey Manufacturing Company of Columbus, Ohio, joined Jones & Laughlin, a steel company, in 1936 as chairman of the board, and, at the resignation of S. E. Hackett, in 1938, was elected president of Jones & Laughlin. Lewis also was director of the Jeffrey Manufacturing Co., British Jeffrey-Diamond Ltd. of Wakefield, England, Kelsey-Hayes Wheel Co. of Detroit, Kelsey-Hayes Wheel Co., Ltd. of Dagenham Dock, England, The Ohio Malleable Iron Co. of Columbus, Ohio, and The Galion Iron Works and Manufacturing Co. of Galion, Ohio, was an honorary vice president of the American Iron and Steel Institute, was a member of the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce, and headed the Pittsburgh Convention and Tourist Bureau Inc. Lewis married Helen Sanders, formerly of St. Paul, and the couple had a daughter, Mrs. Emily Lewis Gillespie of Long Island, New York, and two sons, James Edgar Lewis of Los Angeles, California, and Edgar Sanders Lewis of San Francisco, California. When John Robertson died in 1898, the house was then owned and occupied by John Dalrymple and Oliver Dalrymple (1830-1908,) who initially farmed in Washington County and also operated "bonanza" farms in Minnesota's Red River Valley in the 1870's, 1880's, and 1890's. John Dalrymple was an 1896 graduate of the University of Minnesota. The Dalrymple Farm was the largest and the best known of the "bonanza" farms, located 20 miles west of Fargo, consisting of 11,000 acres. The farm was, at one time, the largest cultivated farm in the world. The name "Bonanza Farm" implied a lucky strike or a get-rich quick opportunity for those people who were willing to take the risk. Bonanza farms were precursors of today's corporate farms. In 1874, James P. Power, who was the land commissioner for the Northern Pacific RailRoad, purchased 11,520 acres about 20 miles west of Fargo. The land was purchased for General George W. Cass, President of the Northern Pacific, and Benjamin P. Cheney, a director of the railroad. The Cass-Cheney farm became the first Bonanza Farm and Cass and Cheney hired Oliver Dalrymple to manage their new farmland. Oliver Dalrymple became the first bonanza farmer in pioneer Dakota Territory when directors of the Northern Pacific Railway chose him to manage the first farm factory in 1875. This Minnesota wheat grower had been left penniless by the Panic of 1873. Twelve years later, he was managing nearly 100,000 acres of farmland utilizing professional management, innovative large-scale machinery, and operating in divisions of 2,500 acres. In 1876, he purchased a complete telephone system for his farm divisions from Alexander Graham Bell. He ordered hundreds of new twine binders from Cyrus McCormick sight unseen in 1878. In 1881, he organized the driving of 100 mule-drawn grain tanks to Duluth to prove he was not a slave of railroad rates. The best known of the bonanza farmers, Oliver Dalrymple died at Casselton, North Dakota (Harmony Township, North Dakota, according to Oakland Cemetery Association, St. Paul, records. Dalrymple had become known as the Minnesota wheat king with his large wheat farming operation near Cottage Grove, Washington County, Minnesota. Dalrymple had graduated from Yale Law School and had come to Minnesota in 1856 to practice law. He invested in a 3,000 acre farm which he farmed very successfully until 1874. He subsequently lost his farming profits by speculating in the grain trade. General George Cass had come to know Dalrymple during his "wheat king" days as a good farmer who used the most advanced farming techniques. In 1875, Oliver Dalrymple examined the land and became convinced of its value for wheat growing. Under Dalrymple's contract with Cass, the investors were to furnish the stock, implements, and seed, with which to cultivate the land, and were to receive in return seven per cent on the amount invested and Dalrymple had the option of paying back the principal and interest, at which time he was to be granted one third of the land, an option which he exercised. In 1875, Dalrymple borrowed from his brother, William Dalrymple, in Pennsylvania $2,000 to buy 1,280 acres, broke the prairie sod on the 1,280 acres, and his first harvest, in 1876, yielded 32,000 bushels of the choicest wheat, or an average of a little more than twenty-three bushels per acre. In 1876, Dalrymple purchased a complete telephone system for his farm divisions from Alexander Graham Bell and found that by the aid of the telephone he could plant and harvest thirty thousand acres of wheat in a single season. The contract with Cass and Cheney enabled Dalrymple to expand his holdings to about 100,00 acres in the late 1890's. As soon as the results of Dalrymple's bonanza farm experiment became known, investors began seeking the depreciated railroad bonds and exchanging them for land, and labor flocked from adjoining states to purchase available government land. Dalrymple, who bought land for prices ranging from $.40 to $5 per acre from 1876 to 1879 found his land worth $20-$25 per acre by 1884. Dalrymple ordered hundreds of new twine binders from Cyrus McCormick, sight unseen, in 1878. Also in 1878, President Rutherford B. Hayes visited the bonanza farm of Oliver Dalrymple near Casselton, Dakota Territory. After the dissolution of the Cass-Dalrymple partnership in 1896, the Dalrymples divided their land into ten units. The Dalrymple farm yielded as much as 600,000 bushels of wheat per year and required 600 men at seed time and 800 men at harvest, 200 plows, 200 self-binding reapers, 30 steam threshers, 400 teams of horses or mules, and several managers for each of the 2,500-acre tracts included in the property. With the success of the first Bonanza Farm by Oliver Dalrymple, word spread quickly and other bonanza farms began to pop up across the Red River Valley. In 1881, Dalrymple organized the driving of 100 mule-drawn grain tanks to Duluth to prove he was not a slave to railroad rates. Oliver Dalrymple insisted that only Norwegians be hired for his bonanza farms to encourage friendly relationships among his hired men and because he liked the Norwegian sense of industry. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Oliver Dalrymple (1830-1908,) the husband of Mary Steward Dalrymple, who was born in Pennsylvania to parents who were born in the United States and who died of gastitus and heart failure, was buried in St. Paul's Oakland Cemetery in 1908, but was removed in 1909. After Oliver Dalrymple died, his sons, William Dalrymple and John S. Dalrymple, continued to operate the farm until 1917, when they concluded that the interest on the proceeds of selling the farm would be greater than the profits from operating the farm and began to sell parcels of the farm. The farm depression of the 1920's, however, resulted in many repossessions of the land that was sold and forced the Dalrymples back into farming. In 1955, John S. Dalrymple still owned about 25,000 acres. Oliver Dalrymple was the son of Clark Dalrymple (1795-1869) and Elizabeth Schoff Dalrymple ( -1833), who were married in 1816 in Brokenstraw, New York, and who had eight children. Oliver Dalrymple was born in Sugar Grove, Warren County, Pennsylvania, and married Mary E. Steward/Stewart/Stuart (1851-1918) in 1871. Oliver Dalrymple became the first bonanza farmer in pioneer Dakota Territory when directors of the Northern Pacific Railway chose him to manage the first farm factory in 1875, after having been left penniless by the Panic of 1873. Twelve years later, he was managing nearly 100,000 acres of farmland utilizing professional management, innovative large-scale machinery, and operating in divisions of 2,500 acres. In 1876, he purchased a complete telephone system for his farm divisions from Alexander Graham Bell. He ordered hundreds of new twine binders from Cyrus McCormick sight unseen in 1878. In 1881, he organized the driving of 100 mule-drawn grain tanks to Duluth to prove he was not a slave of railroad rates. The best known of the bonanza farmers, Oliver Dalrymple died at Casselton, North Dakota. Alton R. Dalrymple, who managed his uncle Oliver Dalrymple's 40,000 acre farm and his steamboard and grain elevators, came to Minnesota from Pennsylvania in 1877, owned a large farm in the Red River Valley, and lived in St. Paul after 1886. William Dalrymple, a Minneapolis grain dealer, was a son of Oliver Dalrymple. North Dakota Lieutenant Governor (2004) Jack Dalrymple, from Casselton, Cass County, North Dakota, is Oliver Dalrymple's great grandson, and earned his bachelor of arts degree in American Studies at Yale University in 1970 with a senior thesis entitled "Oliver Dalrymple and His Bonanza: An Essay on a Western Entrepreneur and the Operation of a Wheat Farm." John Stewart Dalrymple was the author of the privately published book Oliver Dalrymple: The Story of a Bonanza Farmer, Minneapolis, 1960. The two Dalrymple burial plots at Oakland Cemetery include the graves of Alton Ruben Dalrymple (1853-1901,) Josephine Russell Dalrymple (1885-1901,) Mella Russell Dalrymple (1861-1906,) Oliver Dalrymple (1830-1908,) Mary Stuart Dalrymple (1846-1920,) William Dalrymple (1872-1929,) Emily Dalrymple (1880-1956,) Amela Dalrymple ( -1956,) Evelyn Dalrymple (1922-1986,) and William Dalrymple (1905-1975.) Bartlett Presley (1821/1823-1883) was born in Offerberg, Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1829 with his family, was raised in St. Louis, Missouri, married Mary E. __?__ (1824-1881) in Quincy, Illinois, in 1843, moved to Galena, Illinois, in 1849, settled in St. Paul in 1849, was engaged in the mercantile business, initially selling cigars and confectionary, eventually was in the wholesale fruit and grocery business, was a member of the St. Paul Common Council, was the chief engineer of the St. Paul Fire Department, purchased the first steam fire engine in St. Paul, was a partner with Robert A. Kemp in B. Presley & Company in 1879, was a member of the board of directors of the Minnesota Savings Association in 1881, subsequently married Mrs. Mary Ann Wingfield, the daughter of Captain John Martin, was a member of the St. Paul's Episcopal Church, was a member of the Knights Templar, died of blood poisoning in St. Paul, and was buried at Oakland Cemetery. Bartlett Presley's sister, Mary Josephine Presley Larpenteur (1830- ,) married Auguste Larpenteur, a St. Paul merchant, in 1845. The Minnesota Club was first housed in the former mansion of Bartlett Presley at 99 Eighth Street. John S. Robertson ( -1947) died in Olmsted County, Minnesota. John S. Dalrymple (1873-1958) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stewart, and died in Hennepin County. John S. Dalrymple (1914-1971) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Barber, and died in Hennepin County. William F. Dalrymple ( -1929,) Oliver C. Dalrymple ( -1930,) and Jacob H. Sanders ( -1931) all died in Hennepin County. Emily Noyes Dalrymple (1880-1956) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Haskell, and died in Hennepin County. William Ferguson Dalrymple (1905-1975) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Noyes, and died in Hennepin County. Mary Stewart Dalrymple ( -1920) and Louis J. Foussard ( -1948) both died in Ramsey County. Maria F. Foussard (1883-1956) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Plante, and died in Ramsey County. Raymond Christian Albrecht (1900-1995) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Becker, and died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Pierrette J. Albrecht and Raymond E. Albrecht. Pierrette Albrecht and Raymond Albrecht were members of the Cathedral of St. Paul parish in 2008.

266 Summit Avenue: Driscoll/Weyerhaeuser House; Built between 1884 and 1885; Queen Anne/Richardsonian Romanesque in style; William H. Willcox (1832-1929,) architect (Mould & McNicol, architects, according to the National Register of Historic Places.) The structure is a two story, 8218 square foot, 21 room, eleven bedroom, four bathroom, brick house, which was last sold in 1999 for a sale price of $800,000. The two-and-a-half story family residence is replete with marble floors and fireplaces, gilding and silver leaf, and a soaring two-story entranceway that includes a sweeping hardwood staircase and wrought-iron banister. The house exemplifies the popular style of the day, with its red brick exterior, the use of many different construction materials, a gabled roof, and an open living room. The house has high pitched gables, a three story tower, multiple dormers, and fine stone detailing. The original floor plan included no hallways, but instead, one room led directly to the next, which was a design typical of the Victorian period during which the home was built. Initially, the front entry included a porch that extended West along the house, the tower had stained glass windows, and a clock was built into the left facade of the house. The car port on the West side of the house and a sun porch on the rear of the house were recent additions. The house was constructed for Frederick Driscoll, who was the treasurer and general manager of the St. Paul Pioneer Press Company, and cost $25,000 to build. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The lot previously was the site of a house built in 1859 by a prominent lawyer, Henry Masterson. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Frederick Driscoll resided at this address from 1885 to 1892, that Frederick Weyerhaeuser resided at this address from 1893 to 1914, that Rudolph Weyerhaeuser resided at this address from 1914 to 1952, and that the building was the Epiphany House of Prayer in 1970. From 1887 to the 1940's, the house was owned by the Driscolls and the Weyerhaeusers. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Fred Driscoll, John N. Jackson, and Walter Driscoll resided at this address. The 1889 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Fred Driscoll, Sr., Mr. and Mrs. Fred Driscoll, Jr., and Walter J. Driscoll resided at this address. The 1891 and 1893 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. Fred Driscoll and Walter J. Driscoll resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. Weyerhaeuser and F. E. Weyerhaeuser resided at this address. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Margaret (Mrs. J. R.) Jewett, a member of the church since 1892, resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. R. M. Weyerhaeuser resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. R. M. Weyerhaeuser and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that R. M. Weyerhaeuser, the vice president of the F. Weyerhaeuser Company, and his wife, Louise Weyerhaeuser, resided at this address. In 1934, Rudolph Weyerhaeuser and Louise Lindeke Weyerhaeuser resided at this address. Subsequent owners of the house have been the Indianhead Council of the Boy Scouts of America and the Epiphany House of Prayer. In 1984, the home was purchased by 266 Associates and was renovated for $2 million as a conference center, leaving restored common areas, eleven bedrooms, and fifteen bathrooms and some aspects of the house's original floor plan changed, with rooms divided and hallways created to facilitate its use as a conference center. The Driscoll Center went bankrupt and a bank owned the house for more than a decade. Henry F. Masterson (1824- ) was born in New York, studied law, came to St. Paul in 1849 with Orlando Simons, initially was a carpenter, entered a saw mill at St. Anthony Falls, Minnesota, subsequently opened the law office of Masterson & Simons, and died after being struck by a railroad engine. Frederick Driscoll (1834-1907,) the son of Arthur Brown Driscoll and Helen Evelyn Gotzian Driscoll, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, was educated at the Groton Academy, moved to Clinton, Iowa, in 1856, subsequently moved to Minnesota in 1857/1858, then was employed in Belle Plaine, Scott county, as bookkeeper for the Belle Plaine Land Company, married Ann L. Brown ( -1880,) the daughter of J. B. Brown, in Belle Plaine, Minnesota, in 1858, resided in Sand Creek, Minnesota, in 1860, was a Republican member of the Minnesota House of Representatives representing Scott County (District 18) in 1860, was the Secretary of the Minnesota Senate in 1862, served in the quartermaster department at Fort Ripley, Minnesota, during the 1862 Dakota Uprising, moved to St. Paul in 1862, was the business manager of the St. Paul Pioneer Press for 30 years, was the chairman of the Republican State Central Committee in Minnesota from 1867 until 1870, was assistant U. S. Postmaster in St. Paul from 1870 until 1875, was a member of the board of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce, was a leader in the economic development of the City of North St. Paul, Minnesota, married Lucy Norris Styles in 1882, retired from the St. Paul Pioneer Press in 1899, was a member of the Hous of Hope Presbyterian Church, was a Mason, and died in Chicago. While travelling on the Lake Michigan steamboat, "Niagara," in 1857, the boat caught fire and burned near Green Bay, Wisconsin, many of his fellow passengers were drowned, and in attempting to assist another passenger, Mr. Driscoll was struck by a floating spar and was permanently blinded in his left eye. When the Belle Plaine Land Company faltered financially, Daniel Wesley Ingersoll of St. Paul, a leading merchant, was made the assignee, Driscoll became his agent, and among the remaining assets was a weekly newspaper, the Inquirer, which suspended publication in 1861. At the suggestion of D. W. Ingersoll, Driscoll accepted the newspaper plant in payment of arrearages due for his services, although he was not a practical printer. In 1862, he moved to St. Paul and established the Daily Union, with Harlan P. Hall as his city reporter. Mr. Driscoll resigned from the management of the Pioneer Press when the newspaper was sold in 1889. The 1863 Legislature elected Driscoll, a supporter of Congressman Cyrus Aldrich of Minneapolis as a candidate for a U. S. Senate seat to succeed Henry M. Rice, and the Daily Union as the State Printer, rather than Joseph A. Wheelock, a supporter of Governor Alexander Ramsey of St. Paul for the U. S. Senate seat, and the Pioneer Press, for $20,000 annually, but shortly thereafter, the Pioneer Press, owned by William R. Marshall and Newton Bradley, and with Joseph A. Wheelock as editor, and the Daily Union merged. Newton Bradley and William R. Marshall retired and Frederick Driscoll, as the business manager, and Joseph A. Wheelock, as the editor, began a partnership that continued until 1899. From 1867 to 1870, Driscoll was the Chairman of the Republican State Central Committee. In 1870, Joseph A. Wheelock was appointed Postmaster of St. Paul by President Grant and Wheelock made Mr. Driscoll the assistant postmaster and Patrick O'Brien the deputy postmaster. This position ended when Senator Ramsey's second term expired in 1875, in favor of Dr. David Day, the brother-in-law of Senator S. J. R. McMillan, former chief justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court, as the new postmaster of St. Paul. The Pioneer and the Press consolidated in 1875 under the management of Wheelock and Driscoll. In 1876, the Pioneer Press acquired the Morning Tribune and the Evening Mail, at Minneapolis, suspended their publication, and for a time held a monopoly of the daily newspaper field of the Twin Cities, except for the St. Paul Evening Dispatch. In 1879, Frederick Driscoll was the secretary and treasurer of the Pioneer Press Company, loacted at 54 East Third Street, and resided at 28 St. Peter Street, where Frederick Driscoll, Jr., a clerk employed by the Pioneer Press Company, boarded at 28 St. Peter Street. Ann Brown Driscoll ( -1880) died leaving three sons. In 1882, Driscoll was married in New York City to Mrs. Lucy Norris Styles of St. Paul. On Summit Avenue, Driscoll built one of the most sumptuous of the avenue's stately homes. He was one of the founders of the Associated Press, the universal news-gathering agency of the country. In 1881, he became one of its directors, and for ten years served on the Executive Committee of three, which governed its affairs. He was also a member of the Executive Committee of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, embracing the dailies of all the principal cities. In 1891, he was chosen chairman of a special committee of this body to examine the merits and possibilities of type-setting machines, then regarded with suspicion by publishers and with open hostility by printers. Mr. Driscoll's engagements as Commissioner of Arbitration required the establishment of his headquarters in Chicago, and he moved from St. Paul to Chicago in 1900. Finally, in 1907, Frederick Driscoll felt unequal to further service as Commissioner, and tendered his resignation to the Arbitration Board. Frederick Driscoll also was a member of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church. Driscoll's funeral services were conducted by Dr. Henry C. Swearingen, pastor of the House of Hope Church, and the pallbearers were W. J. Dean, E. L. Shepley, Webster Wheelock, Conde Hamlin, J. D. Armstrong, and Dr. Archibald McLaren. Driscoll was survived by his sons, Frederick Driscoll, Jr., Arthur B. Driscoll, and Walter J. Driscoll, his daughter, Mrs. Robert H. Kirk, and his step-son, John N. Jackson. The Irish name Driscoll is derived from the native Gaelic "O'hEidersceoil Sept," taken from a Gaelic word meaning "intermediary." Driscoll's mother was the daughter of Conrad Gotzian, a prominent St. Paul businessman. Frederick Driscoll married Ann/Anne L. Brown, a daughter of Hon. J. B. Brown, a Lieutenant Colonel of the 113th New York Infantry Volunteers, in 1859 at Belle Plaine, Minnesota, and the couple had three sons, Frederick Driscoll, Jr., Arthur B. Driscoll, and Walter J. Driscoll. Following the death of Anne Brown Driscoll in 1880, Frederick Driscoll married Lucy Norris Stiles in 1882. Driscoll moved to Chicago in 1899 and in 1900, J. B. Bender resided in the house. Subsequently, the house was sold to Frederick Weyerhaeuser (1834-1914). Frederick Weyerhaeuser, born in 1834 in Niedersaulheim, Rhein-Hesse, Germany, the son of John Weyerhaeuser ( -1846) and Margertha Weyerhaeuser, came to America in 1852 as a penniless youth, and went on to become known as the Timber King. After moving to Rock Island, Illinois, and working at a railroad and at a lumber yard, and after the Panic of 1857, Weyerhaeuser was able to acquire the lumber yard and to expand his business. In the year 1864, Weyerhaeuser began to buy up pine tracts in Wisconsin, after which he had all stages the lumber business under his control. He acquired still more land in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. In 1891, he moved to St. Paul, where he became a friend and a neighbor of James J. Hill, the operator of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Hill had acquired millions of acres of the best timber forests cheaply from the government for his railroad, but knew nothing about the lumber business, and sold more than three million acres of forests to Weyerhaeuser at bargain rates, contributing much to the wealth of Weyerhaeuser's company. At the turn of the century, Weyerhaeuser owned more timberland than other American. Sarah Weyerhaeuser (1839-1911) was the wife of Frederick Weyerhaeuser. Early partners of Frederick Weyerhaeuser were F. C. Denkmann ( -1929,) W. B. Driscoll, Orrin H. Ingram, Peter Musser, J. R. Jewett, George F. Jewett, Norton Clapp (1906-1995,) William Laird, and Matthew Norton. The Northwest Paper Company, which was acquired by Potlatch Forests Inc. in 1964 and which was acquired by the South African-based SAPPI Limited, originally known as the South African Pulp and Paper Industries Limited, in 2002, was started with the efforts of Charles A. Weyerhaeuser, Rudolph Weyerhaeuser, C. I. McNair, and R. D. Musser. Henry F. Masterson (1824- ) was a lawyer from Elmira, New York, and partnered with Orlando Simons (1824- ) to form the St. Paul law firm of Masterson & Simons in 1849, which continued in existence until 1875, as the oldest law firm in the state, when Simons was appointed Associate Judge of the Common Pleas Court of Ramsey County. Henry F. Masterson was the lawyer for the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad in 1862. Daniel Wesley Ingersoll, Sr., (1812-1894) was initially employed in the Brooklyn, New York, store of John T. Potwer, moved with Potwer to Burlington, Vermont, was put in charge of the business at age 19, became a partner at age 21, and the firm John S. Powter & Co. became D. W. Ingersoll & Co., moved to New York in 1836 and engaged in the wholesale dry goods trade, moved to St. Paul in 1857, was subsequently a member of the St. Paul school board, and was appointed a member and the president of the State Reform School Board in 1867. Daniel Wesley Ingersoll, Sr., married Harriet Crane Smith (1817-1857,) and the couple had ten children: Julia Smith Ingersoll (Mrs. Thaddeus Crane) Field (1837 TarryTown, New York-1910 Altadena, California)(Husband: Thaddeus Crane Field (1836-1906),) Harriet Ingersoll I (1839 TarryTown, New York -1840 Brooklyn, New York,) Harriet Ingersoll II (1841- )(Husband: William Sherman Potts (1835-1868),) Daniel Wesley Ingersoll, Jr. (1843 Brooklyn, New York -1869 Saint Paul, Minnesota,) Caroline Theda Ingersoll (1845 Brooklyn, New York -1858,) Mary Elizabeth Ingersoll (1846- 1869)(Husband: William P. Southworth,) Henreitta Shelton Ingersoll (1849 Brooklyn, New York -1870 Saint Paul, Minnesota)(Husband: William Corliss), Anna Josephine Ingersoll (1852 Brooklyn, Kings County, New York -1940,) George Edmund Ingersoll (1854-1924)(Wife: Jane Frances MacLaren Ingersoll (1861-1935,)) and Frederick Gerald Ingersoll (1855-1941) (Wife: Mary Katinka Phelps Ingersoll (1859- .)) Daniel Wesley Ingersoll, Sr., moved to Minnesota in 1857 on account of his health, subsequently married Marian Meigs Ward (1831-1909,) of Rochester, New York, his former housekeeper, in 1859, and the couple had six children: Truman Ward Ingersoll (1862-1923) (Wife: Bessie Cramer Hess (1869-1937),) Henry Gilbert Ingersoll (1863- ) (Wife: Mary C. Packer,) Isabel Dwight Ingersoll (1864- )(Husband: Hanford Nichols/Nicholas Lockwood (1859-1920,)) Marian Ward Ingersoll (1868-1892)(Husband: William Warren Case (1857- ,)) Daniel Winthrop Ingersoll (1870-1935)(Wife: Emma Ripley Hess (1878- ),) and Helen Elsie Ingersoll (1872- .) Anna Josephine Ingersoll was a member of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution as a descendant of Captain Elisha Hinman, of Connecticut, the captain of the Cabot and later the captain of the Alfred, succeeding John Paul Jones, and ultimately the captain of the Hancock. Daniel Wesley Ingersoll (1812-1894) died at Tallapoosa, Georgia, and was buried at St. Paul. Marian Meigs Ward Ingersoll ( -1909) died in Pasadena, California. Daniel Wesley Ingersoll, Jr., was a lawyer and reportedly served during the Civil War, although apparently not in a Minnesota regiment. Rudolph Michael Weyerhaeuser (1868-1946) was one of seven children and the third of four sons of Friederich Weyerhaeuser and Sarah/Sara Elizabeth/Elizabeth Sarah Bloedel Weyerhaeuser (1839- ,) and graduated from Yale University. Louise Bertha Lindeke Weyerhaeuser (1870-1952) graduated from Vassar College. Rudolph Weyerhaeuser and Louise Lindeke Weyerhaeuser, who married in 1896, were members of the Yale Club, the Somerset Club, the Minikahda Country Club, the St. Paul Athletic Club, the Century Club, and the Women's City Club of St. Paul in 1934. Louise Bertha Lindeke Weyerhaeuser (1870-1952) was the daughter of St. Paul dry goods wholesaler Albert H. Lindeke and Louisa Lindeke and married Rudolph "Rud" M. Weyerhaeuser (1868-1946), a son of St. Paul lumber magnate Frederick Weyerhaeuser, in 1896. Rudolph Weyerhaeuser headed the Northern Lumber Company of Cloquet, Minnesota, from 1896 until 1945, and also held a number of other positions in the Weyerhaeuser family business empire. Rudolph Weyerhaeuser and Louise Weyerhaeuser had one child, Margaret "Peggy/Peg" Louise Weyerhaeuser (1902-1981,) who, in 1926, married Walter Bridges Driscoll. Margaret Louise Weyerhaeuser Driscoll and Walter Bridges Driscoll had two children, Walter John Driscoll and Rudolph Weyerhaeuser Driscoll. Rudolph Weyerhaeuser was a longtime member of the Board of Trustees at Macalester College and Weyerhaeuser Hall at the college was named in his memory in 1952. Margaret Weyerhaeuser Driscoll was a member of the Macalester Board of Trustees from 1946 to 1960 and established the Margaret Weyerhaeuser Driscoll Scholarship at Macalester College in 1960. There is a Rudolph Weyerhaeuser Driscoll Room at the Marc-James Manor in the Highland Heights District of Bellingham, Washington, containing two collections of English Ceramics dating from the mid-18th Century through the mid-19th Century. There is also an endowed Rudolph Weyerhaeuser Driscoll Chair at the Tabor Academy. The Tabor Academy is an independent coeducational college preparatory school for grades 9-12 that is located in Marion, Massachusetts. The other children of Frederick Weyerhaeuser and Sarah Weyerhaeuser were John Philip Weyerhaeuser (1858- ,) Elise Augusta Weyerhaeuser (1860- ,) Margaret Weyerhaeuser (1862- ,) Apollonia Weyerhaeuser (1864- ,) Charles Augustus Weyerhaeuser (1866- ,) Frederick Edward Weyerhaeuser (1872- .) Charles A. Weyerhaeuser married a Duluth, Minnesota, native, Frances Maud Moon in 1898 in Duluth, Minnesota, and the couple had a son, Carl Weyerhaeuser, and a daughter, Sarah Maud Weyerhaeuser (Mrs. Robert) Sivertsen. Frederick King Weyerhaeuser (1895-1978) was the eldest grandson of Frederick Weyerhaeuser (1834-1914,) served in the American military during the last years of World War I, married Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser, directed the Weyerhaeuser Sales Company in the Midwest, and was one of six people who founded the Forest History Society in Minnesota in 1946. The Piasecki Family Foundation formerly was the F. K. and Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser Foundation. Frank Piasecki (1919- ) married the former Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser, a daughter of Frederick King Weyerhaeuser and Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser, in 1958, settled in Haverford, Pennsylvania, founded the PV-Engineering Forum and in 1943 flew the second successful helicopter in America, the PV-2, and developed the first U.S. Navy helicopter, the XHRP-1 "Dog Ship" in 1944. Carl Augustus Weyerhaeuser (1901-1996) also was a grandson of Frederick Weyerhaeuser. Andy Driscoll, associated with CivicMedia/Minnesota, the owner and president of The Driscoll Group, and the executive producer and host of To Tell The Truth on Wednesdays from 11 AM until Noon on KFAI-Fresh Air Radio, is a descendant of Frederick Driscoll. Samuel James Renwick McMillan (1826-1897) was born in Brownsville, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, was the son of Thomas Long McMillan and Jane Gornly McMillan, graduated from Duquesne College, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1846, was a Presbyterian, read the law in the offices of Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War during the Lincoln administration, was admitted to the bar in 1849 and commenced the practice of law in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, moved to St. Paul in 1852, was a judge of the first judicial district from 1858 to 1864, served as a second lieutenant of the Stillwater Frontier Guards during the Indian War of 1862, was a Minnesota Supreme Court associate justice and chief justice from 1864 to 1875, was a U. S. Senator from Minnesota as a Republican from 1875 to 1887, was the western member of the committee appointed for the revision of the Westminster Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian church, married Harriet Butler, and the couple had six children, including Mrs. Kate Beals of St. Paul and Mrs. Frank P. Shepard of St. Paul. Lynn Weyerhaeuser Day (1932-1999) was the daughter of Frederick King Weyerhaeuser and Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser. Margaret Weyerhaeuser Jewett was an aunt of Frederick King Weyerhaeuser and was the wife of James Richard Jewett, a professor of Semetic Languages, who was offered a chair in Semetic Languages at the University of Minnesota in 1895 and moved to St. Paul, but shortly thereafter accepted an offer of a professorship from Harvard University. James Richard Jewett (1862-1943) was born in Westport, Maine, received a PhD. from University of Strasburg in 1891, was a professor of Arabic Languages and Literature and of Oriental History, taught at Brown University, the University of Minnesota, the University of Chicago, and Harvard University, was a Fellow of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, was a member of the American Oriental Society, was a member of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegensis, was a member of the Medieval Academy of America, endowed the Jewett Professorship of Arabic at American University of Beirut, Lebanon, and died in Cambridge, Massachusetts. George Frederick "Fritz" Jewett (1896-1956,) was born in St. Paul, the son of James Richard Jewett and Margaret Weyerhaeuser Jewett and the grandson of George Washington Jewett ( -1879,) a sea captain, and Annie M. Jewett, was an Ensign in the U. S. Naval Reserve Force in 1917, received a bachelor's degree (1919) and a master's degree (1922) from Harvard University, married Mary Pelton Cooper in 1925, was general manager of the Edward Rutledge Timber Company from 1928 until 1931, was Vice President (1935-1946) and President (1946-1949) of Potlatch Forests, Incorporated, the result of the merger of the Clearwater Timber Company, the Edward Rutledge Timber Company, and the Potlatch Lumber Company, was a prominent member of the National Lumber Manufacturer's Association, was a leader of the Association's Committee on Forest Conservation, was President of the North Idaho Conservation Association, was a director of the Northern Pacific Railway Company, was a trustee of the American University in Cairo, Egypt, was an Episcopalian lay reader, was a Republican, was associated with the English Speaking Union, was associated with the Y.W.C.A., was associated with the United Services Organization, was a member of the Harvard Club of New York, and was a member of the New York Yacht Club. In 1900, Friedrich Weyerhäuser founded the company as Weyerhaeuser Timber Company with 15 partners and 900,000 acres of Washington timberland that was purchased from James J. Hill of the Great Northern Railway. In 1929, the company built what was then the world's largest sawmill in Longview, Washington. In 1959, the company eliminated the word "Timber" from its name to better reflect its operations. In 1965, Weyerhaeuser built its first bleached kraft pulp mill in Canada. Weyerhaeuser implemented a "High Yield Forestry Plan" in 1967. Weyerhaeuser consolidated its core businesses in the late 1990's and ended its services in mortgage banking, personal care products, financial services, and information systems consulting. Weyerhaeuser also expanded into South America, Australia, and Asia. In 1999, Weyerhaeuser purchased MacMillan Bloedel Limited, a Canadian forestry company. In 2002, the company acquired Willamette Industries, Inc. of Portland, Oregon. In 2006, Weyerhaeuser spun off its fine paper business to Domtar. Weyerhaeuser is one of the largest pulp and paper companies in the world, is the world's largest private owner of softwood timberland, and is the second largest owner of timberland in the United States, behind International Paper. Weyerhaeuser operates in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, China, Mexico, Ireland, France, and Uruguay. Frederick Weyerhaeuser was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1900 until 1914, John P. Weyerhaeuser was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1914 until 1928, F. S. Bell was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1928 until 1934, F. E. Weyerhaeuser was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1934 until 1945, H. H. Irvine was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1946 until 1947, J. P. Weyerhaeuser, Jr., was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1947 until 1956, F. K. Weyerhaeuser was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1956 until 1960, Norton Clapp was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1960 until 1966, George H. Weyerhaeuser was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1966 until 1988, John W. "Jack" Creighton, Jr., was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1988 until 1997, Steven R. Rogel was the Weyerhaeuser president from 1997 until 2007, and Daniel S. Fulton has been the Weyerhaeuser president since 2008. Henry M. Rice ( -1907,) Frank Parsons Shepard ( -1912,) Ethen Leonard Shepley ( -1917,) Truman Ward Ingersoll ( -1922,) Albert H. Lindeke ( -1925,) Webster Wheelock ( -1931,) John D. Armstrong ( -1932,) Arthur B. Driscoll ( -1938,) James Douglas Armstrong ( -1939,) Louisa Lindeke ( -1940,) Frederick G. Ingersoll ( -1941,) John N. Jackson ( -1945,) Frederick E. Weyerhaeuser ( -1945,) Rudolph M. Weyerhaeuser ( -1946,) Louise Lindeke Weyerhaeuser ( -1952,) and Walter J. Driscoll ( -1954) all died in Ramsey County. Frederick Weyerhaeuser (1906-1961) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Davis, and died in Ramsey County. Frederick King Weyerhaeuser (1895-1978) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Anderson, and died in Ramsey County. Harriet D. Weyerhaeuser (1876-1960) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser (1895-1983) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Brady, and died in Ramsey County. Joseph A. Wheelock (1830-1905) was born in Canada and died in Ramsey County. John B. Bender ( -1960) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Wagner, and died in Ramsey County. Margaret B. Driscoll (1881-1970) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Broderick, and died in Ramsey County. Harriet D. Weyerhaeuser (1876-1960) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Fred P. Driscoll (1905-1984) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stratman, and died in Hennepin County. William J. Dean ( -1910) died in Hennepin County. David Day (1825- ) was born in Burkes Garden, Virginia, moved to the Wisconsin Territory in 1846, engaged in mining for three years, studied medicine, graduated from the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1849, came to St. Paul in 1849, practiced medicine until 1854, was the Register of Deeds of Ramsey County from 1849 until 1851, entered the drug business in 1854, temporarily lived in Long Prairie, Minnesota, was a member of the Territorial House of Representatives representing Benton County, Minnesota, and Cass County, Minnesota (District 5,) from 1852 until 1853, was the Speaker of the Territorial House of Representatives in 1853, retired from the drug business in 1866, was appointed physician to the Winnebago Indians, was State Prison Inspector in 1871, was a seed-wheat commissioner in 1874, was Commissioner of the State Fisheries in 1874, was appointed Postmaster of St. Paul in 1875, authored the plan of the first St. Paul Court House, was a member of the board of commissioners of the new Ramsey County Court House, planned the Mortuary Chapel in Oakland Cemetery, owned the St. James Hotel, located on the corner of Third Street and Cedar Street, resided on Dayton Avenue, and died in St. Paul. David Day ( -1918) and Henry K. Masterson ( -1937) both died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Henry M. Rice ( -1913) died in Nicollet County, Minnesota. Henry C. Swearingen (1952) died in Anoka County, Minnesota. The current owners of record of the property are Kathleen "Kaye" Prokosh and Ronald "Ron" Prokosh. Ron Prokosch is a district manager for Farmers Insurance Group.

269 Summit Avenue: Built in 1879. The building is a two story, 3828 square foot, six room, three bedroom, two bathroom, frame house, with a three level carriage house converted in 2001 to a second living unit. The last sale of the property was in 1999 and the property sold for $220,000. The current owner of record of the property is Christopher R. Hansen.

271 Summit Avenue: Joshua H. Sanders House, Built in 1882 (1879 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Victorian in style. The structure is a 6256 square foot, 13 room, eight bedroom, four bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick condominium. Joshua Sanders was the president of the Northwestern Lime Company. The house was built as a 1 1/2 story for $5,000. A $7,000 addition was built in 1887 by Emerson W. Peet, a subsequent owner. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Joshua Sanders resided at this address from 1883 to 1886 and that Emerson W. Peet resided at this address from 1887 to 1916. The 1885 city directory indicates that Joshua H. Sanders, a partner with Henry D. Mathews, dealers in lime, plaster, cement, and storage, located 170 East Third Street, resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Peet, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Sanders, and W. F. Peet all resided at this address. The 1889 and 1891 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Peet and W. F. Peet all resided at this address. The 1893 and 1895 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Peet resided at this address. The 1895 state census indicates that the residents at this address included Emerson W. Peet (1835- ,) who was employed in insurance and was the head of household, who was born in Ohio, his wife, Amelia K. Peet (1845- ,) who was born in New York, his son, William F. Peet (1864- ,) who was employed in insurance and was born in Wisconsin, and his daughter-in-law, Gertrude L. Peet (1870- ,) who was born in Missouri, his granddaughter, Dorothy Ann Peet (1893- ,) who was born in Minnesota, another granddaughter, Gladys Peet (1894- ,) who was born in Minnesota, a coachman, Thomas Hanney (1870- ,) who was born in Norway, a servant, Annie Hurley (1860,) who was born in Canada, a cook, Dora English (1869- ,) who was born in Ireland, a maid, Ida Olsen (1876- ,) who was born in Sweden, and a laundress, Mary Wilson (1860- ,) who was born in England. The 1900 federal census indicates that the residents at this address included Emerson Peet (1834- ,) involved in banking and insurance and the head of household, who was born in Ohio to a father who was born in Massachusetts and a mother who was born in Connecticut, his wife, Amelia K. Peet (1837- ,) who was born in New York to parents who were born in New York, and two servants, Mary Moran (1875- ,) who was born in Ireland to parents who were also born in Ireland and Minnie Rosenberg (1870- ,) who was born in Germany to parents who were also born in Germany. The 1887, 1890 and 1892 city directories indicate that E. W. Peet and W. F. Peet resided at this address. The 1891 city directory indicates that Emerson W. Peet, a partner with William T. Peet and Charles E. Lawton in E. W. Peet & Company, managers of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York agency, located at the Globe Building, and partner with William F. Peet in E. W. Peet & Son, city mortgages and investment bonds brokers, also located at the Globe Building, resided at this address and that William F. Peet boarded at this address. The 1893 and 1894 city directories indicate that Emerson W. Peet, a partner with William F. Peet in E. W. Peet & Son, city mortgages and investment bonds, and manager with William F. Peet of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York of Minnesota agency, both located at the Manhattan Building, resided at this address and that William F. Peet resided 290 Laurel Avenue. The 1894 city directory indicates that E. W. Peet resided at this address and that W. F. Peet resided at 471 Ashland Avenue. The 1895 city directory indicates that Emerson W. Peet, a partner with William F. Peet in E. W. Peet & Son, city mortgages and investment bonds, and manager with William F. Peet of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York of Minnesota agency, both located at the Manhattan Building, resided at this address and that William F. Peet boarded at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Emerson William Peet (1835-1902,) who was born in Ohio to parents who were born in the United States, who was married, and who died of chronic gastritis, resided at this address in 1902. The 1903, 1904 and 1905 city directories indicate that Mrs. Emerson W. Peet resided at this address, that the E. W. Peet & Company, a city mortgage and investment bond broker, was located at the Manhattan Building with Wiliiam F. Peet, proprietor, and that William F. Peet, the manager of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York for Minnesota agency located at the Manhattan Building, resided at 237 Dayton Avenue. The 1906, 1907, and 1908 city directories indicate that Mrs. Emerson W. Peet resided at this address, that the E. W. Peet & Company, a city mortgage and investment bond broker, was located at the Manhattan Building with Wiliiam F. Peet, proprietor, and that William F. Peet, the manager of the Mutual Life Insurance Comapny of New York for Minnesota agency located at the Manhattan Building, resided at 110 Virginia Avenue. The 1910, 1911, and 1915 city directories indicate that Amelia B. Peet, the widow of Emerson W. Peet, resided at this address, that the E. W. Peet & Company, a mortgage and investment broker, was located at the Capital Bank Building with William F. Peet, proprietor, and that William F. Peet, the manager of the Mutual Life Insurance Comapny of New York for Minnesota agency located at the Capital Bank Building, resided at 110 Virginia Avenue. In 1914, Mrs. Emerson W. Peet and Mrs. Alice Duvall both resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Amelia Eastman Peet (1840-1916,) the widowed mother of William F. Peet, who was born in New York and who died of La Grippe, resided at this address in 1916. R. B. Shepard owned the house from 1917 to 1928. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Roger B. Shepard resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that E. W. Peet & Son, mortgage brokers, William F. Peet, proprietor, was located at the Pioneer Building and that William F. Peet, manager of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York agency located at the Pioneer Building, resided at 110 Virginia Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Shepard resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Thomas L. Daniels resided at this address, that William F. Peet officed at the Minnesota Building, and that William F. Peet and Caroline S. Peet resided at 110 Virginia Avenue. The 1875 city directory indicates that J. H. Sanders, a partner with F. W. Heydenstaedt in Heydenstaedt & Sanders, dealers in lime, plaster and cement, located 71-72 Levee, resided at 128 Eighth Street. Amelia K. Peet was the wife of Emerson William Peet. Emerson William Peet (1834-1902) was associated with the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce. Emerson W. Peet was the brother of Stephen D. Peet, Jr., of the first class to graduate from Beloit College, in 1851, and from Andover Theological Seminary, in 1854, was the son of the Rev. Stephen Peet, chief among the founders of Beloit College, and Martha Denison Sherman Peet, and was a member of the Beloit College class of 1856. The siblings of Emerson W. Peet were half-sister Rebecca Austin Sherman (1815-1888), Martha Peet (1827- ,) Harriet Peet ((1829- )(Husband: H. H. Gray,)) Stephen Denison Peet ((1830-1914)(First Wife: Rachel Moseley (1834-1863) and Second Wife: Olive Cutler,)) and Joseph Burr Peet ((1832- )(Wife: Louise Smith.)) Emerson William Peet (1834-1902,) a descendant of John Peet of Duffield Parish, Derbyshire, England, was born in Evelt/Euclid (Cleveland,) Ohio, attended Beloit College from 1852 to 1853/1854, graduated from Amherst College in 1856, taught school in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Oshkosh, Wisconsin, from 1858 to 1860, was a land surveyor and studied law in Texas from 1860 until 1864, was in the life insurance business in New York, New York, and in Philadelphia, was an actuary employed by National Life Insurance Company of the U.S.A., located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a Jay Cooke enterprise, from 1868 until 1872, was vice president and actuary, and president of the National Life Insurance Company from 1872 until 1879, was an actuary in the Insurance Department of the State of Pennsylvania from 1879 to 1885, moved to St. Paul in 1885, was the general agent and manager of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, had other extensive business interests and investments, was a trustee of Amherst College from 1889 to 1892, was the treasurer of the Associated Charities of St. Paul, was a member and subsequently the president of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce, was a member of the St. Paul Library Board, was a junior warden of the Episcopal Church of St. John the Evangelist, was the treasurer of the Episcopal Diocese of Minnesota, was a delegate in 1886 to the Indianapolis Monetary Conference, and was a director of the St. Paul & Duluth Railway. Emerson W. Peet was not eligible for reelection to the Amherst College board to fill the vacancy caused by the expiration of his term of office, as the requirement of the charter did not permit another layman on the board. Emerson William Peet was the earliest known actuary to graduate from Amherst College according to the Society of Actuaries. E. W. Peet built a summer cottage on exclusive Manitou Island in White Bear Lake, Minnesota, was a neighbor of the J. B. Tarbox summer cottage, and had the J. B. Tarbox summer cottage moved a short distance to its present location. Emerson W. Peet was married twice, first in 1862 to Emma J. Fellows ( -1866,) the daughter of Timothy H. Fellows, of Genoa Junction, Wisconsin/Geneva, Illinois, and second to Aurelia/Amelia K. Eastman, the daughter of A. K. Eastman, of Rochester, New York. Emma J. Fellows (1840-1866) was the daughter of Timothy E. Fellows and Eliza Ann Duncan Fellows of Genoa, Wisconsin, and married Emerson W. Peet in 1862. Amelia Kilbourn Eastman (1837-1916) was born in Paris, Oneida County, New York, the eldest daughter of Almon Russell Eastman II (1809-1873) and Sophia Wells Kilbourn Eastman (1809-1868,) was a cousin of Governor Eastman of Rochester, New York, moved to Fairfield, Huron County, Ohio, before 1850, and married Emerson Peet in 1874 in Paris, Oneida County, New York. Emerson W. Peet, the son of Stephen Peet and Margaret Denison Peet, the grandson of Elijah Peet and Betsy Leavenworth Peet, and the great grandson of Amos Denison and Hannah Williams Denison, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfathers Ebennezer Leavenworth, a Lieutenant in the Connecticut Troops, Amos Denison, an Ensign in the Eighth Connecticut Militia, Joseph Denison, a volunteer in the Connecticut Troops at the Battle of Stonington, William Peet, a Private in the Connecticut Militia, and William Williams, a member of the Connecticut Council of Safety, during the Revolutionary War. Stephen Denison Peet achieved a reputation by his archaeological writings, was secretary of the American anthropological association in 1879, was a member of the American oriental, philological, and antiquarian societies, and of similar organizations in Great Britain, and was the editor of "The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal" from 1879 until 1888. The principal works of Stephen Denison Peet are The Ashtabula Disaster (Chicago, 1879;) History of Ashtabula County, Ohio (Cleveland, 1879;) Ancient Architecture in America (Chicago, 1884;) Picture Writing (1885;) History of Early Missions in Wisconsin (Madison, 1886;) Primitive Symbolism (Chicago, 1887;) and The Effigy Mounds of Wisconsin (1888.) William Fellows Peet (1864-1935) was born in Genoa, Vernon County/Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the son of Emerson W. Peet (1834-1902) and Emma J. Fellows Peet (1840-1866) and the grandson of Steven Peet and Martha Denison Peet, graduated from Yale College in 1885, was a member of E. W. Peet & Son, state managers for the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York and brokers of investment securities from 1890 until 1902, succeeded his father as the departmental manager of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, was engaged in life insurance exclusively after 1902, was treasurer of the St. Paul Associated Charities, was a trustee of the St. Paul Institute of Arts and Sciences, was a trustee of St. Luke's Hospital, was a trustee of the Oakland Cemetery Association, was a director of the Minnesota Church Foundation, was a director of the Provident Loan Society of St. Paul, summered at White Bear Lake, Minnesota, in 1907, was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity in 1910, summered at Paris, France, in 1910, summered at White Bear Lake, Minnesota, in 1911, summered on Manitou Island at White Bear Lake, Minnesota, in 1912, summered in Paris, France, in 1913, summered at Acorn Point on Manitou Island at White Bear Lake, Minnesota, in 1915, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the Town & Country Club, was a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church, resided at 237 Dayton Avenue in 1907, officed at the Manhattan Building in 1907 and in 1912, and officed at the Pioneer Building in 1920. William F. Peet married Gertrude Lamborn (1869-1963) in 1891 and the couple had five children, Dorothy Anne Peet (Mrs. Robert A.) Burns (1892- ,) Gladys Peet (Mrs. Philip J.) Carpenter (1893- ,) Martha Peet (1898-1901,) Emerson William Peet (1902- ,) and Charles Lamborn Peet (1903- ,) and subsequently married Caroline I. Scotten (1888- ) in 1919 and the couple had one child, Caroline Peet (1930- .) Based on an undated letter in the Helen Hunt Jackson collection at Tutt Library at Colorado College, Gertrude Lamborn Peet was a correspondent with the family of Helen Hunt Jackson, likely with William S. Jackson, Helen Hunt Jackson's second husband, and Helen Fiske Banfield Jackson, Helen Hunt Jackson's niece and William S. Jackson's second wife, when the Peets resided at 471 Ashland Avenue. William F. Peet successfully sued the City of East Grand Forks, Minnesota, and prevailed on appeal in Peet v. City of East Grand Forks 122 NW 327 (1909) over the compensation for grading work in the city of East Grand Forks undertaken by Peet under a contract entered into by P. H. Thornton and subsequently assigned to Peet. William F. Peet eventually resided at 110 Virginia Street, a residence that dates to 1857 and is currently owned by Donald M. Moe. In 1924, Emerson Peet resided at 110 Virginia Street. William F. Peet was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, allegedly initiated golf at the club in the early 1890's when he told a Saint Paul newspaper reporter that the club was intending to host the new sport of golf and the rumor was reported, actually started playing golf at the club in 1898, and, in a letter to the president of the club, indicated that he was the sole remaining original member of the club in 1930. William F. Peet appeared in Minnesota Society, Sons of the American Revolution: year book: 1889-1895 by Marion D. Shutter, published in St. Paul, printed by the McGill Printing Company in 1895 and was related through his mother to Colonel John Duncan of Lyme, New Hampshire, who served in the New Hampshire Militia at the battle of Ticonderoga and at the battle of Saratoga in 1776 and 1777. Gladys Peet Carpenter published a poem, "The Crown," in the American Poetry Magazine, Volume 6, published by the American Literary Association in 1919. Charles Lamborn Peet graduated from Yale University and was a member of the Order of Skull and Bones in 1926. The 1917 Catalogue of the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, published by James T. Brown of New York, indicated that Marion Daniel Shutter, an 1876 graduate of the University of Wooster, a graduate of the Baptist Theological Seminary of Chicago, and a graduate of the Canton Theological Seminary, was a Universalist minister and an author, and resided at 2215 Irving Avenue South, Minneapolis. Thomas Leonard Daniels, the son of John W. Daniels, one of the founders of Archer Daniels Midland Company, married Frances Hancock and the couple had a son, John Hancock Daniels (1922-2006,) who became the president and CEO of Archer Daniels Midland Company in 1958. Roger Bulkley Shepard, a descendant of William Brewster of the Mayflower, was a member of Skull and Bones at Yale University in 1908 and was a 1909 graduate of Yale University and Roger Bulkley Shepard, Jr., was a member of Skull and Bones at Yale University in 1935, as was his uncle, Frank P. Shepard, in 1917 and his brother, Blake Shepard, in 1936. Roger Bulkley Shepard, Sr., married Mary Parmelee Reed, the daughter of Lansing P. Reed ( -1938,) a member of Skull and Bones at Yale University in 1904, a director of the Guaranty Trust, and a lawyer with Stetson, Jennings, Russell & Davis (later Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed.) The National Monetary Conference convened in 1897 in Indianapolis, Indiana, to chart the nation's fiscal course into the next century and the conference's main result was the establishment of a congressional committee charged with developing a financial system based on the burgeoning gold standard, settling the free silver issue. Roger Bulkley Shepard (1885-1972) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of McMillan, and died in Washington County, Minnesota. Emerson Peet (1836-1902) died in St. Paul. Amelia Eastman Peet ( -1916,) Gertrude Lamborn Peet ( -1917,) Thomas Leonard Daniels ( -1917,) and William F. Peet ( -1935) all died in Ramsey County. Thomas Leonard Daniels (1892-1977) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Leonard, and died in Ramsey County. Caroline S. Peet (1888-1971) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Bartling, and died in Ramsey County. Charles E. Lawton ( -1915) and Charles Peet ( -1933) both died in Hennepin County. Annie Yrrta Hurley ( -1911) died in Wright County, Minnesota. The current owners of record of the property are Jean E. Schoepfer and Mark T. Schoepfer. The 1903 city directory indicates that Mary Abbetmeyer, the widow of Charles Abbetmeyer, boarded at the former nearby 273 Summit Avenue. [See note for the St. Paul & Duluth Railway.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.]

275 Summit Avenue: Charles A. Schuneman House/Summit Manor; Built in 1889 (1901 according to Sandeen and Larson; 1912 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Late Gothic/Georgian Revival/Medieval Revival in style; Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., architect. The house was built for a cost of $18,000 (Sandeen and Larson.) It is constructed of Mankato stone. The house has a large foyer, a magnificently carved staircase and a parlor with a curved arch. Intricate carvings adorn the foyer and solid oak was used throughout the house. The property consists of two buildings, the house and the carriage house. The house is a two story, 9335 square foot, building and the carriage house is a one story, 1056 square foot, building. The house was divided into a dozen apartments in the 1940's, but it subsequently was restored as a private residence. It now functions as a venue for corporate and social gatherings. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The original house at this address, built by Ansel Oppenheim in 1880 for $9,000, was destroyed by fire in 1895. After 1895, the Oppenheim family resided at the Aberdeen Hotel. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Ansel Oppenheim resided at this address. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Charles Schuneman resided at this address from 1901 to 1939. The 1902 University of Minnesota Alumni Record indicates that Walter Lewis Mayo, a 1901 Law School graduate and a lawyer who officed at the Germania Life Building, resided at this address. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Alene Grosche, a member of the church since 1904, Walter L. Mayo, a member of the church since 1902, and Charles Schuneman and Alice M. (Mrs. Charles) Schuneman, members of the church since 1888, all resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Charles Schuneman, Alf Grosche, and Miss A. S. Grosche all resided at this address. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier’s Bonus Board (#32333) indicate that Alfred S. Grosche (1892- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private First Class in the Flying Cadet Company, who was born in Moberly, Missouri, moved to Minnesota in 1900, had gray eyes, light brown hair, and a medium dark complexion, was 5' 5" tall, was in advertising at induction, was a manager of the mail order and purchasing departments employed by Schuneman & Evans after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his sister, Alene Grosche, at this address. John R. Bradshaw and Alfred S. Grosche were World War I veterans who resided at this address in 1919. The 1920 city directory indicates that Leslie H. Bromley was a chauffeur at this address and resided at 350 Pleasant. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Charles Schuneman, Mr. and Mrs. Alf Grosche, and Miss Alene S. Grosche all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Charles Schuneman and his wife, Alice M. Schuneman, resided at this address. In 1934, Charles Schuneman and Alice Mayo Schuneman resided at this address. In 1911, Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., also designed a porch and a garage for the house, at a cost of $7,000. Ansel Oppenheim (1847-1916) was born in New York City, graduated from the City College of New York, moved to St. Paul in the 1870's, was admitted to the practice of law in Minnesota in 1878, became a member of the H. P. Greve & Company, a real estate firm which purchased the St. Paul City RailRoad, was vice president of the Chicago, St. Paul & Kansas RailRoad, was a director and Vice-President of the Chicago Great Western RailRoad, was the first president of the Union Stockyards of St. Paul, was a financier, was a member of the firm of Oppenheim & Kalman, which built the Metropolitan Opera House in St. Paul, was a member of the Minnesota Board of Equalization, was the chairman of the Ramsey County Democratic Party, was a member of the Central Committee of the Minnesota Democratic Party, was a member of the St. Paul Assembly in 1890, and died at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. In 1885, Ansel Oppenheim was a member of the St. Paul representative to the "Union Fairgrounds" committee, which attempted to resolve a dispute over the location of the Minnesota State Fair, but he stirred up opposition to the Minneapolis fairgrounds plan on the practical grounds of cost, arguing that the owners of the Minnehaha Falls site were demanding too large a purchase price. In 1886, Ansel Oppenheim was the president of the Saint Paul Union Stockyards Company, followed by Mark D. Flower and T. E. Good. In 1909, Ansel Oppenheim was the Vice President of the Chicago Great Western Railway. Julie/Josie Greve (Mrs. Ansel) Oppenheim ( -1915,) the daughter of Herman Greve and Marie Lindeman Greve, was born in Johnston, Pennsylvania, moved with her family to Viroqua, Wisconsin, was educated at Miss Dowling's School in Viroqua, Wisconsin, and St. Clara's Academy and Convent in Benton, Wisconsin, married Ansel Oppenheim in Sparta, Wisconsin, in 1869, studied law with her husband, authored Personal Immortality and Other Papers, published in New York by Charles P. Somerby in 1877, wrote a novel, Evelyn; A Story of the West and Far East, published by Broadway Publishing Company in 1904, was the author of a number of economic and philosophical articles which appeared in the Chicago newspapers, reorganized and served as president of the St. Paul City Free Dispensary, founded and led the Ladies' Auxillary of the Northwest Manufacturers' Association, was Minnesota chair of the George Washington Memorial Association, was a member of the York Club of St. Paul, was a member of the National Arts Club of New York City, was a member of the Town & Country Country Club of St. Paul, resided in her later years at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York, and in London, England, and died in New York City. Ansel Oppenheim and Josie Greve Oppenheim had three children, Herman Oppenheim, Lucius Julius Oppenheim, and Grove/Greve Oppenheim. Herman Oppenheim was a lawyer, was a former assistant corporation counsel for the City of St. Paul, and owner of a farm near Bound Brook, New Jersey. Lucius Julius Oppenheim was a member of the New York Stock Exchange and married Lillian King in 1911. Greve Oppenheim was the youngest son of Ansel Oppenheim and Josie Greve Oppenheim and lived in St. Paul. The Saint Paul Union Stockyards Company was incorporated by Alpheus B. Stickney, president of the Chicago Great Western Railroad, and Constantine W. Benson, the head of C. W. Benson & Company, a St. Paul foreign investment firm, to develop land for the feeding and yarding of livestock en route to slaughterers, as well as providing adjacent lands for the operations of private packing houses and for the offices of livestock commission firms. It operated at a substantial loss until 1897, when Swift & Company purchased the packing plant located within the yards. Swift acquired a half-interest in the stockyards company, which succeeded in paying off its mortgage in 1916. In 1982, the firm was owned by United Stockyards Corporation of Chicago. In 1993, it was doing business as South St. Paul Livestock Market, a subsidiary of United Market Services Company. Charles Schuneman (1850- ,) the son of Charles H. Schuneman and Caroline Husing Schuneman, was born in Hamburg, Germany, received a common school education, married Alice Mayo in Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1887, was a merchant, was in the dry goods businesss in Atchison, Kansas, from 1871 until 1875, as a member of Keith & Schuneman, then was a partner in Schuneman & Singleton, dry goods merchants, in Leavenworth, Kansas, from 1876 until 1878, then was a partner in Flesher & Schuneman, dry goods merchants, from 1878 until 1883, then was a partner in Schuneman & Evans in Leavenworth, Kansas from 1883 until 1988, then was a partner with Bambridge Howard Evans in Schuneman & Evans in St. Paul after 1888, was a member of the board of directors of the Second National Bank, was a Republican, was a Presbyterian, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the Commercial Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, and officed at the corner of Wabasha Street and Sixth Street. Carl T. Schuneman, the son of Charles Schuneman, was a graduate of Yale University in 1908, was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1922, and was the acting Secretary of the Treasury of the United States in 1928. In 1967, the family of Carl T. Schuneman Jr. was interested in preserving as a wildlife refuge a marsh tract of about 100 acres two miles northeast of White Bear Lake, Minnesota, in Washington County, Minnesota, and deeded a substantial part of this area in 1970 to the Agassiz Chapter of the Izaak Walton League of America. Charles Schuneman (1850-1934) was a partner in the retail firm of Schuneman & Evans. Schuneman's Department Store, 401 Wabasha Street & West Sixth Street, existed in some form from 1864 to 1962 and acquired the prior firm of Mannheimer Brothers. It merged with Dayton's Department Store in 1958. Alpheus B. Stickney ( -1916,) Charles Schuneman ( -1934,) and Alice Mayo Schuneman ( -1945) all died in Ramsey County. Leslie H. Bromley (1882-1962) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Arnold, and died in Ramsey County. Alfred Schuneman Grosche (1892-1956) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Schuneman, and died in Ramsey County. Mark Flower (1843-1907) was born in the United States and died in Ramsey County. Thomas E. Good (1882-1967) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Charles Schuneman ( -1933) and Charles Schuneman ( -1944) both died in Hennepin County. Ansel Oppenheim ( -1916) died at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. John Bradshaw ( -1929) died in Dodge County, Minnesota. The current owner of record of the property is the trustee of Judith M. McLaughlin. Summit Manor is a reception/rental event site with full catering managed by Judy McLaughlin. Judith Mclaughlin, a self employed caterer, contributed to the Barack Obama for President campaign in 2007-2008. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Rufus C. Jefferson resided at the former nearby 276 Summit Avenue in 1890. Helen Jefferson ( -1890) was the daughter of Rufus C. Jefferson. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Rufus C. Jefferson resided at the nearby former 276 Summit Avenue from 1884 to 1930 and that Ansel Oppenheim resided at the nearby former 277 Summit Avenue from 1884 to 1894. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Rufus C. Jefferson and G. C. (Mrs. R. C.) Jefferson, members of the church since 1885, resided at the nearby former 276 Summit Avenue. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Rufus C. Jefferson resided at the former nearby 276 Summit Avenue in 1907. The book of Minnesotans: a biographical dictionary of leading living men of Minnesota, edited by Albert Nelson Marquis, indicates that Rufus C. Jefferson resided at the nearby former 276 Summit Avenue in 1907. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Jefferson, their daughter, and R. W. Jefferson all resided at the former nearby 276 Summit Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that R. C. Jefferson and his daughter both resided at the former nearby 276 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Rufus C. Jefferson (1844-1925,) the widowed father of L. C. Jefferson, who was born in New York to parents born in the United States and who died of right hemiplegia, resided at the nearby former 276 Summit Avenue in 1925. Rufus C. Jefferson, a member of the unit, was one of the incorporators of the First New York Dragoons/130th New York Volunteer Infantry/19th New York Cavalry Monument, erected in 1903 in Letchworth Park in the Genesee Valley of Western New York. Rufus C. Jefferson (1843-1925,) the son of Cyrus Jefferson and Eunice Conable Jefferson, was born in Gainesville, New York, attended school in Gainesville, New York, Warsaw, New York, Buffalo, New York, and Geneseo, New York, joined Company A of the First New York Dragoons and served in the Signal Service during the American Civil War, moved to Woodstock, Illinois, after the American Civil War, engaged in the lumber business in Woodstock, Illinois, from 1866 until 1883, served as mayor of Woodstock, Illinois, from 1872 to 1874, moved to St. Paul in 1883, was a lumberman, established the pine lands and lumber merchant firm of Jefferson & Kasson in 1884, was in the wholesale lumber business from 1884 until 1899, was in the retail lumber business after 1899, also was in the farm loan business, the banking business and the trust company business, was a Democrat, was a Presbyterian, served as a director of the Young Men's Christian Association, served as one of the three commissioners of the Million Dollar Fund of the Northwest for the maintenance of disabled and retired ministers, was a member of the board of directors of the National German American Bank, and officed at the National German American Bank Building, Fourth Street and Robert Street, in 1907. Rufus Jefferson married Genevieve C. Church, in Woodstock, Illinois, in 1868, and the couple had seven children, Cyrus C. Jefferson, Rufus V. A. T. Jefferson, Lawrence C. Jefferson, Dora A. Jefferson, Genevieve C. Jefferson, Archibald A. Jefferson, and Helen Jefferson. Rufus C. Jefferson is buried in Oakland Cemetery. The National German American Bank began as the banking firm of Meyer & Willius (H. Meyer and Ferdinand Willius) in 1856, subsequently became Meyer, Willius & Brother/Meyer & Willius Brothers, was chartered in 1863, then became Ferdinand & Gustav Willius, then became Willius Brothers & Dunbar, was incorporated as the German American Bank in 1873, and the became the National German American Bank in 1883. Ferdinand Willius was the president of the German American Bank in 1873. Gustav Willius eventually was the president of the German American Bank. Joseph Lockey was the president of the National German American Bank in 1893, when the bank temporarily suspended business to avoid a run on deposits during the Panic of 1893. Frederick Weyerhaeuser was the president of the National German American Bank in 1909. J. W. Lusk was the president of the National German American Bank in 1910. Otto Bremer (1867-1951) was an executive at the National German American Bank of St. Paul in 1911. D. S. Culver was the president of the National German American Bank in 1913. Rufus C. Jefferson ( -1925) and Leonard C. Jefferson ( -1945) both died in Ramsey County. [See note on Walter Lewis Mayo for 796 Fairmount Avenue.] [See the note for the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) for 277 Harrison Avenue.] [See note on Ferdinand Willius and Gustav Willius for 469 Laurel Avenue.] [See note on Bainbridge H. Evans for 533 Summit Avenue.] [See note for the National German-American Bank/Germania Bank of St. Paul for 961 Portland Avenue.]

280 Summit Avenue: Built in 1996. Unit 1 is a 2398 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, aluminum/vinyl-sided condominium/row house that was last sold in 2001 for $850,000, which is currently owned by Paul E. Columbo, who resides in White Bear Township, Minnesota. Unit 2 is 2398 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, aluminum/vinyl-sided condominium/row house that was last sold in 2002 for $900,000, which is currently owned by Dale S. Hanson. Unit 3 is 2398 square foot, one bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, aluminum/vinyl-sided condominium/row house, which was previously owned by Robert Flotten (1932-2004) and Suzanne Flotten and is currently owned by Suzanne Flotten. Unit 4 is 2398 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, aluminum/vinyl-sided condominium/row house, which is currently owned by Peter M. Butler and Sandra K. Butler. Unit 5 is 2398 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, aluminum/vinyl-sided condominium/row house that was last sold in 1997 for $465,000, which is currently owned by Marlys G. Barry. Unit 6 is 2398 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, aluminum/vinyl-sided condominium/row house that was last sold in 1998 for $675,000, which is currently owned by Deborah A. Hannigan and James H. Hannigan. All units utilize a basement garage. In 1997, Dale S. Hanson, a graduate of Carleton College, was Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer of C. H. Robinson Worldwide, Inc., having held that position since 1990, and was a director of C. H. Robinson Worldwide, Inc. since 1988. Prior to joining C. H. Robinson Worldwide, Inc., a produce company established in 1905, Dale S. Hanson held various executive positions with First Bank System, Inc./U.S. Bancorp, including Executive Vice President of First Bank System, Inc., President of FBS Merchant Banking Group, and President of First Bank of St. Paul. In 2006, Dale S. Hanson and Elizabeth Dickinson were financial supporters of the Minnesota Historical Society. Suzanne Flotten was a financial supporter of the League of Catholic Women in 2007, of the St. John's University School of Theology/Seminary in 2007, and of the Jeremiah Program in 2005 and 2006. Peter M. Butler is President & Treasurer of Butler Office, Inc., a trust management company. Marlys G. Barry was a financial supporter of the Appleton Medical Center Foundation in 2003 and 2004, of the Division of Indian Work in 2004 and 2005, and Prescott College in 2000. James H. Hannigan is President and CEO of J & J Distributing of St. Paul, a wholesale dealer in fresh fruits and vegetables since 1979. Mr. & Mrs. James H. Hannigan were financial supporters of St. Thomas Academy in 2003 and 2005. James H. Hannigan was a financial supporter of the College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences of the University of Minnesota in 2006.

285 Summit Avenue: Fredrick A. Fogg House, Built in 1899 (1903 according to the National Register of Historic Places and 1882 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Renaissance Revival/Georgian/Colonial Revival in style; A. H. Stem, architect. The house cost $8,500 to build. The structure is a two story, 7233 square foot, seven bedroom, three bathroom, two half-bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage, which last sold in 2002 at a sale price of $1,250,000. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Henry M. Rice resided at this address from 1882 to 1892, that Frederick A. Fogg resided at this address from 1895 to 1930, and that the Dreher Apartments were located at this address in 1948. The 1885 and 1887 city directory indicates that the Honorable and Mrs. H. M. Rice and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1897 Catalogue of the Legal Fraternity of Phi Delta Phi indicates that Frederick Durkee Rice, a consul in 1893 and 1894, resided at this address as well as 653 Portland Avenue. The 1889 city directory indicates that the Honorable and Mrs. H. M. Rice, their daughter, and F. D. Rice all resided at this address. The 1891 city directory indicates that the Honorable and Mrs. H. M. Rice, their daughter, and F. D. Rice all resided at this address. The 1893 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. W. M. Cutcheon, F. D. Rice, and the Honorable H. M. Rice all resided at this address. The book of Minnesotans: a biographical dictionary of leading living men of Minnesota, edited by Albert Nelson Marquis, indicates that Frederick Fogg resided at this address in 1907. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Magdalena E. Miller (1831-1913,) the widowed mother of William A. Miller, who was born in Germany to parents who were also born in Germany and who died of old age and arteriosclerosis, resided at this address in 1913. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mrs. Louise M. Fogg ( -1918) resided at this address in 1916. In 1916, Frederic A. Fogg was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Fogg and F. M. Fogg all resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Frederic A. Fogg, who officed at the Endicott Building, resided at this address and that and Frederic M. Fogg, who officed at the Endicott Building, boarded at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mrs. Frederic A. Fogg and Miss Agnes M. Horsnell resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the estate of Frederic A. Fogg (1850-1930) was located at this address. Henry Mower Rice (1816-1894) was born in Waitsfield, Vermont, attended common schools and academies in Detroit and Kalamazoo, Michigan, resided in the Territories of Iowa and Wisconsin, moved to the Territory of Minnesota in 1839, was the post sutler for the United States Army at Fort Atkinson, Iowa, was engaged in the fur business, negotiated a treaty with the Winnebago and Ojibwe Indians in 1847, settled in St. Paul in 1848, secured the consent of the objecting Sioux Indians to the confirmation of the treaty of 1851 through his personal influence, was elected as a Democratic Delegate to the 33rd and 34th Congresses, was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate upon the admission of Minnesota as a State into the Union and served from 1858 to 1863, was a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota from 1851 to 1859, was an unsuccessful candidate for election as Governor of Minnesota in 1865, was the president of the Minnesota Historical Society, was the president of the board of public works, was the treasurer of Ramsey County from 1878 to 1884, was the United States commissioner in making several Indian treaties from 1887 to 1888, died in San Antonio, Texas, and was interred in Oakland Cemetery, where he had served on the governing board. The Rice burial plot at Oakland Cemetery includes the graves of Henry Mower Rice ( -1894,) Matilda Whitall Rice ( -1906,) Lizzie Rice Rodman (1852-1883,) Robert Toombs Rice (1860-1863,) Mary Welsh Rice (1862-1864,) Henry M. Rice, Jr. (1856-1864,) Henry M. Rice II (1868-1870,) and Rachel C. N. Whitall (1824-1881.) Frederick Fogg was born in Portland, Maine, graduated from Bowdoin College in 1869, moved to Minnesota in 1870; taught in the public schools of St. Paul, then conducted a college preparatory school of his own, was the superintendent of Ramsey County schools in 1878, retired from educational work to devote his attention to private interests, married Louise Miller at St. Paul in 1880, was the president of Board of Education of St. Paul in 1885, was the vice president of the Northwestern Trust Company, was the president of several farm land companies, was a member of the board of directors of the St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company, was a member of the board of directors of the St. Paul Public Library, was a member of the Minnesota Club, engaged in the hobbies of traveling and reading, and officed at the Merchants' National Bank Building in 1907. Frederick A. Fogg (1829-1907) was born in Maine and died in Anoka County, Minnesota. Frederic A. Fogg (1850-1930) was a business executive and died in Ramsey County. His wife was Louise Fogg ( -1918,) who died in Ramsey County. Henry Mower Rice (1816-1894) was born in Waitsfield, Vermont, the son of Edmund Rice (1784-1829) and Ellen Durkee Rice, was a lawyer, moved to Michigan in 1834 and was a member of the survey crew for the Sault Ste. Marie canal route, moved to Fort Snelling in 1839, was the post sutler for the United States Army at Fort Atkinson, Iowa, was a fur trader with P. Choteau & Company, settled in St. Paul in 1849 and was an early developer, built warehouses, erected hotels, and developed business blocks in the territorial capitol, married Matilda Whital/Whitehall (1827- ) at Richmond, Virginia, in 1849, negotiated treaties with the Ojibway, Dakota and Winnebago tribes in creating reservations and opening up Indian territory in Minnesota to white settlers, was a member of the board of regents of the University of Minnesota from 1851 to 1859, became the Minnesota territory's delegate to the U.S. Congress from 1853 until 1857, was a successful businessman and philanthropist, was a Democrat, was president of the Minnesota Historical Society, was president of the board of public works, was Minnesota's first U.S. Senator from 1858 to 1863, was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Minnesota in 1865 against William R. Marshall, married Marion Eliza Macomber (1851- ) in 1871, was the treasurer of Ramsey County from 1878 until 1884, was a U. S. Treaty Commissioner from 1887 until 1888, died in San Antonio, Texas, and is buried in Oakland Cemetery. Henry Mower Rice and Matilda W. Rice had nine children, Henry Rice, Jr., Lizzie Rice (Mrs. John B.) Rodman, Henry Rice II, Matilda Rice (Mrs. Moritz/Maurice) Auerbach, Mary Welch Rice, Robert Toombs Rice, Rachel Rice (Mrs. Luther E.) Newport, Margaret Rice (Mrs. R. E.) Thompson, and Frederick Durkee Rice (1870- .) Henry M. Rice and Marion Rice had four children, Weston Henry Rice (1873- ,) Winifred Emma Rice (1875- ,) Martin Henry Rice (1885- ,) and Charles Macomber Rice (1886- .) In 1916, Minnesota donated a marble statute of Rice by Frederick E. Triebel to the National Statuary Hall Collection in the U. S. Capitol. Franklin W. M. Cutcheon (1864- ) was born in Dexter, Michigan, the son of General Byron M. Cutcheon and Marie A. Warner Cutcheon, was educated at the University of Michigan law school, moved to St. Paul in 1885, was a partner in the law firm of Flandrau, Squires & Cutcheon from 1886 until 1898 and of Squires & Cutcheon from 1898 until 1899, was a Democrat, and moved to New York City in 1899, successively joining the law firms of Cutcheon, Hare & Holter and of Hornblower, Byrne, Miller & Potter. Franklin W. M. Cutcheon married Sarah Gibson Flandrau, the daughter of his former law partner, Judge Charles E. Flandrau, in St. Paul in 1891. Frederick E. Triebel (1865-1944) was a sculptor from Peoria, Illinois, who sculpted statues or busts of Senator Henry Mower Rice of Minnesota in the National Statuary Hall in 1916, Senator George Laird Shoup of Idaho in the National Statuary Hall in 1910, and President William Howard Taft, served as the American High Commissioner to the Second Biennial Exposition of Fine Arts at the Palazzo di Belli Arti in Rome, Italy, in 1923, and designed the Mississippi State Memorial in 1909. Lizzie Rice Rodman was the daughter of Henry Mower Rice and was the wife of Colonel John Black Rodman ( -1909.) John Black Rodman and Lizzie Rice Rodman had two children, Florence Rice Rodman (Mrs. George C.) Barnhardt (1873- ) and Henry Rice Rodman (1881- .) Jonathon/John Black Rodman (1844/1845-1909,) the son of Thomas Jackson Rodman, Jr. ( -1919,) and the grandson of General Thomas Jackson Rodman, Sr. (1815-1871,) the inventor and designer of several types of heavy cannon used by the Union Army during the Civil War, was born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, and graduated from the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1868. In 1879, F. A. Fogg operated an English and Classical Academy at Fifth Street and Franklin Street. Matilda W. Rice (1834-1906,) Louise M. Fogg ( -1918,) Frederic A. Fogg ( -1930,) William A. Miller ( -1930,) and Matilda Rice Auerbach ( -1945) all died in Ramsey County. Magdelain Miller ( -1913) died in Anoka County, Minnesota. The current owners of record of the property are Lawrence M. Frattalone and Patricia Frattalone. Larry Frattallone, a self-employed business owner, was a contributor to the Republican National Committee in 2004. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Henry M. Rice resided at the nearby former 288 Summit Avenue from 1855 to 1884 and that Alpheus B. Stickney resided at the nearby former 288 Summit Avenue from 1885 to 1923. The 1885 city directory indicates that Miss May J. Newson resided at the former nearby 291 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Alpheus B. Stickney and Catherine Hall Stickney (1846-1900,) who died of a sarcoma, husband and wife, resided at the former nearby 288 Summit Avenue in 1900. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Charles R. West (1873-1900,) of Swedish extraction who died of pneumonia, resided at the former nearby 283 Summit Avenue in 1900. Mrs. Mary Christopherson was the mother of Charles R. West. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Alpheus B. Stickney (1840-1916,) a widower who was born in Maine to parents born in the United States and who died of acute intestinal trouble, resided at the nearby former 288 Summit Avenue in 1916. Alpheus B. Stickney ( -1916) died in Ramsey County. [See note on A. H. Stem.]

294 Summit Avenue: George F. Lindsay House, Built in 1919; Colonial Revival/Georgian Revival in style; Parker, Thomas & Rice (Boston, Massachusetts,) architects. The structure; is a two story, 9134 square foot, six bedroom, six bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. The house was constructed at a cost of $30,000 for George Lindsay, who was in the lumber business with Frederick Weyerhaeuser. The house replaced the prior 1859 Italian Villa-style house. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. P. Noyes resided at this address. The 1887, 1889 and 1891 city directories indicate that Dr. and Mrs. A. F. Schiffmann resided at this address. There is a 1920 photo of the house. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that George F. Lindsay resided at this address from 1921 to 1931 and that Frederick K. Weyerhaeuser resided at this address in 1932. The 1924 city directory indicates that G. F. Lindsay resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that George F. Lindsay, who officed at the Merchant Bank Building, and Emily Bugge, a housekeeper, resided at this address. In 1932, the house was purchased by the Weyerhaeusers. In 1934, Fred K. Weyerhaeuser (1895-1978,) Vivian Ogara Weyerhaeuser, Vivian Weyerhaeuser, and Lynn Weyerhaeuser all resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Frederick K. Weyerhaeuser (1895- ,) who was born in Rock Island, Illinois, who attended the school from 1908 until 1910, who graduated from Yale University in 1917, who served as a Lieutenant in the Italian Air Service and was awarded the Croce al Merito de Guerra during World War I, and was the president of Weyerhaeuser Sales Company, located at the First National Bank Building,resided at this address. The 1964 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Frederick K. Weyerhaeuser, a student during the period 1901-1915, resided at this address. George Francis Lindsay (1871-1944) was the son of lumber magnate James Edwin Lindsay (1826-1915) and Mary Helen Phelps Lindsay (1832-1912,) attended the University of Iowa, was the secretary and treasurer of the Sound Timber Company (currently Scott Paper,) with 45,000 acres on northern Puget Sound in Washington State, in 1899, was a clerk with the Lindsay & Phelps Company in Davenport, Iowa, in 1900, was the secretary and treasurer of the Southland Lumber Company in 1901, was a partner in 1928, with Fred Wyman, C. M. Cochrane, and Edwin B. Lindsay, in the Lindsay & Phelps Company, a lumber company formed in 1862 by John B. Phelps and James E. Lindsay, suceeded his father as president of the Sound Timber Company, and was associated with the Weyerhaeuser Company, as a member of the General Advisory Committee in 1917 and as the chair of the Publicity Committee in 1927. In 1935, George Lindsay was the chair of the Saint Paul Planning Board and was a leader of the Saint Paul and Ramsey County Capitol Approach Committee, which led the fight against the University Avenue site for the State Office Building. Frederick K. Weyerhaeuser married Vivian O'Gara in Chicago, Illinois, in 1923 and the couple had four children, Marianne N. O'Gara Weyerhaeuser (1925-1925,) Frederick K. Weyerhaeuser (1928-1929,) Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser (1930- ,) and Elizabeth Lynn Weyerhaeuser (1931- .) George F. Lindsay was the author of the selfpublished tract An Analysis of the Problem of "Low Cost Housing for the Lower Income Group", published in St. Paul in 1937. Frederick King Weyerhaeuser was a pilot in World War I in Italy. Frederick King Weyerhaeuser (1895-1978) was the eldest grandson of Frederick Weyerhaeuser (1834-1914,) served in the American military during the last years of World War I, married Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser, directed the Weyerhaeuser Sales Company in the Midwest, and was one of six people who founded the Forest History Society in Minnesota in 1946. Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser ( -1983) was the president of the National Council of the Metropolitan Opera in the 1950's. Lynn Weyerhaeuser Day (1932-1999) was the daughter of Frederick King Weyerhaeuser and Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser, was a graduate of Miss Porter's School in Farmington, Connecticut, in 1949, and was a graduate of Vassar College, moved to the Detroit area in 1930 after marrying Stanley R. Day, a longtime Michigan resident, raised a family of four children, was a Forest History Society board member, was a board member of the Detroit Institute of Arts, was a board member of the Community Foundation for Southeastern Michigan, was a board member of the Henry Ford Health System, was a board member of the Rock Island Company, was a board member of the Weyerhaeuser Family Foundation, was a founding Commissioner of the Greening of Detroit, was a member of the Garden Club of Michigan, was involved with the Michigan Forest Association, was involved with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, operated a tree farm in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and died at her Grosse Pointe, Michigan, home after a six-month battle with cancer. The children of Lynn Weyerhaeuser Day were Vivian W. Day, Stanley Day, Jr., F. K. Day, and Lincoln Day. The Frederick King Weyerhaeuser family were members of the Yale Club, the Somerset Club, the Minikahda Country Club, the Women's City Club of St. Paul, and the St. Paul Athletic Club in 1934. The Piasecki Family Foundation formerly was the F. K. and Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser Foundation. Frank Piasecki (1919- ) married the former Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser, a daughter of Frederick King Weyerhaeuser and Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser, in 1958, settled in Haverford, Pennsylvania, founded the PV-Engineering Forum and in 1943 flew the second successful helicopter in America, the PV-2, and developed the first U.S. Navy helicopter, the XHRP-1 "Dog Ship" in 1944. Charles Phelps Noyes also resided in a Cass Gilbert and John Knox Taylor-designed house at 89 Virginia Street and also built a Cass Gilbert-designed summer house, the "Fillebrown" house, 303 Lake Avenue, White Bear Lake, Minnesota, in 1874. C. P. Noyes was the president of the Minnesota branch of the Sons of the Revolution in 1896. C. P. Noyes was a member of the board of directors of the St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company in 1917. C. P. Noyes was a supporter of the Minnesota State League of Women Voters in 1919. In 1923, Emily H. Gilman (Mrs. C. P.) Noyes promised a donation of $1,000 to St. John’s in the Wilderness Episcopal Church in White Bear Lake, Minnesota, to support the building of a new church. Emily H. Gilman Noyes was a president of the St. Paul Women's Welfare League in the early 20th Century. C. P. Noyes II (1911- ) attended Yale University in 1932. Frederick King Weyerhaeuser (1895-1978) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Anderson, and died in Ramsey County. Vivian O'Gara Weyerhaeuser (1895-1983) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Brady, and died in Ramsey County. Emily H. Noyes ( -1930) died in Ramsey County. The previous owner of record of the property was Gary Tournier and the current owners of record of the property are the trustees for Garrison E. Keillor and Jenny Lind Nilsson. Gary Tournier is the owner of Green & White Taxi, also doing business as Suburban Taxi. Gary Tournier was a financial supporter of United Hospital in 2002 and in 2006. [See note for the Lindsay & Phelps Company for 682 Lincoln Avenue.] [See note for Charles Phelps Noyes for 235 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Garrison Keillor for 427 Portland Avenue.]

295 Summit Avenue: Albert H. Lindeke and Louise Lindeke House; Built in 1885 (1890 according to Ramsey County property tax records); Queen Anne in style; Augustus F. Gauger, original architect; Reed and Stem, architects for the 1903 stone porch addition; Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., for the garage addition. The structure is a two story, 8980 square foot, ten bedroom, five bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with a carriage house and a detached garage. The house cost $13,000 to build. The garage/carriage house was designed by Clarence Johnston in 1915, at a cost of $5,000, was built in 1915, and is a 1 1/2 story, five room, one bathroom, brick structure. The building is on the National Register of Historic Places. The front porch originally was limited to a front entry porch and the full length stone porch was added in 1903. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Albert H. Lindeke resided at this address from 1886 to 1940. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Albert H. Lindeke resided at this address in 1892. The 1887, 1889, 1891, and 1893 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Lindeke and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Albert H. Lindeke, their daughter, A. W. Lindeke, and O. A. Lindeke all resided at this address. In 1916, Albert H. Lindeke was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at this address. The 1918 and 1924 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Lindeke resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Albert H. Lindeke (1844-1925,) the married father of A. W. Lindeke, who was born in Germany to parents born in Germany and who died of lobar pneumonia and a fractured skull, resided at this address in 1925. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Louisa H. Lindeke, the widow of Albert H. Lindeke, resided at this address. In 1934, Louise Schroer Lindeke, the widow of Albert W. Lindeke, resided at this address. In 1879, Albert H. Lindeke, a partner with William Lindeke in A. H. Lindeke & Brother, a dry goods merchant located at 9 East Third Street, and a partner with William Lindeke, Reuben Warner, and Theodore L. Schurmeier in Lindekes, Warner & Schurmeier, a wholesale dry goods and notions merchant located at 137-139 East Third Street, all resided at 285 East Sixth Street. Albert H. Lindeke (1844- ) was born near Berlin, Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1856, moved to St. Paul in 1857, married Louise Schroer, and was one of the founders, with Reuben Warner and Theodore L. Schurmeier, of Lindekes, Warner, & Schurmeier, one of the Northwest's largest wholesale dry goods and manufacturing companies in the late 19th Century. This house was subsequently owned by Albert W. Lindeke (1873-1961,) Albert H. Lindeke's son, who was born in St. Paul, was educated in the St. Paul public schools, graduated from the St. Paul High School in 1890, graduated from Yale University in 1894, traveled abroad, returned to St. Paul, graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1900, was admitted to the practice of law in Minnesota, became a partner in Lindeke, Warner & Sons in 1903, was a Republican, was an Episcopalian, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the Town & Country Club, was a member of the White Bear Yacht Club, was a member of the Lafayette Club, was a member of the Amateur Athletic Club, was a member of the Roosevelt Club, was a member of the New York City Yale Club, married Caroline Rhoda Saunders, the daughter of Edward Nelson Saunders and Mary Proal Saunders, in 1906, was a member of the St. Paul Police Commission from 1910 until 1912, was the president of the University Club of St. Paul in 1918, and was a director of the St. Paul Association of Commerce. In 1966, the Society of Friends purchased the house and used it as a meeting house. In 2001, the St. Paul City Council took action on a Property Code Enforcement Appeal relating to this address. William Lindeke (1835- ) was born near Berlin, Germany, came to Minnesota in 1857, was first employed by the Pierre Choteau & Company sawmill, then engaged in milling and the dry goods business, owned considerable acreage along the lower portion of Trout Brook, which he eventually sold to the Northern Pacific RailRoad, established a retail and wholesale dry goods store in 1878, which became the firm Lindekes, Warner, & Schurmeier (with Albert H. Lindeke, Reuben Warner (1831-1905), and Theodore L. Schurmeier,) was a vice president of and a large stockholder in the National German-American Bank, was a member of St. John's German Evangelical Lutheran Church, and married Rosa Brabek. William Lindeke and Rosa Brabek Lindeke had four children, Frank Lindeke, William Lindeke, Rosa Lindeke, and Emma Lindeke. A. H. Lindeke was a member of the Minnesota Territorial Pioneers Association and also came to Minnesota in 1857. In 1879, William Lindeke, the proprietor of the Union Mills as well as a partner in Lindekes, Warner & Schurmeier, resided at 189 Eighth Street, that Frederick Lindeke, the manager of the Union Mills, resided at 284 East Fifth Street, and that Charles Lindeke, a salesman for the Union Mills, resided at 35 Bradley Street. In 1901, William A. Lindeke, a member of St. John's German Evangelical Lutheran Church, walked into William Dampier's undertaking establishment on Wabasha Street and shot himself in the head, falling dead on the floor of the mortician's office. In 1912, the family of William Lindeke resided at 77 Central Avenue. In 1924, the dry goods supplier became Lindeke, Warner & Sons, located in a ten floor building in St. Paul, with A. H. Lindeke as Chairman, A. W. Lindeke as President and Treasurer, Reuben Warner as Vice President, H. F. Warner as secretary, H. D. Warner as superintendent, Norman Fetter as manager of the credit department, E. Petersen as manager of the advertising and dealer service department, William H. Leseman as manager of the city desk, W. F. Gall as the manager of the receiving department, E. H. Hennesy as manager of billing, packing, and sales, and George Warner (prints, ginghams, and tickings,) George Schulze (dress goods, silks and velvets,) Albert Ihm (blankets and comforters,) F. C. Dunn (samples,) E. A. Lyons (notions, trunks and bags,) L. W. Wolterstorff (ready-to-wear and linens,) Reuben Warner III (hosiery, knits and gloves,) and A. F. Meyer (men's and boy's furnishings) as managers of the various product departments. The 1924 Lindeke, Warner & Sons catalog was a 296 page wholesale catalog. Albert W. Lindeke, Jr., was the author of Slunky Norton, the Chimney Sweep Who Rocked the Rafters With His Buglers. The Lindeke burial plot at Oakland Cemetery includes the graves of A. H. Lindeke, Louis Lindeke ( -1877,) Paul C. Lindeke ( -1878,) William Lindeke (1835-1892,) Rose Lindeke (1833-1924,) William E. Lindeke (1874-1926,) Ida Lindeke (1870-1871,) Willie Lindeke (1867-1868,) Frank W. Lindeke (1863-1922,) Gustave J. Schurmeier (1854-1898,) Rose L. Schurmeier (1862-1934,) Gustave W. T. Schurmeier (1886-1887,) and Helen Schurmeier (1895-1895.) Albert W. "Chip" Lindeke, III, AIA, is the president of Rafferty Rafferty Tollefson Lindeke Architects at 278 Seventh Street East in St. Paul. In 1910, a Southern girl named Violet Stockton spent a summer at this house, visiting her aunt and uncle, and F. Scott Fitzgerald spent every day with her sitting on its front porch and fell in love with her. In 2006, Lou Sudheimer appealed two variances to the St. Paul Board of Zoning Appeals in order to add underground parking and a "porte-cochere" to a condominium at this address. Rose Lindeke ( -1924,) Albert H. Lindeke ( -1925,) Rose Schurmeier ( -1934,) and Albert Ihm ( -1937) all died in Ramsey County. Albert W. Lindeke (1873-1961) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Mrs. Louise A. Lindeke (1873-1958) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Washington County, Minnesota. Francis C. Dunn ( -1925) died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. The current owner of record of the property is the 295 Summit Associates LLC, located in Minneapolis. [See note on Clarence Johnston.] [See note on F. Scott Fitzgerald for 599 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the White Bear Yacht Club for 18 Kenwood Parkway.]

301 Summit Avenue: George W. Gardner House; Built in 1905 (1888 according to the National Register of Historic Places and 1900 and 1904 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Beaux Arts/Georgian Revival in style; Thomas Gannett Holyoke, architect. The 1.09 acre property includes two structures, one a two story, 10864 square foot, house built in 1904, and the other a two story, 4800 square foot, carriage house built in 1900. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The house was constructed in 1905 for George W. Gardner, a real estate and insurance dealer. The house replaced an 1882 house designed by A. F. Gauger. The house was built for $28,000 and is similar to another Holyoke-designed house at 625 Marshall Avenue. The house combines churc blend masonry with Georgian details and has a projected middle gable in the center of the structure, a prominent porch, and the use of grills for the dormer windows. The 1885, 1887, and 1889 city directories indicate that Dr. and Mrs. Alex J. Stone resided at this address. The 1891 city directory indicates that Dr. and Mrs. Alex Stone and John S. Stone all resided at this address. The 1893 city directory indicates that Dr. and Mrs. Alex J. Stone and John Sheppard Stone all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Wheaton resided at this address. In 1903, the Alexander J. Stone house was moved to Farrington Street, where it is still stands. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that George W. Gardner resided at this address from 1907 to 1946, that the St. Paul Priory was located at this address from 1949 to 1964, and that the Volksfest Association was located at this address in 1966. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Gardner resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Gardner and Truman P. Gardner all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that George H. Gardner, George W. Gardner, the president of the Gardner Company, a mortgage loan and insurance agency, his wife, Claribel H. Gardner, and Truman P. Gardner, the secretary of the Gardner Company, all resided at this address. In 1934, George W. Gardner, Claribel Hannah Gardner, Truman P. Gardner and George H. Gardner all resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that George H. Gardner, who attended the school from 1911 until 1912, resided at this address and that Truman P. Gardner (1899- ,) who was born in St. Paul, who attended the school from 1911 until 1913, who was a 1922 graduate of Yale University, and who was the secretary of the Gardner Company, insurance and mortgage loans, also resided at this address. George W. Gardner graduated from the Ossinning Military Academy. The Gardner family were members of the White Bear Yacht Club, the University Club, and the Minneapolis Club in 1934 and wintered in Ormond Beach, Florida. Truman Gardner, from Yale University, was a National Collegiate Athletic Association Track & Field Champion in the pole vault in 1921, at 12'0", along with Longino Welch of Georgia Tech University, Eldon Jenne of Washington State University, and Lloyd Wilder of the University of Wisconsin. Truman Gardner married Roberta Galloway in St. Paul in 1934 and the couple had one child. The house is now owned by the Volksfest Association/German American Institute (GIA.) In 1965, the GIA purchased the mansion for $60,000 from George W. Gardner and dedicated it as a Kulturhaus. The GIA has over 1,400 members. The Volksfest Association started in 1957 as the Central Committee of German-American Organizations. In 1958, it changed its name to the German-American Minnesota Centennial Committee, then became the Volksfest Association of Minnesota and was incorporated in 1959. George H. Gardner (1896-1984,) George W. Gardner (1862-1934,) Claribel H. Gardner (1864-1938,) and Truman Perry Gardner (1899-1960) all were buried in Hastings, Minnesota. Physician Alexander J. Stone launched the first Minnesota medical journal, the Northwestern Medical & Surgical Journal, in 1870. The St. Paul Medical Preparatory School was formed in 1871 by Dr. Alexander J. Stone, Dr. D. W. Hand, Dr. Charles E. Wheaton, and Dr. E. Herman Smith, with Dr. Stone as dean, with eight teachers, and conducted a four month course was to prepare students for established medical colleges in Chicago, Illinois, and other cities. Notification of the opening of the school was published in the Northwestern Medical & Surgical Journal. In 1878-1879, the St. Paul Medical College was organized as a regular medical school and, in 1879-1880, became the medical department of Hamline University. The St. Paul Medical College disbanded in 1881 with the opening of the Minnesota College Hospital. In 1882, the initial steps were taken to form the medical department as an examining board at the University of Minnesota and five faculty members, Dr. Charles H. Hewitt (Red Wing, Minnesota,) Daniel W. Hand (St. Paul,) William H. Leonard (Minneapolis,) Parry Millard (Stillwater, Minnesota,) and Franklin Staples (Winona, Minnesota) were hired in 1883. In 1887, the Minnesota Legislature established a State Board of Medical Examiners, the first state to create an independent State Board of Medical Examiners, and the board did not accept medical school diplomas as sufficient evidence of the right to practice medicine. The Department of Medicine (the initial medical school) of the University of Minnesota was established in 1888. Alexander Johnston Stone, M.D. L.L.D. (1845-1910,) was born in Wiscasset, Maine, the son of Dr. Daniel Stone and Elizabeth Johnston Stone, attended the Abbott School in Farmington, Maine, graduated from the Berkshire Medical School in 1867, moved to St. Paul in 1870 and became a partner of Dr. Jacob Stewart, organized the St. Paul Preparatory Medical School, founded the Northwestern Lancet, was a member of the New England Historical and Genealogical Society, died in St. Paul, and was buried in Wiscasset, Maine. Dr. Alexander Johnston Stone married Helen Sheppard, the daughter of Dr. Stephen B. Sewall and Hannah Wood Shepard Sewall, and the couple had three children, including John Sheppard Stone of Chicago. William Huntington Leonard (1826-1907) was born in Mansfield, Connecticut, the son of Dexter M. Leonard, trained in the allopathic system of medicine, studied medicine under Dr. Orrin Witter of Chaplin, Connecticut, graduated from the medical department of Yale University in 1853, graduated from the Medical Institution of Fall College in 1853, practiced medicine in Orangeville, Wyoming County, New York, moved to Minneapolis in 1855, commenced the practice of homeopathy in 1860, served as the surgeon of the 5th Regiment Minnesota Volunteer Infantry during the Civil War, was the health officer of Minneapolis from 1872 until 1875, was a member of the State Board of Health in 1875, was the president of the Homœopathic State Institute of Minnesota, was President of the Hahnemann Medical Society of Hennepin County, was a director of the Minnesota Academy of Science, and died in Minneapolis. William Huntington Leonard married Jane Preston of Eastford, Connecticut, in 1853 and the couple had two children. Alexander Johnston Stone ( -1910,) George Washington Gardner ( -1934,) and George William Gardner ( -1950) all died in Ramsey County. William Huntington Leonard (1826-1907) was born in Connecticut, had a mother with a maiden name of Oren, and died in Hennepin County. The current owner of record of the property is Volksfest Association Inc. The 1930 city directory indicates that John Ruskens resided at the former nearby 301 1/2 Summit Avenue. [See note on Holyoke for 500 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Augustus Gauger for 295 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the White Bear Yacht Club for 18 Kenwood Parkway.]

302 Summit Avenue: Joseph L. Forepaugh House; Built in 1889 (1900 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne/Victorian in style; Mould & McNicol, architects. The house cost either $10,000 or $24,000 to construct. By 1978, it had been subdivided into 19 apartments. It was subsequently restored and the number of units were significantly reduced and were sold as condominiums. Unit #1 is a 1403 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, brick condominium, which was last sold in 1993 for a sale price of $100,500, which is currently owned by John R. Wendt, who resides in Minneapolis. Unit #3 is a 2517 square foot, four bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick condominium, which was last sold in 1993 for $232,500, which is currently owned by James M. Hacking and Laurie Fiori Hacking, who reside in Phoenix, Arizona. Unit #4 is a 1395 square foot, two bedroom, three bathroom, brick condominium, which was last sold in 1998 for $139,900, which is currently owned by Calli G. Schmid. Unit #5 is a 1159 square foot, two bedroom, three bathroom, brick condominium, which was last sold in 1999 for $164,000, which is currently owned by Eileen C. O'Toole. Unit #6 is a 1240 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick condominium, which was last sold in 2002 for $265,000, which is currently owned by Michael Scham. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Joseph L. Forepaugh resided at this address from 1890 to 1899. The 1891 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Forepaugh, their daughter, William F. Forepaugh, and J. Louis Forepaugh all resided at this address. The 1891 city directory indicates that Mrs. J. L. Forepaugh, her daughter, William F. Forepaugh, and J. Louis Forepaugh all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Mrs. M. A. Forepaugh, her daughters, William F. Forepaugh, and J. Louis Forepaugh all resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mrs. J. L. Forepaugh, her daughter, and J. L. Forepaugh all resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mary (Mrs. J. L.) Forepaugh resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Alice Forepaugh, a real estate agent, resided at this address. In 1934, Miss Alice M. Forepaugh resided at this address. Joseph L. Forepaugh moved here with Mary Lanpher Forepaugh and his family in 1891 after leaving his wood frame house on Irvine Park. Joseph Lybrandt Forepaugh ran a dry goods business which supplied military troops during the American Civil War, leaving him wealthy enough to retire from the business at the age of 34. In 1892, Joseph L. Forepaugh committed suicide, plagued by a severe depression. Forepaugh was a member of the firm of Forepaugh & Tarbox, manufacturers and wholesalers of boots and shoes. Forepaugh also owned a drygoods business. Members of the family owned the house for at least fifty years. The 1910 city directory indicates that Margaret Black was a cook at this residence and that John Sandahl was a janitor at this residence. Joseph Louis Forepaugh and William Frederick Forepaugh both attended Yale University during the 1895-1896 and 1896-1897 school years. Alice Forepaugh was employed by the St. Paul Pioneer Press and was a member of the Press Committee of the Minnesota State Federation of Women's Clubs in 1905. Alice Forepaugh was the secretary of the St. Paul Institute of Arts and Sciences in 1910 and 1911. James M. Hacking is the executive director of the Arizona Public Safety Personnel Retirement System and formerly was the executive director of the Minnesota Public Employees Retirement Association, then of the Minneapolis Employees Retirement Fund, and then of the Illinois State Universities Retirement System. Laurie Fiori Hacking is the executive director of the Minnesota Teachers Retirement Association, formerly was the executive director of the Ohio Public Employee's Retirement System and formerly was the executive director of the Minnesota Public Employees Retirement Association, was the pension fund manager of the City of Cincinnati's retirement system, and was a retirement system specialist with the Springfield, Illinois, firm of Levi, Ray & Shoup. Mary A. Lanpher Forepaugh ( -1929) and Alice M. Forepaugh ( -1946) died in Ramsey County. [See note on Joseph L. Forepaugh for 276 South Exchange Street

Summit Avenue Hike 2 Architectural Notes

Description of Housing Styles

Summit Avenue Hikes - Architectural Style Notes

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