Thursday Night Hikes: East Summit Avenue Hike Architecture Notes I

Thursday Night Hikes: Summit Avenue East Hike Architecture Notes I


Observations on Architectural Styles

Summit Avenue East Hike I

Assembled by

Lawrence A. Martin

Webpage Creation: August 10, 2001

General.

Summit Avenue in St. Paul, Minnesota, is one of the best preserved upper-class Victorian promenade boulevards in America. Summit Avenue is a monumental boulevard of houses, churches, synagogues, and schools that stretches four-and-one-half miles from the Cathedral to the Mississippi River. A map of the Summit Avenue Historic District is available.

Summit Avenue was the abode of St. Paul's rich and famous, who, in the 1850's, began ascending Summit Hill and erecting splendid homes as monuments to their success. Of the structures built, an assortment of Queen Ann, Romanesque, Beaux Arts, Georgian Revival, and Italian Villa styles, 85 percent remain intact. Summit Hill's first homes, built on scattered plots of ground, preceded the construction of Summit Avenue. Slowly, from 1856 to 1880, one new house per year dotted the hill. Never farms, they were rural residences which were built on a remote bluff accessible either by walking or by mule car up and down the hill. By 1880, an economic boom engulfed St. Paul, real estate prices soared, Summit Avenue and its adjacent streets were plotted, and a sewer was promised to the Summit Hill residents. The building of grand houses accelerated, each competing with the former in its dimension and design. In 1881-1882, the house numbering system on the avenue was revised. From 1882 to 1886, 46 new houses appeared on Summit Avenue. In 1887, property owners took action to widen Summit Avenue to 200 feet and the center of the western end of the avenue thereby gained a 100-foot divide with a bridle path. The character of Summit Avenue has changed over time. The Great Depression of the 1930's took its toll on the neighborhood. Some of the wealthy who lost all their money literally walked away from their homes when they could no longer afford to pay the taxes. It was at this time that some property owners began converting their large homes into duplexes or apartments. Also, Summit Avenue once continued east of Kellogg Avenue, where it currently ends at the Minnesota Historical Society building, with several additional residences previously existing nearer to the fringes of downtown St. Paul.

The architecture of Summit Avenue does not lack critics, however. Frank Lloyd Wright, for instance, assailed Summit Avenue as being "the worst collection of architecture in the world." F. Scott Fitzgerald condemned Summit Avenue as a "museum of American architectural failures."

Specific Structures. The following presents available information on the housing styles of specific structures located along the hike:

170 Summit Avenue: Knickerbocker Apartments/Ambassador Apartments. Both buildings built in 1910 (1921 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) 1910 Apartment House in style. One building is a three story, 28,517 square foot, apartment building and the other building on the site is a one story, 1235 square foot, storefront. The 1930 city directory indicates that the residents of the apartment building at this address, including 168 Summit Avenue, were Frank J. Lawler, the custodian, and his wife, Rose Lawler (Basement Apartment,) Mrs. Hilda Wahl, the manager of the Pirate Tea Room (Apartment #1,) Evelyn M. Larson, a typist (Apartment #2,) Morris Packerman, a confectioner, and his wife, Helen Packerman (Apartment #3,) Edward Johnson, a salesman (Apartment #4,) L. Dixon Butcher, a salesman, and his wife, Pearl J. Butcher (Apartment #5,) Leo Wilzbacher, a switchman employed by the Great Northern RailRoad, and Louise Wilzbacher, a stenographer employed by the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (Apartment #6,) Henry J. Meyer, the proprietor of Meyer Drug Company, and his wife, Mayme Meyer (Apartment #7,) Al Salita, an operator employed by Gorgon & Ferguson, his wife, Gladys Salita, Lester S. Sloat, an attendant employed by the Pure Oil Company, and his wife, Clemaunce D. Sloat (Apartment #8,) Coleman J. Costello, the assistant manager for the Springer Merchandise Agency, and his wife, Beryle B. Costello (Apartment #1,9) Helen Qualley (Apartment #10,) Florentine Roche, a clerk employed by the Industrial Commission of Minnesota (Apartment #11,) John J. Adams, a molder (Apartment #12,) Moritz Kimberg, a hatter, and his wife, Bertha Kimberg (Apartment #14,) Edward G. Durocher, an inventory engineer for the Northern Pacific RailRoad, and his wife, Marie Durocher (Apartment #15,) Marion Gillmeister, a cigarmaker employed by the Worch Cigar Company, Jean Gillmeister, a cigarmaker employed by the Worch Cigar Company, and Frank Gillmeister, a groundman employed by the Tri-State Telegraph & Telephone Company (Apartment #16,) Peter J. Cullen, a salesman, and his wife, Mary Cullen (Apartment #17,) Gretchen A. Mitsch, a clerk employed by the North West Fuel Company (Apartment #18,) Leda M. Hartman, a nurse, and Jeanette Mattison, a nurse, (Apartment #19,) Irene Lowry, a dressmaker (Apartment #20,) Mrs. Lydia Johnson, a dressmaker (Apartment #21,) Abr Pfefer, a technical agent, and his wife, Mildred Pfefer (Apartment #22,) Ruth La Page, a dressmaker, (Apartment #24,) Albert E. Gillman, a cigar seller, and his wife, Ruth A. Gillman (Apartment #26,) Lorna Schnuweis (Apartment #27,) Josephine M. La Belle, the operator at the Modern Beauty Shop, and Susan La Belle, a dressmaker, (Apartment #28,) Edgar A. Epperly, the chief clerk with the Hamm Realty Company (Apartment #29,) Mrs. Catherine Niedenhofer, the widow of William Niedenhofer (Apartment #30,) R. E. Hill, a traveling salesman (Apartment #31,) Mrs. Margaret Murray, the widow of Frank T. Murray (Apartment #33,) and Ann Ueber, a telephone operator (Apartment #35,) with Apartments #25, #32, and #34 vacant. Originally, it was a "U" shaped building, but one-half of the building was destroyed in a fire in the late 1980's or early 1990's. In 1916, John Espy, a Major in the U. S. Volunteers, was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at the nearby former 138 Summit Avenue. Hilda C. Wahl (1879-1969) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Johanson, and died in Ramsey County. Frank Thomas Murray ( -1918,) Mary Margaret Cullen ( -1929,) Evelyn Marjorie Larson ( -1937,) Marie Durocher ( -1937,) Henry John Meyer ( -1942) Lydia Johnson ( -1948,) and Lydia K. Johnson ( -1958) all died in Ramsey County. Evelyn Mary Larson (1896-1893) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of DeMars, and died in Ramsey County. Morris Packerman (1894-1978) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Leo A. Wilzbacher (1902-1968) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Gleason, and died in Ramsey County. Louise Wilzbacher (1883-1966) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Gleason, and died in Ramsey County. Beryle Beatrice Costello (1897-1997) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Wells, and died in Ramsey County. John J. Adams (1873-1955) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Frank August Gillmeister (1912-1966) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Rozek, and died in Ramsey County. Mary C. Cullen (1891-1959) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Heaphy, and died in Ramsey County. Mary M. Cullen (1875-1958) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Scannell, and died in Ramsey County. Mary C. Cullen (1892-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of O'Connor, and died in Ramsey County. Gretchen A. Mitsch (1884-1982) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Sonnen, and died in Ramsey County. Lydia Wilhelmenia Johnson (1897-1955) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Lydia Agar Johnson (1900-1992) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Georke, and died in Ramsey County. Lydia M. Johnson (1892-1974) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Lydia Florence Johnson (1878-1963) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Olson, and died in Ramsey County. Lydia Ida Johnson (1910-1999) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Jaeger, and died in Ramsey County. Edgar A. Epperly (1890-1961) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Frank Lawler ( -1939) and Albert Edward Gillman ( -1941) both died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Rose Mary Lawler ( -1928,) Frank Lawler ( -1949,) Dixon Butcher ( -1951,) Rose L. Lawler ( -1954,) and Rose Mary Lawler ( -1960) all died in Hennepin County. Rose Ann Lawler ( -1951) died in Stearns County, Minnesota. Rose Ella Lawler (1889-1976) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Daugherty, and died in Kandiyohi County, Minnesota. Mayme Pauline Meyer (1889-1974) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Cordes, and died in Wabasha County, Minnesota. Clemance Delvina Sloat (1904-1981) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Boisvert, and died in Cass County, Minnesota. Josephine La Belle ( -1939) and Coleman Joseph Costello ( -1951) both died in Washington County, Minnesota. The Industrial Commission of Minnesota was established in 1921 under Laws of Minnesota 1921, Chapter 81, to oversee and direct the actions of the Labor and Industry Department in the matters of hearings and license renewals, regulation of wages, inspection of work places and accident sites, safety and health standards, employment agency services, worker's compensation, minimum wage, and unemployment compensation, and was abolished in 1967. The Pure Oil Company was founded in 1914 as the Ohio Cities Gas Company, primarily dealing in natural gas. When the company shifted its emphasis towards gasoline, the company was renamed in 1920 as the Pure Oil Company. Henry May Dawes (1877-1952,) the Coolidge Administration's Comptroller of the Currency, became the company president in 1924. The Pure Oil Company was one of the first American corporations to use architecture as a corporate symbol. In 1927, the company adopted a standard "English Cottage" design that was executed hundreds of times over the following decade. In 1960, the Woodley Petroleum Company merged with the Pure Oil Company of Chicago and Pure merged with the Union Oil Company of California in 1965. After 1965, Union, the Union 76 brand, became the major oil producer in southern Alaska and a major natural gas producer in the Gulf of Mexico. The company was reorganized in 1983 and Union Oil Company of California became an operating subsidiary of a new Delaware-based holding company, Unocal Corporation. In 1997, Unocal sold its western United States refining and marketing operations to Tosco Corporation, including the rights to the Union 76 brand and most Union 76 stations were converted to Citgo. Tosco was later acquired by Phillips Petroleum, which later merged with Conoco to form ConocoPhillips. The forerunner for the Department of Agriculture, the Minnesota State Dairy Commission, was created in 1885 for the limited purpose of prohibiting the sale of adulterated milk and the sale of oleomargarine. In 1887, food laws were amended to require the furnishing of reports to the Minnesota State Dairy Commissioner by all creameries, cheese factories, dairies, and peddlers and vendors of milk and a laboratory to examine and analyze milk, butter, and cheese to determine purity was established. In 1889, the Commission became the State Dairy and Food Commission and was authorized to regulate all food products. A noxious weed law was passed in 1895. The agency became the Minnesota Dairy and Food Department in 1896. In 1901, department jurisdiction over preservatives was extended from milk products to include all foods. In 1906, the department was given responsibility for inspection of the state's canning industry. In 1919, the Minnesota Department of Agriculture was created. The Agriculture Commissioner was given in 1921 broad authority to promulgate rules and regulations to enforce all food laws, for the purpose of preventing fraud and deception in the manufacture, use, sale and transportation of food, and for the purpose of protecting and preserving the public health. In 1938, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was enacted, which required major changes in the state's food standards and corresponding rules and regulations. In 1949, authority to regulate the spraying and dusting of crops with herbicides was given to the department and the pasteurization of milk and milk bottles was made compulsory. In 1959, enforcement authority of the Plant Pest Act was given to the department to prevent the introduction into and the propagation and dissemination within the state of plant pests and to provide for their suppression and control. In 1967, a Meat Industry Division was created within the department to enforce and administer laws relating to meat, fish and dressed poultry and the Commissioner was made responsible for adopting rules and regulations relating to sanitary requirements for bakeries, appurtenances, distribution vehicles, bakery products, standards of identity and labeling requirements. The 1974 Livestock Market Agency and Dealer Licensing Act completed the transfer of jurisdiction and authority from the Department of Public Service to the department over livestock marketing practices. In 1980, responsibility over the inspection, grading, sampling and analysis of hay and straw in the state was transferred from the Department of Transportation to the Department of Agriculture. The current owner of record of the property is Sauro Properties, located in Lake Elmo, Minnesota. In 1878, Dudley B. Finch and his wife, Mary Eliza Dexter Finch, resided at the nearby former 172 Summit Avenue. The 1879 city directory indicates that John Q. Adams, a grain commissioner who officed at 60 East Third Street, resided at the former nearby 138 Summit Avenue, that Mrs. G. W. Armstrong resided at the former nearby 151 Summit Avenue, that Catherine Frizelle and Mary Frizelle were both domestics at the nearby former 159 Summit Avenue, that Bridget Gallagher was a domestic at the nearby former 130 Summit Avenue, that Henry Gerber was a gardener at 171 Summit Avenue, and that Earle S. Goodrich resided at the former nearby 159 Summit Avenue, that Henry M. Hart, a special agent employed by the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York located at 29 East Third Street, resided at the former nearby 99 Summit Avenue, that Andrew T. Hart, a bookkeeper employed by H. M. Hart, and William H. Hart, a clerk, both boarded at the former nearby 99 Summit Avenue, that Bridget Larkin was a domestic at the former nearby 171 Summit Avenue, that Ellen McHale was a domestic at the former nearby 175 Summit Avenue, that Elizabeth Montgomery, the widow of George Montgomery, resided at the nearby former 152 Summit Avenue, and that Alexander R. Nininger resided at the former nearby 143 Summit Avenue. The January 1, 1880, St. Paul Daily Globe indicates that George L. Otis resided at the former nearby 133 Summit Avenue and that the Misses Terry resided at the former nearby 130 Summit Avenue. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. D. B. Finch resided at the former nearby 172 Summit Avenue and that Mr. and Mrs. D. H. Moon resided at the nearby former 176 Summit Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Henry Nicols resided at the former nearby 139 Summit Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. P. B. Groat, Mr. and Mrs. John I. Thompson, their daughter, Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Upham, Mr. and Mrs. Bartles, and Mr. and Mrs. W. Cathie all resided at the former nearby 151 Summit Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. John Kelliher resided at the former nearby 166 Summit Avenue, that Col. and Mrs. J. H. Davidson, their daughter, and Ernest H. Davidson all resided at the former nearby 169 Summit Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. D. B. Finch resided at the former nearby 172 Summit Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. D. H. Moon resided at the former nearby 176 Summit Avenue. The 1889 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. D. B. Finch resided at the nearby former 172 Summit Avenue and the 1895 city directory indicates that Lilly Bostrum was a domestic at the nearby former 172 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that August Oppenheimer (1845-1901,) of German extraction who died of multiple sclerosis, resided at the former nearby 169 Summit Avenue in 1901. The 1902 University of Minnesota Alumni Record indicates that Claus F. Forssell, an 1896 graduate and a clerk in a wholesale drug company, resided at the nearby former 132 Summit Avenue. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Peder Hoff resided at the former nearby 172 Summit Avenue in 1907. The 1918 city directory indicates that the residents of the Marlborough Apartments at the former nearby 140 Summit Avenue were Mr. and Mrs. M. H. Albin, Dr. and Mrs. S. O. Arnold, Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Barre, J. A. Beard, Mrs. J. W. Bloom, Dr. and Mrs. E. H. Bohland, Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Campbell, Mr. and Mrs. P. N. Cardozo, Mrs. E. M. Crossman, Mrs. P. J. Clancy and her daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Dodson and their daughter, Maj. John Espy, Mr. and Mrs. M. W. Fay, Mrs. J. G. Freeman, E. B. Graves, Mr. and Mrs. Meyer Hirschberg, L. H. Jones, Miss N. L. Jones, Gust Kahn, the Misses Knuteson, Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Langvay, R. W. McCloud, G. L. McKone, W. G. Mee, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Neely, Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Newell, Miss Mabel Perkins, Hon. J. H. Quinn, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Ryckman, Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Schusler, Miss S. M. Siegel, Hon. and Mrs. Lyndon A. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Stewart, C. H. Van Auken, Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Van Kirk, and Thomas Yapp, that the residents of the Portola Apartments at the former nearby 147 Summit Avenue were Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Campbell, Miss Kathryne Le Febvre, Miss M. L. McEwen, Miss Julia Rider, H. F. Schmid, and Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Skorish, that the residents of the Summit Crest Apartments at the former nearby 159 Summit Avenue were Mr. and Mrs. P. P. Ermatinger, Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Martin, Mr. and Mrs. Eric Norton, L. L. Perrine, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Sargisson, Mr. and Mrs. I. L. Stone, Miss B. C. Sullivan, and Mr. and Mrs. P. T. Walton, that Miss Katherine Sullivan resided at the former nearby 165 Summit Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. S. D. Dysinger and G. W. Kendall all resided at the former nearby 176 Summit Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#11071) indicate that Katherine V. Fox (1891- ,) a 1918 enlistee and a Reserve Nurse in the Army Nurse Corps, who was born in Albany, Minnesota, was a nurse employed by St. Joseph's Hospital after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former 139 Summit Avenue, the Piedmont Apartments. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#5352) indicate that Frank Louis Clark (1890- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a First Lieutenant in the 338th Field Artillery, who was born in Plymouth, Michigan, moved to Minnesota in 1905, was a candidate in the Reserve Officer Training Corps at induction, was a lawyer who officed at the Pioneer Building after the completion of service, and was married, resided with his wife, Lorane H. Clark, at the nearby former 149 Summit Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#2083 and #2606) indicate that George Jones (1895- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private in Company E of the 33rd Engineers, who was born in St. Paul, was a hardware buyer employed by Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby 159 Summit Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#10192) indicate that John Laurence Kennedy (1892- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private First Class in Company 9 of the 34th Engineers, who was born in Morton, Minnesota, had brown eyes, dark hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 9" tall, was a salesman at induction, was a salesman employed by the Gamble Robinson Fruit Company after the completion of service, and was married, resided with his wife, Agnes Gertrude Kennedy, at the nearby former 165 West Summit Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#14190) indicate that George Jones (1895- ,) a 1918 enlistee and a Private in Company E of the 33rd Engineers, who was born in St. Paul, had blue eyes, dark hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 10 1/2" tall, was a hardware buyer at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was a hardware buyer employed by Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Mrs. L. Jones, at the nearby former 159 Summit Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#17330) indicate that Frank W. Stratton (1896- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private in the 17th Company of the Fifth Battalion of the Dis. Unit, who was born in Norwich, New York, moved to Minnesota in 1917, had blue eyes, light hair, and a light complexion, was 5' 10" tall, was a bookkeeper at induction, was unemployed after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former Piedmont Apartments. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#18112) indicate that William D. Cooper (1881- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private in Company E of the 23rd Engineers, who was born in Winona, Minnesota, had blue eyes, brown hair, and a ruddy complexion, was 5' 7 3/4" tall, was a salesman at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was a salesman employed by Schuneman & Evans after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Honora Cooper, at the nearby former 149 Summit Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#18545) indicate that William B. Smith (1891- ,) a 1917 draftee and a Private in Company E of the Ninth Infantry, who was born in Russia, moved to Minnesota in 1914, had blue eyes, light hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 8" tall, was a laborer at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including St. Mihiel, Meuse, Argonne, and Champagne, was a stationary fireman employed by The Marlborough Apartments after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former 140 Summit Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#20422) indicate that Harry Harby Frost (1893- ,) a 1917 draftee and a Sergeant in the Eighth Company of the Central Machine Gun Officers Training School, who was born in Fremont, Nebraska, moved to Minnesota in 1909, had brown eyes, black hair, and a ruddy complexion, was 5' 9" tall, was a salesman and stenographer at induction, was a salesman employed by Fairbanks, Morse & Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Ackveline M. Frost, at the nearby former 151 Summit Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#29435) indicate that Herman Gall (1882- ,) a 1918 enlistee and a Private in Company M of the 34th Engineers, who was born in St. Paul, had blue eyes, dark brown hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 7" tall, was a machinist and truck driver at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was a clerk employed by the Crane & Ordway Company after the completion of service, and was married, resided with his wife, Margaret Hall, at the nearby former 147 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Joseph E. Penfield (1840-1920,) the husband of Ingleif/Ingleis H. Penfield, who was born in New York to parents born in the United States and who died of myocarditis, resided at the nearby former 165 Summit Avenue in 1920. The 1920 city directory indicates that Esther F. Basterlinge, a clerk employed by the Department of Education, boarded at the nearby former 139 Summit Avenue, that John G. Balsilie, a buyer employed by Schuneman & Evans, resided at the former nearby 147 Summit Avenue, that Martin E. Albin, Martin H. Albin, a lawyer who officed at the Exchange Bank Building, Frank J. Anderson, a traveling engineer, and Elizabeth M. Baker, an Assistant Public Examiner, all resided at the former nearby 148 Summit Avenue, that Benjamin W. Baldinger, a salesman employed by the St. Paul Electric Company, resided at the former nearby 159 Summit Avenue, that Major F. S. Benham resided at the former nearby 148 Summit Avenue, that Benjamin H. Benson, a clerk employed by the Emporium, resided at the former nearby 159 Summit Avenue, that Grace Blackburn, a clerk employed by Schuneman & Evans, boarded at the nearby former 139 Summit Avenue, that Mrs. Rose Blackburn, a department manager employed by Mannheimer Brothers, resided at the nearby former 139 Summit Avenue, that Louis Bock, an engineer, resided at the nearby former 159 Summit Avenue, and Charles L. Boylen, a salesman, and John F. Boylen, a clerk employed by Bartles Oil Company, both resided at the nearby former 139 Summit Avenue, that Frances Bozekowsky, a seamstress employed by Richman Brothers Company, boarded at the former nearby 169 Summit Avenue, that William A. Broderick, a lithographer employed by the Louis F. Dow Company, roomed at the former nearby 129 Summit Avenue, that Claire E. Brown, a cashier employed by Joy Brothers Motor Car Company, resided at the nearby former 139 Summit Avenue, that George H. Bryant, a chauffeur employed by Michaud Transfer Line, resided at the nearby former 147 West Summit Avenue, that Henry L. Bryant, a dentist who officed at the Pittsburgh Building, resided at the former nearby 149 Summit Avenue, that Juanita L. Buck, a bookkeeper employed by the J. P. Rodgers Land Company, resided at the former nearby 151 Summit Avenue, that Jacobine Bueneman, the widow of Stephen F. Bueneman, resided at the nearby former 159 Summit Avenue, that Jennie L. Bueneman, a clerk employed by Field Schlick & Company, boarded at the nearby former 159 Summit Avenue, that Louis L. Burns, a chauffeur, resided at 147 West Summit Avenue, that C. Albin Carlgren, an attendant employed by the Minnesota Club, resided at the former nearby 149 Summit Avenue, that Mrs. Frances M. Cary, a bookkeeper employed by the Upper Michigan Land Company, resided at the former nearby 147 Summit Avenue, that Katherine P. Casey resided at the nearby former 148 Summit Avenue, that Maria Chapman, the widow of Alb Chapman, resided at the former nearby 147 Summit Avenue, that Sarah E. Chapman, a clerk employed by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, that Hyla Christianson, a nurse employed by William Lerche, boarded at 129 Summit Avenue, that Orneng T. Clements, a trimmer employed by the Golden Rule, resided at the nearby former 149 Summit Avenue, that John J. Connell, the manager of the New Garrick Theatre, resided at the former nearby 140 Summit Avenue, that Ella E. Conroy, a furnisher, roomed at the former nearby 169 Summit Avenue, that Honora Cooper, the widow of James Cooper, resided at the nearby former 149 Summit Avenue, that William D. Cooper, a clerk employed by Schuneman & Evans, boarded at the nearby former 149 Summit Avenue, that Beatrice Danz, a dentist who officed at the Bremer Arcade, boarded at the nearby former 139 Summit Avenue, that Paul E. Danz, a dentist who officed at the Bremer Arcade, boarded at the nearby former 139 Summit Avenue, and that Margaret Davies, a stenographer employed by the State Game & Fish Commission, resided at the former nearby 149 Summit Avenue, that Robert B. Davies, a laborer employed by Armour & Company, resided at the nearby former 147 Summit Avenue, that Hazel E. Dowling, a student at the Nichols Schools, roomed at the former nearby 151 Summit Avenue, that William F. Drefke, a superintendent, resided at the former nearby 149 Summit Avenue, that Lewis L. Drill, a lawyer and a partner with Franklin Drill in the law firm of Drill & Drill, located at the Exchange Bank Building, resided at the former nearby 147 Summit Avenue, that Catherine Dwyer, a machine operator, roomed at the former nearby 135 Summit Avenue, that Mrs. Bertha Eaton, a clerk employed by the Golden Rule, resided at the former nearby 140 Summit Avenue, that Robert L. Ege, a department manager employed by Armour & Company, roomed at the former nearby 147 Summit Avenue, that Mildred Elmstrom, a waiter employed by the Owl Drug Company, roomed at the former nearby 165 Summit Avenue, that George Ennessy, a lineman employed by the American District Telegraph Company, resided at the former nearby 159 Summit Avenue, that Max Esensten, a partner with William Esensten in the Twin City Furniture Company, resided at the former nearby 149 Summit Avenue, that S. E. Ettelstein resided at the former nearby 148 Summit Avenue, that Delia A. Farrell, a buyer, resided at the nearby former 165 Summit Avenue, that George R. Felthous, the president and treasurer of the J. A. Felthous Company, resided at the former nearby 148 Summit Avenue, that Hermon Fields, the treasurer of the Twin City Amusement Trust Estate, resided at the former nearby 148 Summit Avenue, and that Jessie Flannagan, the widow of Arthur Flannagan and a cashier employed by A. L. Haman, resided at the former nearby 129 Summit Avenue. The 1920 city directory also indicates that The Blackstone Apartments were located at the former nearby 149-151 Summit Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that the residents of the Marlborough Apartments at the former nearby 138 Summit Avenue were Mr. and Mrs. Frank Dodson, Herman Fields, Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Fritz, H. L. Haas, Mr. and Mrs. J. Q. Haas, Meyer Hirschberg, Gust Kahn, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Neely, E. J. Newell, R. C. Neely, M. T. Ryan, the Misses Ryan, Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Schusler, Mr. and Mrs. C. T. Spear, Dr. and Mrs. J. C. Whitacre, Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Wyman, and Thomas Yapp, that the residents of the Pershing Apartments at the former nearby 139 Summit Avenue were Mrs. Rose Blackburne, Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Cahill, the residents of the Marlborough Apartments at the former nearby 138 Summit Avenue were Mr. and Mrs. George Esseny, Mrs. Bertha Gosling, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Hewitt, Mrs. Mary Lyons and her daughter, Mrs. Evelyn Murphy, Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Nathan, Mr. and Mrs. J. U. Palmquist, Mrs. Mabel Skok, Mr. and Mrs. E. Strohm, and Dr. and Mrs. A. F. Wolter, that Mr. and Mrs. W. J. McFetridge resided at the former nearby 140 Summit Avenue, that the residents of the Portola Apartments at the former nearby 147 Summit Avenue were Mr. and Mrs. A. Goldhamer, Mr. and Mrs. L. A. Peters, and Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Sailor, that the residents of the Blackstone Apartments at the former nearby 151 Summit Avenue were Mrs. Margaret Austin and her daughter, Dr. H. L. Bryant, Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Calvert, Mr. and Mrs. H. Cobble, Mr. and Mrs. J. De Witt, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. L. H. Floury, Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Marum, Miss Gretchen Mitsch, Mr. and Mrs. B. L. O'Toole, Miss Emelie Season, Mr. and Mrs. M. Smith, and Mr. and Mrs. C. O. Williamson, that the residents of the Summit Crest Apartments at the former nearby 157-159 Summit Avenue were Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Anderson, Miss Bertha Backman, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Johnnie, Miss Virginia Weber, and Mrs. Mary Whitman and her daughter, that Mr. and Mrs. I. M. Kelly and Miss Katherine Sullivan all resided at 165 Summit Avenue, that Phillip R. Bronson, Mrs. Gladys Draper, Mrs. Mary Flood, Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Gregory, and Julian D. Sargent resided at the nearby former 168 Summit Avenue, and that Victoria E. Eberhart, the widow of Louis Eberhardt, resided at the former nearby 149 Summit Avenue. The 1930 city directory indicates that Lloyd R. Hill resided at the former nearby 169 Summit Avenue. Dudley B. Finch (1855- ) was a wholesale boot and shoe merchant. Mary Eliza Dexter (1856- ) was born in Hudson, Wisconsin, married Dudley B. Finch in 1878 in St. Paul, and the couple had two children, Lilla Shepherd Finch (Mrs. Sewall D.) Andrews and Florence Dudley Finch. Joseph E. Penfield was a Civil War veteran, having served in Company E of the 110th New York Infantry, and his surviving widow was Ingleif Penfield according to Civil War veteran pension records, which indicate that he was an invalid in 1890 and that a widow's benefit became payable in 1921. John Espy (1842- ,) the son of James Espy and Mary A. Miller Espy, was born in Nanticoke, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, was raised by his grandmother, Lavinia Inman Espy, was educated in schools in Pennsylvania, moved to Burlington, Iowa, in 1860, served in Company E of the First Iowa Regiment during the American Civil War, fought at the Battle of Wilson Creek, Missouri, in 1861, suffered a crushed hand from a sorghum mill accident, graduated from the New Columbus Academy of Pennsylvania in 1863, graduated from Harvey's Institute in 1864, graduated from the Albany Law School of New York in 1866, was admitted to the practice of law in Pennsylvania, was a lawyer, practiced law in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, from 1866 until 1878, was a director of the Wilkes Barre Water Company for ten years, was a member of the board of directors of the Wilkes Barre & Kingston Passenger RailRoad, was an incorporator of the Coalville Passenger RailRoad, was an incorporator of the Wilkes Barre & Coalville Street Railway, was an incorporator of the Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Camp Ground summer resort, married Martha M. Wood (1843-1907,) the daughter of John B. Wood and Sarah Gore Wood, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, in 1868, was commissioned in 1871 as an aide-de-camp to General E. S. Osborn as a Major in the Pennsylvania National Guard, participated in the suppression of riots in Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1871, in Susquehanna Depot, Pennsylvania, in 1877, and in Hazelton, Pennsylvania, in 1878, was an assistant adjutant general of the National Guard of Pennsylvania for ten years, took active part in the organization and preparation of the military code of the National Guard of Pennsylvania, was a member of the banking house of J. B. Wood & Company of Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania, from 1871 until 1878, moved to Minnesota in 1879, settled in St. Paul in 1879, practiced law in St. Paul from 1879 until 1889, was the secretary of the Republican State Central Committee in 1884, was an elected member of the executive committee of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1899, was a Methodist after 1866, was a Republican, practiced law in St. Paul with Hiram F. Stevens, built several business blocks in St. Paul, purchased land in White Bear Lake, Minnesota, and was an incorporator of the Wildwood Park Association at White Bear Lake, Minnesota, was an incorporator of Mahtomedi, Minnesota, was a Ramsey County commissioner, survived the San Francisco, California, earthquake while traveling in California, suffered two strokes in 1905, retired from active business, spent winters in the South, was a Republican, was an Episcopalian, was a Mason, was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, was a member of the Knights of Honor, was a member of the board of directors of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, officed at 75 West Seventh Street in 1907, resided at The Apollo at 61 S. St. Albans Street in 1907,married Isabel T. Hoyt, the daughter of James H. Hoyt and Elizabeth S. Hoyt, in Stamford, Connecticut, in 1908, and survived the wreck of the steamship Republic in 1909. In 1884, Major John Espy was elected secretary of the Minnesota Republican Party as a supporter of James G. Blaine. John Espy and Martha M. Wood Espy had four children, John B. W. Espy (1869- ,) Lila Wood Espy (Mrs. Harrison T.) Yeaton (1872- ,) Maud M. Espy (1875-1903,) and Olin H. Espy (1877- .) Lyndon Ambrose Smith (1854-1918) was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire, moved to Minnesota, married Dora Rogers, resided in Montevideo, Chippewa County, Minnesota, was Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota under Governors John Lind and Samuel Van Sant from 1899 to 1903, was Attorney General of Minnesota, and died in office. Lyndon A. Smith, with William J. Stevenson and Mr. George T. Simpson, successfully represented the State of Minnesota against Robert E. Olds, Frank B. Kellogg, and C. A. Severance in a challenge to a tax assessed against an unincorporated association, with its principal office in New York as a constitutionally impermissible attempt to regulate interstate commerce and a violation of constitutionally protected due process in United States Express Company v. State of Minnesota, 223 U.S. 335 (1912.) Lyndon A. Smith, with George T. Simpson, successfully represented the State of Minnesota in an appeal of suits brought by stockholders of the Northern Pacific Railway Company, the Great Northern Railway Company, and the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railroad Company to restrain the enforcement of orders of the Minnesota Railroad & Warehouse Commission and state laws prescribing maximum charges for transportation of freight and passengers and to prevent the adoption or maintenance of these rates by the railroad companies in The Minnesota Rate Cases, 230 U.S. 352 (1913.) Lyndon A. Smith, with William J. Stevenson and John M. Rees, successfully represented state and county government against an action in equity to enjoin a tax collection in Rogers v. Hennepin County, 239 U.S. 621 (1916.) Lyndon A. Smith, with Clifford L. Hilton and Charles R. Pierce, unsuccessfully represented the State of Minnesota against the Secretary of the Interior to quiet title to lands in Northwestern Minnesota and to enjoin the Federal government from issuing patents in favor of the Immigration Land Company in State of Minnesota v. Lane, 247 U.S. 243 (1918.) Lyndon A. Smith and Egbert S. Oakley successfully represented the State of Minnesota in a challenge that a suit to collect petroleum facility inspection fees involved excessive charges and violated due process in Pure Oil Company v. Minnesota, 248 U.S. 158 (1918.) Lyndon A. Smith, with Henry C. Flannery, successfully represented a brick and tile factory owner who obtained an order of the Railroad and Warehouse Commission of Minnesota requiring a railroad company to alter and extend a side track leading from its main line to an adjacent plant and the apportionment of two-thirds of the cost against the railroad was challenged by the railroad as a denial of due process in Chicago & N. W. Railway Company v. Ochs, 249 U.S. 416 (1919.) Lyndon A. Smith, then of St. Paul, with Charles R. Pierce, Clifford L. Hilton, Frank B. Kellogg, H. B. Fryberger, William D. Bailey, and C. Louis Weeks, represented Minnesota before the U. S. Supreme Court in Minnesota v. Wisconsin, 254 U.S. 14 (1920,) on a motion to appoint commissioners to run the boundary line between the respective states to settle the boundary dispute. Lyndon A. Smith was a member of the Minnesota Commission of Public Safety during World War I. Peder A. Hoff (1874-1927,) the son of Christopher Hoff and Christine Anderson Hoff, was born in St. Paul, attended the St. Paul public schools, graduated from St. Paul Central High School in 1894, graduated from the medical school of the University of Minnesota in 1900, did post-graduate work at Harvard University in 1901, did post-graduate work in Berlin, Germany, Paris, France, and Vienna, Austria, practiced medicine in St. Paul after 1900, was an instructor in medicine at the University of Minnesota, was the chief examiner for the New York Life Insurance Company, was the chief examiner for the National Life Insurance Company of Vermont, was the chief examiner for the John Hancock Life Insurance Company, was the chief examiner for the Northwestern National Life Insurance Company, was a member of the medical staffs of St. Luke's Hospital and St. Paul Hospital, married Ettie Marie Schacht (1885- ) in 1908, was a member of a special committee of the University of Minnesota Medical Alumni Association to inquire into the conditions at the University of Minnesota Medical School in 1920, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was a member of the Minnesota State Medical Society, was a member of the American Medical Association, was a member of the Nu Sigma Nu fraternity, officed at the Endicott Arcade in 1907, officed at the Lowry Building in 1920, resided at 225 Arundel Street in 1910, resided at 1312 Dayton Avenue in 1920, and died of heart disease. Ettie Marie Schacht Hoff married Barney A. Kaiser (1869-1947) in 1931. Thomas Yapp was a statistician of the State Railroad and Warehouse Commission in 1907. From 1912 to 1937, Thomas Yapp, assistant secretary/secretary of the State Railroad & Warehouse Commission, generated administrative files and investigations of accidents, complaints, and problems, including train derailments and other rail and non-rail accidents, problems with construction of rail cars, tracks, and bridges, elevators and warehouses that failed to submit required reports to the commission, alleged attempts by warehouses, elevators, and shipping companies to cheat on weights and tariffs, and requests for expansion of rail service. Thomas Yapp was involved in a lawsuit, State ex rel Thomas Yapp et al v. Roy Chase, State Auditor et al (1925.) Dudley B. Finch (1855- ) was a wholesale boot and shoe merchant in St. Paul, married Mary Eliza Dexter (1856- ) of Hudson, Wisconsin, in 1878, resided at nearby former 172 Summit Avenue, and the couple had two children, Lilla Shepherd Finch and Florence Dudley Finch. Florence Dudley Finch was a member of the class of 1899 of Kemper Hall, Racine, Kenosha County, Wisconsin. Charles Chandler Upham (1865- ,) the son of George Bliss Upham (1817- ) and Celia Spurr Upham ( -1896,) was born in Woodstock, New Brunswick, resided in St. Paul in 1930 as recorded in the federal census, and died in St. Paul. C. C. Upham resided at 670 East Fifth Street in 1893. In 1891, August Oppenheimer & Company was a St. Paul millinery merchant. Martin H. Albin married Elizabeth Polk Walker, the daughter of Lucius Marshall Walker and Celestine Garth Walker, in St. Paul and the couple had two children, Marshall Polk Albin and Rebecca Dean Albin. In 1893, Martin H. Albin, a lawyer, with J. F. Fitzpatrick, unsuccessfully represented J. W. Ham in a habeas corpus action before the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals against the Ramsey County sheriff in United States ex rel Ham v. Chapel, 54 F1 140. In 1908, Martin H. Albin corresponded with C. E. Joslin concerning the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Company in Montana. Phineas N. Cardozo was a Jewish pioneer in St. Paul. Mrs. Charles Neely was a descendant of David Colden, the son of New York Lieutenant Governor (1761-1776) Cadwallader Colden (1688-1776) and the father of lawyer and New York City mayor, from 1818 until 1821, Cadwallader D. Colden (1769-1834.) Stephen D. Dysinger, of Minnesota, married F. Blanch Whitbeck, of Newark, New York, in 1890 and the couple had one son, Stephen Henry Dysinger (1891- ,) who married Violet M. Montour in 1917. Stephen D. Dysinger, secretary of Holm & Olson, Inc., Steven H. Dysinger, a bookkeeper at Holm & Olson, Inc., and his wife, Viola M. Dysinger, all resided at 958 Fairmount Avenue in 1930. Peter B. Groat, a veteran of the Civil War, was a general passenger agent employed by the Kansas Pacific RailRoad in the late 1860's, was the first General Immigration Agent of the Northern Pacific RailRoad, came to the railroad in the 1870's, and retired from the railroad in 1893. Charles Treat Spear, the son of John G. A. Spear and H. Jane Craig Spear, the grandson of Samuel Craig and Matilda Parish Craig, and the great grandson of Alexander Craig, a Second Lieutenant in the New Hampshire Militia during the American Revolution, was a member of the Minnesota Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution. Charles Treat Spear served for 21 years with the Minnesota National Guard, served for two years with the 13th Minnesota Infantry in the Spanish-American War as captain of Company E of the Third Battalion, was promoted as a major and served for two years (1917-1919) in Manchuria and northern Siberia in the Russian Railway Service, including service as quartermaster of the Eighth Division of the Russian Railway Service Corps in Vladivostock, Russia, in 1919, and resided at 931 Marshall Avenue in late 1919. In 1930, C. Treat Spear was the president of the Minnesota-Acacia Park Cemetery Association. In 1936, C. T. Spear was an agent for the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railroad and was a member of the public relations committee of the Associated Veterans of the Russian Railway Service Corps for its 1936 San Francisco Reunion. Stephen D. Dysinger, secretary of Holm & Olson, Inc., Steven H. Dysinger, a bookkeeper at Holm & Olson, Inc., and his wife, Viola M. Dysinger, all resided at 958 Fairmount Avenue according to the 1930 city directory. John Q. Haas, a vice-president of the Matteson Company, and his wife, Emma Haas, resided at 1982 Portland Avenue according to the 1930 city directory. In 1934, Dr. Henry L. Bryant was a member of the Junior Pioneer Association of St. Paul and conducted the initiation ceremony of 100 new members to the organization. In 1906, Gretchen A. Mitsch was the second place finisher at the Minnesota State Fair in cross stitch best in white cotton and in cross stitch best in color. Alexander Ramsey Nininger (1844-1918,) the son of John Nininger (1821-1878) and Catherine Kelker Ramsey Nininger (1826-1882,) was born in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was educated in Pennsylvania at the Mount Joy Academy in Lancaster County, and at the Churchill Military Academy, was a Second Lieutenant in the 84th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers in 1862, was discharged in 1863 with a medical disability, served as a clerk and inspector in the Mankato, Minnesota, provost marshal general's office from 1863 until 1864, was an Assistant Adjutant General in the U.S. Volunteers from 1864 until 1866 in Tennessee and Alabama, was a captain in the 28th U.S. Infantry in 1867 in Kentucky and Arkansas during the early Reconstruction years, returned to Minnesota in 1870 to engage in business, and was a U.S. Marshall for the northern district of Alabama during the early 1890's. Alexander Ramsey Nininger married Mary Fay MacKubin (1853-1926) and the couple had three children, E. M. Nininger (1879-1951,) Alexander R. Nininger(1880-1958,) and Sigourney Fay Nininger (1883- .) The Minnesota Club was founded in 1874 as a gentleman's social club and built a stately Georgian building, designed by Clarence H. Johnston, near Rice Park. Edward N. Saunders was the president of the Minnesota Club in 1907. In 1988, the Minnesota Club was in financial distress with a membership of about 400, negotiated the sale of its building with John Nasseff, a former vice president of the West Group, eventually was acquired by Minnesota Sports & Entertainment, a limited partnership that owns the Minnesota Wild hockey team, and the building was renamed 317 on Rice Park and used as an intimate reception, business meeting and wedding venue. Louis F. Dow was a printer and the Louis F. Dow Calendar Company was Brown & Bigelow's biggest competitor, publishing pin-up calendars by several different artists. Lewis L. Drill (1877-1969,) the son of Charles Warren Drill and Saphrona Ellen Sheets Drill and the grandson of Jacob Andrew Drill and Mary Ann Dover Drill, was born in Browerville, Todd County, Minnesota, was educated in the Browerville, Minnesota, elementary schools, graduated from the Long Prairie, Minnesota, high school, attended Hamline University, graduated from the Georgetown University Law School, Washington, D. C., was a Major League Baseball catcher who played four seasons with the Washington Senators (1902-1904,) the Baltimore Orioles (1902,) and the Detroit Tigers (1904-1905,) batted and threw right, had a .261 batting average in 1905, outhitting Detroit Tiger rookie Ty Cobb, was the player-manager for Pueblo, Colorado, in 1907, was a lawyer, was a partner in the law firm of Stevens, Drill, Downey & Drill, was a Republican, was a protégé of U.S. Senator Thomas Schall, was the U. S. Attorney for Minnesota from 1928 until 1933, successfully prosecuted Wilbur Foshay, a promoter of a holding company that crashed in the Great Depression, and Roger Touhy, a Chicago gangster who kidnapped William Hamm, Hr., a millionaire St. Paul brewer, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a Mason, resided at 153 Nina Street in 1907, officed at the New York Life Building in 1907, and died in St. Paul. The Garrick Theatre, located at 34 Sixth Street West, opened in 1890 by Jacob Litt as the Grand Opera House, was built in the Beaux-Arts style, seating 1200 with two sets of box seats and a large balcony, and had a moderate-sized stage. The Grand Opera theatre also was a venue for boxing matches, including John L. Sullivan and "Gentleman" Jim Corbett. It was rebuilt as a burlesque house after a 1912 fire, was remodeled again in 1914 as a combination movie and live events theatre and renamed the Strand Theatre, having been modeled after New York City's Strand Theatre, and became the new Garrick Theatre from 1920 until 1950, when it no longer showed first run movies and was razed to be replaced by a parking garage. There also was a Garrick Theatre in Minneapolis. In 1874, the American District Telegraph Company was formed through the affiliation of 57 district telegraph delivery companies, became a subsidiary of Western Union in 1901, and came under the control of AT&T in 1909. Since each of the American District Telegraph Company's 57 district companies had developed independently, the many offices of the security company operated at a variety of levels, with different systems, equipment, and operating practices. During the period 1910-1930, the American District Telegraph Company became synonymous with emergency call systems and made important additions to burglar, holdup and fire alarm systems. In 1928, there were four telegraph companies operating in the Twin Cities, the American District Telegraph Company, the North American Telegraph Company, the Postal Telegraph Cable Company, and the Western Union Telegraph Company. In 1969, ADT became a separate publicly traded company. In 1987, ADT was purchased by the Hawley Group, Ltd., was renamed ADT Security Systems, Inc., and its U.S. headquarters were relocated from New York City to Parsippany, New Jersey. In 1998, ADT, Ltd. was acquired by Tyco International Ltd. Percy Thomas Walton (1871- ) was born in Paxton, Illinois, the son of William L. Walton (1844- ) and Kate B. Hinchman Walton (1848- ,) graduated with a bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Illinois in 1894, married Cora L. Landell ( -1903) in 1898 in St. Louis, Missouri, was a structural steel and bridge engineer employed by the Koken Iron Works from 1897 to 1898, by the Kenwood Bridge Company from 1898 until 1899, and by the Stupp Brothers Bridge Company from 1899 until 1905, was the chief engineer employed by the Illinois Steel Bridge Company from 1905 until 1909, married Ida M. Owen in 1904 in Bellville, Illinois, was the general manager employed by the North Dakota Metal Culvert Company from 1909 until 1912 and by the Northwestern Agency of the Illinois Steel Bridge Company, located in St. Paul, after 1912, and married Prudence Austin in 1915. Paul E. Danz married Margarite Ogren (1904- ,) the sole daughter among the five children of Andrew J. Ogren (1863- ) and Rebecca Albertson Ogren (1878- ,) in St. Paul, and the couple had one child, John Danz. The Gamble-Robinson Company was a wholesale fruit, vegetable, produce and grocery firm that had associate wholesale houses in Aberdeen, South Dakota, Alexandria, Minnesota, Austin, Minnesota, Bemidji, Minnesota, Billings, Montana, Bismarck, North Dakota, Chicago, Illinois, Escanaba, Michigan, Estherville, Iowa, Fairmount, North Dakota, Fargo, North Dakota, Great Falls, Montana, Glasgow, Montana, Glendive, Montana, Havre, Montana, Jamestown, North Dakota, Lewistown, Montana, Mankato, Minnesota, Miles City, Montana, Minot, North Dakota, Mobridge, South Dakota, North Bay, Ontario, Oelwein, Iowa, Petoskey, Michigan, Rochester, Minnesota, St. Cloud, Minnesota, St. Paul, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Sheridan, Wyoming, Sudbury, Ontario, Valley City, North Dakota, Wadena, Minnesota, Williston, North Dakota, and Willmar, Minnesota. Stephen F. Bueneman ( -1908,) J. Adam Felthous ( -1908,) Dudley Baldwin Finch ( -1910,) James G. Freeman ( -1911,) Henry Nichols ( -1912,) Mabel Alice Perkins ( -1913,) Daniel H. Moon ( -1914,) John Kelliher ( -1914,) Phineas Numeas Cardozo ( -1914,) Louis Eberhart ( -1917,) Albert Edward Chapman ( -1918,) Lyndon Ambrose Smith ( -1918,) James Cooper ( -1920,) Joseph E. Penfield ( -1920,) John Henry Sargisson ( -1920,) Catherine Gertrude Dwyer ( -1923,) Charles Neely ( -1923,) Jennie L. Bueneman ( -1924,) Charles H. Van Auken ( -1924,) Martin H. Albin ( -1925,) Hanara Cooper ( -1925,) Charles Louis Weeks ( -1925,) Dr. Stephen O. Arnold ( -1926,) Jacobina Bueneman ( -1927,) John Quincy Haas ( -1927,) Frank Dodson ( -1928,) Ira M. Kelly ( -1928,) Ella Conroy ( -1929,) Robert Davies ( -1930,) Mark W. Fay ( -1930,) Bertha Gosling ( -1930,) Edward B. Graves ( -1930,) James H. Quinn ( -1930,) Stephen D. Dysinger ( -1931,) Clark E. Wyman ( -1931,) Thomas Yapp ( -1932,) John Beard ( -1933,) Margaret R. Austin ( -1934,) Phillip R. Bronson ( -1934,) Albert Goldhammer ( -1935,) Mary Lyons ( -1935,) William F. Sailor ( -1935,) Frank Billings Kellogg ( -1937,) Andrew E. Fritz ( -1938,) James Wendell Bloom ( -1939,) William Esensten ( -1939,) Katherine Sullivan ( -1939,) Dr. Ernest H. Bohland ( -1940,) Edward J. Newell ( -1940,) William A. Broderick ( -1941,) William David Cooper ( -1942,) Joseph Marum ( -1942,) Robert West McCloud ( -1942,) Dr. Beatrice E. Danz ( -1944,) Joseph Barre ( -1945,) Elizabeth M. Baker ( -1945,) Charles Chandler Upham ( -1946,) Henry L. Bryant ( -1947,) Catherine Dwyer ( -1947,) Herman Gall ( -1947,) Mary Lyons ( -1948,) Charles Treat Spear ( -1951,) John C. Whitacre ( -1951,) Emeline Season ( -1952,) and Carl A. Carlgren ( -1954) all died in Ramsey County. Ernest Davidson (1890-1969) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Sima M. Siegel (1898-1992) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Clifford W. Campbell (1895-1965) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of McConologue, and died in Ramsey County. Kathryn Lefebvre (1883-1977) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Krueger, and died in Ramsey County. Agnes G. Kennedy (1895-1978) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Orman, and died in Ramsey County. Ackveline Marie Frost (1873-1958) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Johnson, and died in Ramsey County. Margaret Gall (1881-1958) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Wick, and died in Ramsey County. Margaret Ann Gall (1896-1975) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Theissen, and died in Ramsey County. Louis F. Dow (1877-1971) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of McCullough, and died in Ramsey County. Dr. Paul E. Danz (1894-1961) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Margaret Davies (1863-1958) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Culp, and died in Ramsey County. William F. Drefke (1879-1960) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Lewis L. Drill (1877-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Sheet, and died in Ramsey County. Franklin Drill (1875-1963) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Sheets, and died in Ramsey County. Evelyn Murphy (1881-1956) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Silver, and died in Ramsey County. Evelyn Marie Murphy (1907-1978) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Germain, and died in Ramsey County. William Calvert (1889-1965) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Gretchen A. Mitsch (1884-1982) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Sonnen, and died in Ramsey County. Peter B. Groat ( -1911,) John Herman Davidson ( -1928,) Louis Bock ( -1928,) Egbert S. Oakley ( -1931,) Joseph Skorish ( -1935,) George T. Simpson ( -1937,) John M. Rees ( -1939,) William G. Mee ( -1944,) James P. Rodgers ( -1945,) Frank Hewitt ( -1951,) Henry C. Flannery ( -1953,) and John L. Kennedy ( -1954) all died in Hennepin County. Amadeus F. Wolter (1894-1993) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Berns, and died in Hennepin County. Mary Whitman ( -1957) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Clarke, and died in Hennepin County. Ronald Harry Stewart ( -1927) died in Kandiyohi County, Minnesota. William Doolittle Bailey ( -1929) and Percy Thomas Walton ( -1935) both died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Frank L. Clark ( -1930) died in Rice County, Minnesota. Lorane Harrison Clark (1890-1962) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Allen, and died in Rice County, Minnesota. John L. Kennedy ( -1940) died in Houston County, Minnesota. Harry H. Frost (1893-1970) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Morrison County, Minnesota. Claire Faye Brown ( -1938) died in Benton County, Minnesota. Bertha Anna Maria Eaton (1894-1977) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Zimmerman, and died in Goodhue County, Minnesota. George F. Ennessy (1886-1965) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Erickson, and died in Freeborn County, Minnesota. William F. McFetridge ( -1928) died in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Lewis Franklin Fisher (1870-1955) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hester, and died in Koochiching County, Minnesota. Charles Oscar Williamson (1905-1959) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Borg, and died in Aitkin County, Minnesota. Clarence Odell Williamson ( -1951) died in Anoka County, Minnesota. Mary Flood ( -1925) died in Becker County, Minnesota. Charles Robert Pierce (1866-1957) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Jones, and died in McLeod County, Minnesota. [See note on the Minnesota Industrial Commission for 936 West Osceola Avenue.] [See note for the Worch Cigar Company for 821 West Osceola Avenue.] [See note on the NorthWestern Fuel Company for 1322 West Osceola Avenue.] [See note on John Milton Armstrong and George Washington Armstrong for 223-229 Eagle Parkway.] [See note on George L. Otis for 1344 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on Richards Gordon and the Gordon-Ferguson Company for 378 Summit Avenue.] [See note for the Mannheimer Brothers for 270 West Seventh Street.] [See note on the Crane Company for 936 Goodrich Avenue.] [See note on the Field-Schlick department store for 19 Kenwood Parkway.] [See the note for the Golden Rule Department Store for 657 East Fourth Street.] [See note for Tri-State Telegraph & Telephone Company for 596 Portland Avenue.] [See note on John Quincy Adams for 3 Crocus Hill.] [See note on Hiram Fairchild Stevens for 647 Lincoln Avenue.] [See note on Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Company for 406 Maple Street.] [See note on Northwestern National Insurance Company Of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for 598 Lincoln Avenue.] [See note for Alexander R. Nininger for 240 Summit Avenue.] [See note for the Chicago & NorthWestern RailRoad.] [See note for the Minneapolis & St. Louis RailRoad.] [See note on the Roger Touhy gang for 668 North Greenbrier Street.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.] [See note for Western Union for 290 Harrison Avenue.] [See note on Cordenio A. Severance for 710 West Linwood Avenue.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.]

178 Summit Avenue: The Elm Apartments/Elms Apartments. Built in 1910 (1919 according to Ramsey County property tax records; 1920 according to the Minnesota Historical Society;) 1910 Apartment House in style. The 28436 square foot building is three stories high and has cast iron balconies on its second and third floors. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#13052) indicate that William H. Snell (1889- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private First Class in the Medical Corps at the Camp Dodge, Iowa, base hospital, who was born in St. Paul, had brown eyes, dark brown hair, and a ruddy complexion, was 5 8 1/2" tall, was an optometrist at induction, was an optometrist employed by after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Arthur W. Anderson, Phil H. Bettingen, a creditman employed by the Western Supply Company, Clifford M. Borneman, a salesman, Wiley L. Boullt, a clerk, Adam Bolton, the grand secretary of the International Order of Foresters, who officed at the Pittsburgh Building, John S. Bratton, an employee of the Missouri Cattle Company, Clarence J. Brodt, a salesman, William D. Bric, a salesman employed by the Flaxlinum Insulation Company, Ralph M. Cooley, an engineer employed by the Minnesota State Highway Department, and Chester B. Ellyson, a purchasing agent employed by the George J. Grant Construction Company, all resided at this address, that Frances I. Bauer, a clerk employed by the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad, roomed at this address, that Michael J. Cohler, a dentist who officed at the Lowry Building, boarded at this address, that John H. Devenney resided at this address, and that Evelyn Dufresne, a stenographer, Helen Dufresne, a clerk employed by the Log Cabin Products Company, and Vivian Egaard all boarded at this address and Joseph E. Dufresne, a steward, resided at this address. The 1920 federal census indicates that John S. Bratton (1891- ,) a cattle broker who was born in Pennsylvania to parents who were born in England and in Ireland, resided in rental property at this address with his wife, Maud M. Bratton (1894- ,) who was born in Illinois to parents who were born in Illinois and Missouri. Additional residents at this address according to the 1920 federal census were Frank J. Lawler (1883- ,) his wife, Rose Lawler (1886- ,) their daughter, Gladys T. Lawler (1904- ,) their son, Leonard J. Lawler (1906- ,) another daughter, Margaret Lawler (1910- ,) and another daughter, Mary R. Lawler (1915- ,) Sarah R. Normand (1881- ,) and her daughter, Frances J. Normand (1906- ,) Agnes M. Erren/Errere (1892- ,) her daughter, Eileen P. Erren/Errere (1915- ,) and her other daughter, Mary J. Erren/Errere (1918- ,) Clarence J. Brodt (1883- ,) his wife, Agnes Brodt (1886- ,) their son, Clarence G. Brodt (1908- ,) another son, Vincent Brodt (1915- ,) and another son, Jack Brodt, (1918- ,) Raymond Rindskoff (1894- ,) and his wife, Margaret V. Rindskoff (1895- ,) Harry W. Rowley (1886- ,) and his wife, Winifred A. Rowley (1892- ,) Charles McDermott (1859- ,) and his wife, Margaret McDermott (1862- ,) John Belmeur (1868- ,) Gertrude P. Hill (1880- ,) and her sister, Elsie Monroe (1885- ,) Arthur C. Townley (1880- ,) his wife, Margaret R. Townley (1889- ,) and their daughter, Bonita M. Townley (1905- ,) Ralph M. Miller (1894- ,) and his wife, Ruth A. E. Miller, Dan M. Wood (1868- ,) his wife, Mildred A. Wood (1878- ,) and their servant, Anna E. Jorgenson (1900- ,) Lillie D. Swenson (1860- ,) and her daughter, Helen W. Swenson (1894- ,) Edgar C. Short (1885- ,) his wife, Mable M. Short (1892- ,) their daughter, Mary C. Short (1916- ,) and another daughter, Myra E. Short (1918- ,) Philip H. Bettingen (1842- ,) Herbert E. Metcalf (1893- ,) his wife, Eleanore M. Metcalf (1894- ,) and Mary E. Metcalf (1918- .) The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. R. A. Emberg, Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Harwood, Mrs. G. F. Jennings, Mr. and Mrs. P. A. La Valle, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Meisel, Mr. and Mrs. G. Myers, Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Walsh, and Mr. and Mrs. John Watson resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that John Belmeuer, a buyer employed Mannheimer Brothers, John S. Bratton, proprietor with Eugene V. Menges of the Missouri Cattle Company, live stock brokers in South St. Paul, Minnesota, Mrs. Evelyn Dilley, a stenographer employed by the Northwest Fuel Company, and Roy R. Dilley, a deputy inspector employed by the Division of Oil Inspection, all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the residents of the apartment building at this address were Ray A. McBride (Apartment #B,) Effie B. Anderson, a clerk (Apartment #101,) Alois L. Huber and his wife, Amanda Huber (Apartment #103,) Lawrence P. King, an electrical engineer, and his wife, Elizabeth C. King (Apartment #104,) Arthur G. Lehmann, a salesman employed by the Twin City Motor Company, and his wife, Gunda Lehman (Apartment #105,) Marion Timm, a clerk (Apartment #106,) Marion C. Hanson, a teacher at the Galtier School (Apartment #107,) Edward H. Helperin, a salesman employed by Chaix-Copley, Inc. (Apartment #108,) Ruth Loraus, a manicurist at the Pioneer Building (Apartment #109,) Edward L. Rodgers, an automobile salesman, and his wife, Virginia Rodgers (Apartment #110,) John A. Peterson (Apartment #111,) Mrs. Rose M. Larsen, the widow of August C. Larsen (Apartment #112,) Thomas H. Carroll, an installer employed by the Tri-State Telegraph & Telephone Company, and his wife, Helen Carroll, a demonstrator employed by the H. J. Heinz Company (Apartment #201,) Mrs. Myrtle M. Letchel, the widow of Henry Letchel and a dressmaker at a gown shop, and Mrs. Nellie Falk (Apartment #202,) Mrs. Ruth E. Katz, a nurse employed by George K. Hagaman, and Ann Lou Novotny (Apartment #207,) Marie A. Moquin, a physician who officed at 350 St. Peter Street (Apartment #208,) Luman R. Mackey and his wife, Ruth Mackey (Apartment #209,) Charles B. Irwin, a fieldman (Apartment #210,) Leila Halverson (Apartment #211,) Jerald J. Sexton, a teacher, and his wife, Margaret Sexton (Apartment #301,) Leonard J. Murray, a floorman employed by S. S. Kresge Company, and his wife, Olive Murray (Apartment #302,) Esther Rodrick, a miliner (Apartment #303,) Theo A. Wedoff, a clerk employed by the Great Northern RailRoad, and his wife, Minerva M. Wedoff (Apartment #304,) Mildred A. Yost, a bookkeeper employed by the West Publishing Company (Apartment #306,) Irene A. Johnson, an instructor at Humboldt High School and at Mechanic Arts High School (Apartment #307,) Elizabeth Doyle, a stenographer (Apartment #308,) Mrs. Thekla Haas, the widow of James Haas and a nurse (Apartment #310,) Mrs. Helen Anhalt (Apartment #311,) and Alex Tinling (Apartment #312,) with Apartments #102, #203, #204, #205, #206, #212, #305, and #309 vacant. The 1989 Arlington Hills Lutheran Church directory indicates that Lori Rodman resided at Apartment #209 at this address. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that William A. Chatterton, who attended the school from 1933 until 1937, who attended Harvard University, who attended the University of Minnesota, and who married Janet Mae Anderson in 1949, resided at this address. In 1930, Michael J. Cohler, associated with Birnberg & Cohler, and his wife, Jay Cohler, resided at 929 Goodrich Avenue. Chaix-Copley Inc. was a clothing and footwear manufacturer. Sebastian Spering Kresge (1867-1966) worked as a traveling tinware salesman from 1890 until 1897 before he opened, with one of his customers, J. G. McCrory, who owned a chain of stores in the northeast, his first discount retail store where all merchandise was sold for less than a dime. Kresge bought out McCrory and incorporated as S. S. Kresge in 1912 with 85 stores. Kmart was the successor to the Kresge stores, with the first Kmart discount department store opening in 1962 in Garden City, Michigan. George F. Jennings ( -1921,) John Belmeur ( -1923,) Mary Kathleen Lawler ( -1923,) Arthur W. Anderson ( -1924,) George J. Grant ( -1924,) Arthur Albert Walfred Anderson ( -1925,) James Kermit Haas ( -1925,) John J. Watson ( -1927,) William D. Bric ( -1929,) Charles Irwin ( -1929,) Mary Lawler ( -1939,) Thomas H. Carroll ( -1940,) Adam L. Bolton ( -1943,) Harry M. Walsh ( -1945,) John D. Watson ( -1947,) Clarence J. Brodt ( -1948,) Margaret Ruth Lawler ( -1948,) Mildred A. Yost ( -1949,) John Douglas Watson ( -1950,) Arthur Herman William Meisel ( -1951,) John L. Watson ( -1951,) and Margaret McDermott ( -1952) all died in Ramsey County. Arthur W. Anderson (1901-1993) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Dwyer, and died in Ramsey County. Joseph Dufresne (1892-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Dupre, and died in Ramsey County. Frances Bauer (1864-1957) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Michael J. Cohler (1895-1958) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Birnberg, and died in Ramsey County. Agnes M. Erren (1892-1985) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Edgar C. Short (1884-1981) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of McKee, and died in Ramsey County. John D. Watson (1876-1958) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hoyt, and died in Ramsey County. Helen P. Carroll (1910-1965) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Wodaszewski, and died in Ramsey County. Henry J. Letchel (1885-1971) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Leila Halverson (1884-1976) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Levre, and died in Ramsey County. Theodore A. Wedoff (1891-1959) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Anderson, and died in Ramsey County. Mina Marie Wedoff (1892-1962) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Rick, and died in Ramsey County. Elizabeth J. Doyle (1871-1959) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Murphy, and died in Ramsey County. Elizabeth M. Doyle (1882-1980) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Kearns, and died in Ramsey County. Mary Lawler ( -1928,) Rose Lawler ( -1928,) Margaret E. Lawler ( -1930,) Sarah Gertrude Norman ( -1932,) Charles McDermott ( -1935,) Amanda A. Huber ( -1937,) Herbert Harwood ( -1939,) Margaret Lawler ( -1940,) Margaret Lawler ( -1941,) George Myers ( -1941,) William Harry Snell ( -1942,) Mary Ann Lawler ( -1944,) Margaret Sexton ( -1947,) Frank Lawler ( -1949,) Mable Short ( -1950,) Margaret McDermott ( -1953,) and Rose Lawler ( -1954) all died in Hennepin County. Harry Wellington Rowley (1885-1963) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Knudsen, and died in Hennepin County. Evelyn Dilley (1885-1966) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Lystad, and died in Hennepin County. Nellie Falk (1897-1979) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of O'Brien, and died in Hennepin County. Ruth Esther Mackey (1901-1983) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Gustafson, and died in Hennepin County. Clarence Brodt ( -1927) died in Dakota County, Minnesota. John H. Devenney ( -1929) died in Stevens County, Minnesota. Maude B. Bratton (1885-1967) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Crider, and died in Hubbard County, Minnesota. Leonard F. Lawler (1905-1971) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Louth, and died in Dakota County, Minnesota. Margaret Cecelia Lawler ( -1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Roddy, and died in Ramsey County. Vincent Herbert Brodt ( -1946) died in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Winifred A. Rowley (1890-1995) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Paulson, and died in Becker County, Minnesota. Ralph M. Miller ( -1924) died in Crow Wing County, Minnesota. Mildred Annette Wood (1879-1964) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Dugan, and died in Crow Wing County, Minnesota. Anna Elizabeth Jorgenson (1879-1960) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Jacobson, and died in Polk County, Minnesota. Anna Eleanor Jorgenson (1897-1960) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Malmgren, and died in McLeod County, Minnesota. Mary Eileen Esther Metcalf (1919-1996) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hedin, and died in Hennepin County. Marion C. Hanson (1895-1988) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Olson, and died in Hennepin County. Alois Huber ( -1932) died in Le Sueur County, Minnesota. Elizabeth C. King ( -1924) died in Fillmore County, Minnesota. Arthur Gerhart Lehman (1908-1994) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Widiger, and died in Watonwan County, Minnesota. Marion Gail Timm (1898-1997) was born in Iowa, had a mother with a maiden name of Henry, and died in Lyon County, Minnesota. Edward Rodgers ( -1930) died in Carlton County, Minnesota. Ruth Emery Katz (1894-1982) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hunter, and died in Anoka County, Minnesota. Marie Moquin ( -1953) died in Polk County, Minnesota. The current owner of record of the property is Thomas J. Mohr, who resides at 1787 Sargent Avenue. The 1879 city directory indicates that Peter Garrigan was a coachman at the nearby former 181 Summit Avenue. The 1889 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. D. H. Moon resided at the nearby former 176 Summit Avenue. The 1920 city directory indicates that William J. O'Connor, a manager for the Sperry & Hutchinson Company, resided at this address. Daniel H. Moon (1846- ) was born in Leesburg, Indiana, graduated from the Notre Dame University in 1866, moved to Rochester, Minnesota, in 1866, moved to St. Paul in 1881, was a wholesale grocer, and resided in Ox Bow, Saskatchewan, in 1912. Daniel H. Moon ( -1914) died in Ramsey County. William J. O'Connor ( -1942) died in Hennepin County. [See note for Tri-State Telegraph & Telephone Company for 596 Portland Avenue.] [See note on the Flax-Li-Num Insulating Company for 1379 West Osceola Avenue.] [See note on the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad.] [See note on Eugene A. Towle and the Log Cabin Syrup Company for 18 Kenwood Parkway.] [See note for the Mannheimer Brothers for 270 West Seventh Street.] [See note on the NorthWestern Fuel Company for 1322 West Osceola Avenue.] [See note on the West Publishing Company for 415 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on the Mechanic Arts High School for 656 Portland Avenue.]

184 Summit Avenue: C. D. Kerr House. Built in 1889 (1884 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne/Victorian in style; George Gerlach, architect and builder. The house cost $1,000 to build. C. D. Kerr was a judge. The house is a 2 1/2 story, 5712 square foot, wood frame building originally designed as a private residence, but eventually reformatted as apartments. It has two story bay windows, an open porch, and a sunrise motif on the north dormer. The front porch was added in 1910. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. A. F. Morris and their daughter resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Crippen and Miss Marcia E. Crippen resided at this address. By 1890, H. S. Crippen occupied the house, and by 1914, P. J. Giesen resided at this address. The 1890 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Crippen resided at this address. The 1891 city directory indicates that Hon. and Mrs. C. D. Kerr resided at this address. The 1893 and 1895 city directories indicate that Hon. and Mrs. C. D. Kerr and their daughter resided at this address. The St. Paul Globe indicates that Charles Deal Kerr resided at this address in 1896. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Elisabeth Briggs (1817-1901,) who was born in the United States and who died of a inflamation of the pancreas, resided at this address in 1901. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mrs. P. J. Giesen and Mr. and Mrs. Martin Giesen all resided at this address. The 1920 federal census indicates the residents at this address were Martin Giesen (1875- ,) his wife, Olga C. Giesen, their daughter, Louise M. Giesen (1915- ,) and his mother-in-law, Louise C. Hilbert (1857- .) The 1930 city directory indicates that Wallace W. Throckmorton, a salesman employed by the Standard Cattle Company, his wife, Emma Throckmorton, and William J. Throckmorton, a driver, all resided at this address. Charles Deal Kerr (1836-1896) was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, graduated from the Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1857, read the law in the the law office of Hon. Samuel F. Miller at Keokuk, Iowa, in 1859, was admitted to the practice of law in 1861, served in the Sixth Illinois Regiment/Sixteenth Illinois Regiment/Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry during the American Civil War, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel, married Mary E. Bennett, of Rochester, New York, moved to St. Cloud in 1865, practiced law as a law partner of James McKelvey, practiced law as a law partner of W. S. Moore, practiced law as a law partner of Loren Warren Collins from 1868 until 1872, moved to St. Paul in 1873, was a St. Paul city alderman, was the president of the St. Paul Common Council, was a member of the St. Paul board of education, was a law partner of Harris Richardson from 1885 until 1887, was a member of the Minnesota State Bar Association, was a member of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church, was a member of the Acker Post of the Grand Army of the Republic, was a senior vice commander of the Minnesota department of the Loyal Legion of the United States in 1888, was a judge of the Second Judicial District from 1888 until 1896, addressed a conference sponsored by the Associated Charities of St. Paul on street boys in 1894, and died in San Antonio, Texas. Charles D. Kerr was the author of Civil war diary of Colonel Charles Deal Kerr of the Sixteenth Illinois Infantry on the march to the sea, November-December 1864, published in 1932. Colonel Charles D. Kerr of the 126th Illinois Cavalry, which was at the rear of the XIV Corps, was the rear guard unit at Ebenezer Creek, Georgia, where Sherman's Army disassembled a pontoon bridge before a throng of African-American camp followers could cross, thus abandoning a large number of ex-slave women, children, and old men. In 1868, Loren Warren Collins (1838- ) formed a law partnership in St. Cloud, Minnesota, with Charles Deal Kerr, which lasted until 1872, when Kerr moved to St. Paul. Judge C. D. Kerr, a district judge in Minnesota's Second Judicial District in 1889, was a law partner with William Rainey Marshall (1825-1896,) the former Minnesota Governor, and Robertson Howard (1847-1899,) a Georgetown University-trained physician turned lawyer and a founder of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity at the University of Virginia in 1868. In 1888, C. D. Kerr was the lawyer for the defendants in The Northern Pacific RailRoad Company vs. The United States, Peter Johnson, Andrew Johnson, et al., a lawsuit arising out of a dispute over the extent of land grants to the railroad company near Park Rapids, Minnesota, and a successful challenge by the railroad to settlers who began clearing disputed land parcels. Charles Deal Kerr campaigned for Lincoln in 1860, was admitted to the bar in 1861 in Carthage, Illinois, joined the 16th Illinois Regiment, was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, moved to Minnesota in 1865, initially resided in St. Cloud, Minnesota, served as mayor of St. Cloud, and was appointed a Ramsey County judge by Governor William Merriam in 1888. Charles D. Kerr and Mary E. Bennett Kerr had three children, Mrs. Lewis J. Hillhouse, Mrs. Harold C. Kerr, and Charles D. Kerr. Peter J. Giesen (1833-1915) was a German bookbinder who came to St. Paul in 1855. His company bound law books for West Publishing Company, and he was also president of the company that published Volkszeitung, the German language newspaper of St. Paul. Giesen founded and supported the Mozart Club of St. Paul. Mary E. Bennett, the daughter of Joel Bennett (1817-1881) and Sarah Fitch Bennett, of Rochester/Auburn, New York, married C. D. Kerr of St. Cloud, Minnesota, in 1874. Charles A. F. Morris (1827-1903) was born in Ireland, emigrated to the United States in 1849, moved to St. Paul in 1854, was employed by the engineering departments of several railroads, including the Northern Pacific RailRoad, then moved to Oregon as the Chief Engineer of the Southern extension of the Oregon & California Railroad, then returned to reside in Excelsior, Minnesota, where he died. Charles A. F. Morris, engineer and surveyor, surveyed the land that George B. Waller, Sr., who owned the original Litchfield, Minnesota, town site, gave to the railroad as an inducement for the railroad to locate a town and platted it in 1869 and also surveyed the town of Hallock, Minnesota, in 1880, for the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Railway Company. The St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Railway Company, formed in 1876, was the successor to the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad, was reorganized and renamed the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Railway Company, and was in turn succeeded by the Great Northern RailRoad. J. P. H. Morris (1854- ) was the son of Charles A. F. Morris. Asa G. Briggs was the son of Elisabeth Briggs. Asa Gilbert Briggs (1862-1945) was born in Arcadia, Wisconsin, graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1885 and from the University of Wisconsin Law School in 1887, and then moved to St. Paul and practiced law. In 1930, Mrs. Florence A. Crippen, the widow of Herbert S. Crippen, and Marcia F. Crippen, a stenographer, resided at 737 West Lincoln Avenue. George N. Gerlach (1857-1927) was born in St. Paul, was educated at the St. Paul Common Schools, initially was a printer, then was a carpenter, subsequently was a building contractor, was a Democrat, resided in St. Paul, was employed by the United States government to build Fort Keogh in 1878, was a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives representing Ramsey County (District 27) from 1895 until 1897, and had a court contest over his election to that Minnesota House seat with Walter Nelson, for which contest expenses he was reimbursed $75 by the State in 1895. George N. Gerlach was a member of an executive committee for the construction of the Church of St. Agnes in St. Paul in 1908 and, with George Ries, purchased and donated the chandeliers for the church in 1915. George N. Gerlach was the president of the German Roman Catholic Benevolent Association of Minnesota from 1899 to 1927, was a member of the St. Anthony Society, was a member, with Louis W. Hill, John B. Meagher, Judge E. W. Bazille, Charles H. F. Smith, C. J. McConville, H. C. McNair, John S. Grode, J. C. Kennedy, George Michel, Timothy Foley, C. D. O'Brien, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Francis Erling, Peter M. Kerst, Rev. J. J. Lawler, Rev. T. J. Gibbons, Rev. P. R. Heffron, Rev. Francis Xavier Bajec, Rev. A. McNulty, Rev. John Solnce, and Rev. Francis Xavier Gores, of the Cathedral of St. Paul's Executive Building Committee in 1906, and was the treasurer of the St. Joseph's German Catholic Orphan Asylum in 1910. Peter Joseph Giesen ( -1915,) Herbert Schuyler Crippen ( -1920,) and Marcia F. Crippen ( -1935) all died in Ramsey County. Charles Dudley Kerr ( -1953) died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Martin H. Giesen (1889-1968) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Dobman, and died in Hennepin County. Loren W. Collins ( -1912,) Mary E. Kerr ( -1934,) and Wallace W. Throckmorton ( -1951) all died in Hennepin County. Mary B. Kerr (1827-1907) was born in Canada and died in Hennepin County. Emma Throckmorton (1875-1962) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Berry, and died in Hennepin County. The current owner of record of the property is Schroeder Properties, located in Edina, Minnesota. [See note on Peter J. Giesen for 827 Mound Street.] [See note for the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note for Patrick Richard Heffren for 2450 Park Avenue.] [See note on Louis Warren Hill for 260 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Constantine J. McConville for 470 Summit Avenue.] [See note for Christopher Dillon O'Brien for 212 McBoal Street.] [See note on Thomas Fitzgerald for 712 West Osceola Avenue.] [See note for the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba RailRoad.] [See note for the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad.] [See note for the Northern Pacific RailRoad.]

186 Summit Avenue: Dr. Arthur Eastman House. Built in 1885 (1884 according to Ramsey County property tax records and 1883 according to Christopher C. Andrews;) Queen Anne/Victorian in style. The house is a 2 1/2 story (three story according to Ramsey County property tax records,) 7214 square foot, brick building with a truncated hipped gabled roof that includes one gabled dormer. It has a limestone foundation, an asymmetrical design, a two story oriel window and a three story tower. It has been significantly altered over time. It also has a large structure behind the house that formerly was a stable. The 1885, 1887, 1889, and 1891 city directories indicate that Dr. and Mrs. A. M. Eastman resided at this address. The 1893 and 1895 city directories indicate that Dr. and Mrs. Arthur M. Eastman resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Charles Appler, a boilermaker employed by the Omaha Shops, and Mrs. Nannie Crowley, a clerk employed by the Novelty Millinery Company, both resided at this address, that Ray T. Dare, a driver employed by Cook's Taxi Cab & Transfer Company, boarded at this address, and that Everett Bass, an auto mechanic employed by the Roller Motor Company, John Crowley, a student, Mrs. Nora Crowley, and Clarence Deyeo, a driver, all roomed at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. O. M. Goodwill resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Michael T. Minehan, and his wife, Anna Minehan, resided at this address. Dr. Arthur Maynard Eastman (1855-1923,) the son of John Whitemore/Whittemore Eastman and Maria Farrington Eastman and the grandson of William Kimball Eastman, was born in St. Anthony, Minnesota, graduated from the University of Minnesota, graduated from Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1879, studying under Dr. Constantine Hering, was a resident physician at the Philadelphia Homeopathic Hospital, joined the staff of the New York Homeopathic Hospital, settled in St. Paul in 1881, resided at this address until 1913, was a homeopathic physician, was a member of the American Association For The Advancement of Science, invested in mineral exploration in the Thunder Bay region of the North Shore of Lake Superior, and was the author of Life and Reminiscences of Dr. Constantine Hering, published in Philadelphia by the family for private circulation in 1917. Dr. Eastman was a senior member of the American Institute of Homeopathy, a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the Minnesota State Homeopathic Institute, was president of the St. Paul Society of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery, was president of the Minnesota Board of Medical Examiners, was president of the Minneapolis Homeopathic Society, was a member of the Alumni Association of Hahnemann Medical College was a member of the Alumni Association of Ward's Island of New York, was a member of the Alumni Association of Metropolitan hospitals of New York, became a Mason in 1886, was a member of the Mystic Shrine since 1917, was a member of the Zuhrah Temple of Minneapolis, was a member of the Elks Lodge, No. 58, in St. Paul, was a member of the Sons of the American Revolution, and was a member of the Native Sons of Minnesota. Dr. Arthur Eastman married Harriet Lord Welles (1860-1907,) the daughter of the Hon. Henry Titus Welles (1802-1878,) a pioneer of the city of Minneapolis, and Jerusha H. Lord Welles ( -1921,) and the couple had five children, Mildred Eastman (Mrs. George W.) Anderson (1885-1981,) Welles Eastman (1886-1975,) Katherine Eastman (Mrs. James E.) Dain (1891-1975,) Harriet Eastman (Mrs. __?__) North (1889- ,) and Eleanor (Mrs. Byron) Webster (1898- .) Dr. Arthur Eastman was born in St. Anthony, Minnesota, the son of John Whittemore Eastman, a resident of Minneapolis and a pioneer flour miller, and Maria Farrington Eastman. John Whittemore Eastman (1820- ) was born in Conway, New Hampshire, the son of William K. Eastman, was educated at the Fryeburg, Maine, Academy and the academy at Plymouth, Massachusetts, was employed from 1840 to 1847 by wholesale houses in either Boston, Massachusetts, or Buenos Aires, Argentina, as accountant or supercargo, mined in California, was involved in the carrying trade between Mexico and California ports, went into the cattle business and the fruit business in Southern California, married Susan Maria Farrington, the daughter of Jeremiah Farrington, in 1854, settled in St. Anthony, Minnesota, in 1854, established the town of Merrimac, Minnesota, located some miles below St. Paul, but abandoned when the river changed course, and erected the Minnesota Flouring Mill, a large flour mill at St. Anthony Falls, Minnesota, with partners John Rollins, W. W. Eastman, and R. P. Upton in the firm of Rollins, Upton & Eastman. In 1858, the firm became Eastman & Cahill and the mill name changed to "Island Mills." In 1869, Eastman, in company with Elijah Moulton, built a large planning and re-sawing lumber mill on Hennepin Island. Welles Eastman (1886-1975) graduated from the St. Paul Academy, attended the University of Minnesota from 1906 until 1907, attended Trinity College from 1907 until 1908, graduated from Harvard University in 1911, was a Captain in the American Red Cross in 1918 and did field duty in France from 1918 until 1919, was an insurance agent in 1921, resided at 410 Groveland Avenue in Minneapolis, and was a member of the Minneapolis Club, was a member of the Minneapolis Athletic Club, was a member of the Lafayette Club of Minneapolis, was a member of the University Club of St. Paul, and was a member of the Minneapolis Golf Club. Of German descent, Constantine Hering (1800-1880) is known as the "Father" of American homeopathy who studied the writings of Dr. Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) in order to "disprove" the legitimacy of homeopathy, had a dramatic change of heart when he received successful homeopathic treatment for a wounded right hand forefinger that had become inflamed and seriously infected, and was the author of The Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica. The Homeopathic College of Pennsylvania was established in 1848 by Constantine Hering, Jacob Jeanes, and Walter Williamson to provide homeopathy training. In 1869, the Homeopathic College was renamed in honor of Samuel Hahnemann, one of the pioneers of homeopathic medicine, as Hahnemann Medical College. In 1982, Hahnemann Medical College gained university status as Hahnemann University. In 1993, Hahnemann University merged with the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania (1850-1867,) renamed the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania (1867-1970) and then again renamed the Medical College of Pennsylvania (1970-1993,) to form the MCP Hahnemann School of Medicine of Allegheny University of the Health Sciences, the largest private medical school in the country. John W. Eastman ( -1906,) Arthur Maynard Eastman ( -1923,) John Cornelis Eastman ( -1933,) Harriet Eastman ( -1934,) John C. Crowley ( -1947,) John C. Crowley ( -1948,) and Mildred Eastman ( -1950) all died in Hennepin County. Welles Eastman (1887-1975) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Welles, and died in Hennepin County. Katherine Dain (1890-1975) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Welles, and died in Hennepin County. The current owner of record of the property is Schroeder Properties, located in Edina, Minnesota. [See note on Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago for 639 Fairmount Avenue.] [See note on the University Club for 420 Summit Avenue.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

187 Summit Avenue (Across from 186 Summit Avenue:) Civil War Commemorative Statue/Josias R. King Statue; Constructed 1903; cast iron statue on stone column; John K. Daniels, sculptor. Josias Ridgate King (1832-1916) was born in Washington, D. C., worked on a surveying crew in Florida from 1847 until 1850, returned to Washington, D. C., briefly enrolled at Georgetown University, sailed to California during the Gold Rush, was detained in Patagonia, Argentina, in 1851, alternated time as a farmer, a gold prospector, and a surveyor in California until 1855, returned to Washington, D. C., moved to St. Paul in 1857, was appointed an assistant to the surveyor general of Minnesota in 1857, married Louisa __?__, joined the St. Paul Pioneer Guards in 1857, participated in the American Civil War battles of Bull Run, Edward's Ferry, the siege of Yorktown, the action at West Point, the battles of Seven Pines, Fair Oaks, Peach Orchard, Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, Glendale, First and Second Malvern Hill, the battles of Vienna, South Mountain and Antietam, the action at Charlestown, and the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, was wounded at the battle of Savage Station, served in the U. S. Army until 1871, participated in the battle of White Stone Hills, Dakota Territory, during the Sully campaign against the Dakota in 1863, was a Confederate prisoner of war in 1865, was in charge of the Freedmen's Bureau and engaged in suppressing illicit distillers and Ku Klux Klan organizations in central Kentucky in 1868, was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, returned to St. Paul, was a Roman Catholic, was a Democrat, was a member of the William Acker Grand Army of the Republic Post #21 in St Paul, was in the fire insurance business, was surveyor for the Underwriter's Union, was appointed inspector general of the Minnesota National Guard in the 1870's, became impoverished in his later years, was injured in a streetcar accident in 1915, resided at 277 West Seventh Street in 1915, died of a heart attack in St. Paul, and is buried at Calvary Cemetery. When the American Civil War broke out, at the first meeting to announce what had happened and to ask for volunteers, Josias King reportedly ran up to the front of the assembly so that he could be the first to offer his services to the Union cause and he laid claim to being the first Union soldier to volunteer even though Aaron Greenwald (1832-1863) claimed the same fame for his volunteering at a similar Anoka, Minnesota, meeting. Greenwald was killed at Gettysburg, and without any contender to the contrary, and because the First Minnesota Volunteer Infantry was the first state unit to be volunteered to President Lincoln, the honor of being the first Union soldier was accorded to Josias King. He enlisted in Company A of the First Minnesota Volunteer Regiment (promoted to Second Lieutenant (1861), to First Lieutenant (1862), and to Captain (1863.) He served as an aide-de-camp on Sully's 1863 expedition into the Dakota Territory following the Dakota Conflict and was involved in the battle of White Stone Hills, Dakota Territory. On May 4, 1864, he was mustered out with the First Minnesota Volunteer Regiment and he was mustered into the Second Regiment, U. S. Volunteers, as a Lieutenant Colonel, in 1865. After the Civil War, he served as a Second Lieutenant (1866) and First Lieutenant (1868) in the Second U.S. Infantry. Subsequently, he returned to Minnesota and lived in St Paul. He was appointed as brigadier general of the Minnesota National Guard in 1885. Josias R. King was the subject of a 1906 (59th Congress) private member's bill, H.R. 15565, Chapter 2840, to increase his Civil War pension to $30 per month. Josas R. King ( -1916) died in Ramsey County. John Karl Daniels was a Norwegian-born Minneapolis artist who executed a number of public sculptures in Minnesota and elsewhere, including the statutes of Lief Erickson (Viking explorer) and Knute Nelson (Norwegian-born Minnesota Governor and U. S. Senator) at the Minnesota State Capitol, the Allianz Life Insurance Building buffalo, and the Washburn Water Tower eagles in Minneapolis, and the 1916 Minnesota Civil War Memorial in Little Rock, Arkansas. He also sculpted busts of former Minnesota Congressman Ignatius Donnelly, former Minnesota Governor Cushman K. Davis, and former Minnesota Governor Lucius F. Hubbard. John Karl Daniels (1875-1978) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Jensen, and died in Hennepin County. The 1885 and 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Kalman resided at the former nearby 192 Summit Avenue. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Arnold Kalman resided at the nearby former 192 Summit Avenue from 1883 to 1911 and that the residence was razed in 1912. [See note on Governor Knute Nelson for the Knute Nelson Memorial/Across from 75 Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Boulevard.] [See note on Arnold Kalman for 251 Summit Avenue.]

194 Summit Avenue: Park Court Apartments. Built in 1920 (1922 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) 1920's Apartment building in style. The structure is a three story, 44232 square foot, brick building with a flat roof, corner towers, central bay windows on the second and third floors, and a recessed stone entry way. It also includes two brick plazas with stone fountains. The Arnold Kalman mansion occupied this site before 1920. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Lund and Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Oace all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the residents of the apartment building at this address were Harry V. Handrup, a barber employed by Deebach Brothers (Apartment #100,) John Semler, a confectioner (Apartment #101,) Clarence P. Dieponbrock, the deputy Minnesota state insurance commissioner (Apartment #107,) Peter G. Bloomdahl, a janitor for the Park Court Apartments, and Esther J. Peet, the manager of the Park Court Apartments (Apartment #109,) Olaf Wirud, a stationery storekeeper employed by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, and his wife, Signe Wirud (Apartment #110,) Beatrice Melcher, a cashier employed by Husch Brothers (Apartment #111,) Arnold Imobersteg, a cheese maker, and his wife, Marie Imobersteg (Apartment #112,) Clayton F. Paulsen, the chief clerk employed by Kalman Steel Company, and Mrs. Mary A. Paulsen, the widow of Fred F. Paulsen and a saleswoman (Apartment #114,) Irving J. McGovern, a clerk employed by the Great Northern RailRoad, and his wife, Virginia McGovern (Apartment #115,) Kenneth M. Hance, assistant manager of the National Battery Broadcasting Company, and his wife, Laura Hance (Apartment #201,) Charles C. Cox, a seller of magazines at the Pioneer Building, and his wife, Esther Cox (Apartment #203,) Jack C. Horner, a clerk employed by James Davis Wall Paper & Paint Company, and his wife, Dorothy Horner (Apartment #205,) Florence Holland, a nurse and an anesthetist at St. Joseph's Hospital, Catherine/Cathren Holland, a nurse, and Margarette Stephen, a nurse (Apartment #206,) Gerald E. Fosbroke (Apartment #207,) Arthur I. Liss (Apartment #208,) Ray W. Meehan, a manager of the bond department of Kenney-Michaud Agency, Inc., and a Commissioner on the Minnesota State Athletic Commission, and his wife, Helen E. Meehan (Apartment #209,) Harry C. Dahlin, a telegraph operator, and his wife, Dorothy J. Dahlin (Apartment #210,) Ella A. Roggenback, a designer employed by the Twin City Granite Works (Apartment #211,) Theo A. Wedoff, a clerk employed by the Great Northern RailRoad, and his wife, Minerva Wedoff (Apartment #212,) John M. Filben, a salesman, and his wife, Dorothy Filben (Apartment #214,) George L. Anderson (Apartment #215,) John Dietrich, a salesman, and Albin B. Vasler (Apartment #301,) Allen J. Conolly, a salesman, and his wife, Mary Conolly (Apartment #302,) Clarence W. Stromberg, a salesman employed by John Clay & Company, and his wife, Gertrude Stromberg (Apartment #303,) August A. Pelowski, a special agent employed by the Sun Life Assurance Company (Apartment #306,) Arthur Beltz, a bellman at the St. Paul Hotel, and his wife, Maud Beltz (Apartment #307,) Olive J. Lamb, a nurse (Apartment #308,) Everetta C. Terry, the secretary to Harry Weiss (Apartment #310,) Helen McKane, a fitter employed by Russell-Gowns (Apartment #311,) Allen T. Hunter, an examiner employed by the U. S. Naturalization Service, and his wife, Elliet Hunter (Apartment #312,) J. R. Kempstom, the district manager employed by the Massachusetts Bonding & Insurance Company, and Florence Kempston, a stenographer (Apartment #314,) Marilyn Moriarity, a stenographer employed by C. C. Cox (Apartment #402,) Frank R. Reilly, an electrician, and his wife, Effie Reilly (Apartment #403,) Lynn Russell, the associate physical director of the YMCA (Apartment #405,) and Mrs. Frankie A. Campbell, a saleswoman employed by the Macey Company (Apartment #406,) with Apartments #102, #108, #202, #204, #304, #305, #309, #315, #401, and #404 vacant. C. P. Diepenbrock was the city attorney of the city of Red Wing, Minnesota, in 1909. In 1913, club secretary Ray Meehan largely replaced President George Lennon in operating the St. Paul Saints baseball team after purchasing a substantial portion of club stock from Lennon. Ray W. Meehan was the St. Paul baseball team's representative to a 1914 meeting in Chicago of the American Association. Harry Weiss was a delegate to Democratic National Convention from Minnesota in 1928 and in 1940. Herman Deebach ( -1935,) Cyrus Lohman Deebach ( -1938,) John Mayo Filben ( -1941,) George Paul Deebach ( -1943,) Arnold Imobersteg ( -1947,) Olaf Wirud ( -1949,) Catherine Holland ( -1950,) Irving J. McGovern ( -1953,) and Villa Maud Beltz ( -1954) all died in Ramsey County. John A. Oace (1879-1957) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Elmer Adolph Deebach (1874-1978) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hoehler, and died in Ramsey County. Signe Wirud (1885-1956) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Beatrice C. Melcher (1907-1984) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Clayton F. Paulsen (1904-1972) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Droitcoeur, and died in Ramsey County. Kenneth M. Hance (1894-1969) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Nuendorff, and died in Ramsey County. Laura E. Hance (1890-1973) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Kippi, and died in Ramsey County. Ray W. Meehan (1874-1962) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Love, and died in Ramsey County. Helen E. Meehan (1896-1976) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Siemer, and died in Ramsey County. Theodore A. Wedoff (1891-1959) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Anderson, and died in Ramsey County. Mina Marie Wedoff (1892-1962) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Rick, and died in Ramsey County. Florence Lucille Holland (1909-1978) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of McKinnon, and died in Ramsey County. Allen J. Conolly (1879-1963) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Arthur F. Beltz (1905-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Schultz, and died in Ramsey County. Harry Weiss ( -1967) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Harry Weiss (1892-1965) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Bier, and died in Ramsey County. Charles Colfax Cox (1868-1961) was born outside of Minnesota and died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Esther Cox (1896-1967) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Englund, and died in Hennepin County. Harry Dahlin ( -1932,) Harry Weiss ( -1945,) and John F. Dietrich ( -1953) all died in Hennepin County. Florence Adella Holland (1900-1982) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Krognes, and died in Hennepin County. Dorothy A. Dahlin (1919-1981) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Laffin, and died in Hennepin County. Mary Ann Conolly (1883-1963) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Moore, and died in Hennepin County. Gertrude E. Stromberg (1886-1981) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Evermann, and died in Hennepin County. August Pelowski (1892-1972) was born in Minnesota and died in Stearns County, Minnesota. Everetta C. Terry (1904-1992) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Gilbert, and died in Washington County, Minnesota. The current owners of the property are Ronald F. Parramore and Shirley E. Parramore, who reside at 1179 Jessie Street. Frankie Brown Campbell (1891-1960) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Howes, and died in Goodhue County, Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Arnold Kalman resided at the nearby former 192 Summit Avenue from 1883 to 1911. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Kalman resided at the nearby former 192 Summit Avenue and the 1889 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Kalman, their daughter, and Oscar Kalman all resided at the nearby former 192 Summit Avenue. The nearby former 192 Summit Avenue was razed in 1912 according to the Minnesota Historical Society. Charles Oscar Kalman (1872-1956) was a St. Paul investment banker and, in 1909, his small brokerage firm formed the nucleus, after a series of mergers with and acquisitions of other companies, of what became the investment brokerage firm RBC Dain Rauscher. Kalman merged with J. M. Dain & Co. in 1967, which was founded in Minneapolis in 1929. Then, in 1979, the combined firm merged with Denver, Colorado-based Bosworth, Chanute, Loughridge & Co. and in a flurry of mergers in the 1980's and 1990's, the company aligned forces with J. E. Refsnes & Co. in Phoenix, Arizona, and Rauscher, Pierce & Co. in Dallas, Texas, creating the company known as Dain Rauscher in 1997. RBC Dain Rauscher merged with Tucker Anthony Sutro in 2002. The National Battery Broadcasting Company operated radio station KSTP (AM 1360 in 1928 and AM 1460 in 1938) in the Twin Cities in 1928, the result of a combination of radio station WAMD (AM 1230,) established in 1925 and owned by Hubbard & Company and the Twin City Barber College, the first radio station to be completely supportedy by income generated by running advertisements, and radio station KFOY (AM 1330 in 1924, AM 1190 in 1925 and 1926, and AM 1050 in 1927,) established in 1924. Stanley Eugene Hubbard (1897-1992,) was born in Red Wing, Goodhue County, Minnesota, was a World War I pilot (First Battalion, Signal Corps, New York National Guard,) and, in 1925, was station director of WAMD (standing for "Where All Minneapolis Dances,") which had an agreement with the Marigold Ballroom which gave the station "a studio" if it would play the live dance music on the station during the evenings. In 1926, the Radisson Radio Corporation became the owner of WAMD. In 1927, the Radisson Radio Corporation and Stanley E. Hubbard became joint licensees of WAMD and the station divided time as AM 1350 with KFOY. In 1928, the National Battery Company (L. J. Shields, president and owner) sought a broadcast station of its own, formed the National Battery Broadcasting Corporation, acquired the Radisson Radio Corporation, entered into a purchase agreement with Stanley E. Hubbard, and acquired both WAMD and WAMD's sharetime partner, KFOY. Also in 1928, WAMD consolidated with KFOY to form a new station, KSTP and the two prior licenses were canceled and one new one was issued. In early 1928, new studios were inaugurated in St. Paul. KSTP joined the NBC Blue "chain" in 1928 as that network's Twin City affiliate and changed from the NBC Blue network to the NBC Red network in 1930. KSTP was located in Westcott, Minnesota, now Eagan, Minnesota, in 1928 and 1930 and was located in St. Paul in 1931 and 1934. Kenneth M. Hance ( -1969,) the former co-owner of WDAY 970AM, a Fargo, North Dakota, radio station, became the assistant manager of KSTP in 1932. Stanley E. Hubbard was vice president of the National Battery Broadcasting Company in 1934. In 1935, KSTP's transmitter moved from Radio City, Minnesota, the renamed Wescott, Minnesota, to a new site at Snelling Avenue and County Road C, currently Shoreview, Minnesota. General Manager Stanley E. Hubbard became President of KSTP's licensee in 1935, replacing L. J. Shields, and Kenneth M. Hance was promoted to Co-General Manager in 1938 and became KSTP's General Manager in 1939. In 1941, KSTP's licensee name was changed from the National Battery Broadcasting Corporation to KSTP Inc., with Stanley E. Hubbard as its President and majority owner. Kenneth M. Hance was named Vice President and Treasurer of KSTP Inc. in 1946 and, in 1947, the remaining shares of stock of KSTP Inc. were acquired by Stanley E. Hubbard. K. M. Hance became Executive Vice President-Treasurer of KSTP Inc. in 1949, Stanley S. "Stub" Hubbard became station manager of KSTP in 1955, and Stanley E. Hubbard held the dual position of President and General Manager. In 1962, Stub Hubbard was elected to Vice President and Station Manager. In 1965, Eugene G. Clark became KSTP's Station Manager and, in 1967, Stanley E. Hubbard was elected Chairman of the Board of Hubbard Broadcasting Inc. while Stanley S. Hubbard was appointed President and General Manager. John J. Nugent was named General Manager of KSTP in 1972. The name of the station's licensee was changed in 1985 from Hubbard Broadcasting Inc. to KSTP-AM and John Mayasich (1933- ,) the long time KSTP employee and former University of Minnesota Gopher Hockey star, was named its president. Virginia H. Morris, the daughter of Stanley S. Hubbard was named Vice President and General Manager of KSTP in 1992. Virginia H. Morris succeeded John Mayasich as President of licensee KSTP-AM Inc. in 1998 and continued as the General Manager of KSTP. John E. Mayasich was born in Eveleth, Minnesota, attended Eveleth High School, helped his high school team win four consecutive state boys ice hockey championships from 1948 to 1951, set the NCAA tournament record for most points scored in a hockey game with seven against Boston College in 1954 while attending the University of Minnesota, holds the University of Minnesota Men's Ice Hockey record for goals (144) and points (298,) won the Western Collegiate Hockey Association scoring title in 1954 and in 1955, was an All-American three years in a row, was a member of the 1956 Winter Olympics team that won the silver medal, was a member of the 1960 Olympic team that won the gold medal, and participated in a number of hockey world championship tournaments (1957, 1958, 1961, 1962, 1966, and 1969.) Dick Hance, the son of Kenneth M. Hance, also was employed by KSTP as a news editor and a news photographer, but reportedly was fired after he secretly taped a police union meeting in the basement of police headquarters, apparently exposing ties between gangsters and the police. Stanley Eugene Hubbard married Cleo Blanche Moore (1900-1962) of Spartanburg, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, in 1918, married Alice Rochford (1898-1924) in 1923, married Didrikke All Ottesen Stub (1905-1974) in 1932, and married Mary Ellen Wickham Gibson in 1974. The Minnesota State Athletic Commission was established in 1915, was replaced by the State Boxing Commission in 1973, and then replaced by the Minnesota Boxing Board in 1975. George Arthur Barton was a professional boxer from 1902 to 1909, then was a boxing instructor at the St. Paul YMCA, was appointed a boxing referee by the Minnesota State Athletic Commission in 1915 and presided over more than 12,000 bouts, and was a commissioner and the secretary of the Minnesota State Athletic Commission from 1942 to 1969. Other commissioners and secretaries of the agency were Ray W. Meehan, Jack Gibbons, Lawrence McCaleb, Jim O'Hara, Scott LeDoux, Del Flanagan, Rodney Bobick, Fred Askew, Gene Fesenmaier, F. A. Danz, and Ron Peterson. Arnold Kalman ( -1917) died in Ramsey County. Charles Kalman (1872-1956) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Greve, and died in Ramsey County. Kenneth M. Hance (1894-1969) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Nuendorff, and died in Ramsey County. Richard K. Hance (1919-1976) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hainer, and died in Ramsey County. George A. Barton (1885-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Ryan, and died in Hennepin County. Ray W. Meehan (1874-1962) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Love, and died in Ramsey County. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on the Northern Pacific RailRoad.] [See note on Arnold Kalman for 251 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the Sun Life Assurance Company for 695 Fairmount Avenue.] [See the note for the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) for 277 Harrison Avenue.]

200 Summit Avenue: School Patrol Flagpole. Erected in 1973. The flagpole is dedicated to the first school patrol crossing in the world, on February 17, 1921. The first school patrol was organized by Sister Carmela Hanggi (1875-1968), the daughter of Josef Hanggi, who was born Caroline Hanggi, attended Cathedral elementary school, St. Joseph's Academy, and St. Agatha's Conservatory, all institutions operated by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, entered the religious order in 1896, taught at St. Paul, Minneapolis, Bird Island, Minnesota, and Graceville, Minnesota, edited the first hymnal for the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis at the request of Archbishop John Ireland in 1915, attended graduate classes at East Coast universities, and became the principal of the St. Paul Cathedral School in 1920. Information about the Hanggi family can be found in the Family History of Ruby Arline Hankey (Hanggi) Roy. The school patrol, starting with 17 volunteer eighth grade boys, was organized by Sister Carmela to address the problem of the rush of modern transportation that was hemming in the school, located just below the Cathedral of St. Paul at 328 Kellogg Boulevard, with the help of St. Paul Police Lieutenant Frank Hetznecker, but with lukewarm interest from St. Paul Public Safety Commissioner A. E. Smith. In 1922, Lieutenant Hetznecker had organized patrols in 86 public and private schools and the St. Paul City Council officially sanctioned the school patrols. In 1940, Sister Carmela Hanggi was principal at Bird Island, Minnesota, was forced into semi-retirement after being stricken with a severe bout of pneumonia resulting from the terrible Armistice Day blizzard, November 11-12, 1940, and entered Bethany Convent, a retirement home for nuns located at Fairview Avenue and Randolph Avenue in 1954. Sister Carmela Hanggi is buried in Resurrection Cemetery Josef Hanggi (1872- ,) the son of Joseph Hanggi ( -1894) and Christine K. Erling Hanggi, was born in St. Paul, was educated in the Assumption parish school and the Cretin parish school between 1879 and 1887, was employed by the St. Paul Furniture Company, managed by Hanggi, Cady & Medicke, in 1887, remained with the same firm until its dissolution in 1905, engaged in business for himself under the firm name of Joseph Hanggi & Company, manufacturers of bank, store and office furniture, resided at 225 Sherburne Avenue in 1907, and officed at 694 Oakland Avenue in 1907. The St. Paul Furniture Company produced items for the James J. Hill mansion, the old federal court building (now Landmark Center,) and Assumption Church. Hanggi, Cady & Medicke was located at 156-170 West Fifth Street in 1890. In 1879, Joseph Hanggi was the vice president of the Liederkranz Singing Society, located at Exchange Street and Ninth Street. Josef Hanggi (1823-1898) married Anna Hanggi (1838-1923.) Frank M. Cady and Ernst Medicke were Joseph Hanggi's partners in Hanggi, Cady & Medicke. The 1879 city directory indicates that Edward H. Cutler, a partner with Daniel R. Noyes and Charles P. Noyes in the firm of Noyes Brothers & Cutler, wholesale druggists located at 68-70 Sibley Street, resided at the nearby former 209 Summit Avenue, that Oluff Kirk was a coachman at the nearby former 201 Summit Avenue, and that Charles McIlrath, a partner with Luman A. Gilbert in McIlrath & Gilbert, grain and commission agents located at 112 East Third Street, resided at the former nearby 221 Summit Avenue. The January 1, 1880, St. Paul Daily Globe indicates that Edward H. Cutler resided at the former nearby 208 Summit Avenue and that Charles McIlrath resided at 221 Summit Avenue. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mrs. Sophia Weber and her daughter resided at the former nearby 212 Summit Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mrs. Sophia Weber and her daughter resided at the nearby former 212 Summit Avenue and that Colonel and Mrs. R. M. Newport, their daughter, Douglas Putnam, and Luther E. Newport all resided at the nearby former 217 Summit Avenue. The 1889 city directory indicates that Mrs. Sophia Weber resided at the nearby former 212 Summit Avenue and that Major and Mrs. A. E. Bates resided at the nearby former 217 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Sophia H. Weber (1865-1902,) who was born in St. Paul to German parents, who was unmarried, and who died of consumption, resided at the former nearby 212 Summit Avenue in 1902. Douglas Putnam is recorded as the builder of the house at 40 Irvine Park and of being a boarder at that house, following his sale of it to Elizabeth Robbins, from 1888 to 1910. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Norman W. Kittson resided at the nearby former 201 Summit Avenue from 1882 to 1895, that the building was the Kittson boarding house from 1898 to 1905, and that the building was razed in 1905, when the Cathedral first began being constructed. The 1891 Rascher Atlas indicates that the nearby former 206 Summit Avenue was a double house with 200 Dayton Avenue, but another Minnesota Historical Society source indicates that ten tenants resided at 200 Dayton Avenue in 1891. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Reece M. Newport and Eliza E. (Mrs. R. M.) Newport, members of the church since 1881, resided at the nearby former 217 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Elizabeth Edgerton Newport (1839-1909,) the wife of Reece Newport, who was born in the United States to parents also born in the United States and who died of valvular heart disease, resided at the nearby former 217 Summit Avenue in 1909. In 1901, Reese M. Newport was a member of the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of Saint Paul with Percy D. Godfrey, William Hamm, and Joseph A. Wheelock. In 1874, Charles McIlrath (1829-1910,) a Republican, was the former Minnesota State Auditor, from 1861 until 1873, who was indicted by the Ramsey County Grand Jury for felonious entry into office, based on a failure to post the required bonds and sureties, and malfeasance in office for the sale of lumber and land without public auctions. Lucretia Spalding McIlrath was the wife of Charles McIlrath of St. Paul. Charles McIlrath was the receiver of the Southern Minnesota Railroad Company in 1877. There was a Senate Special Committee that investigated the management of the Office of State Auditor prior to January, 1873, under Charles McIlrath, that reported back in 1875. Charles McIlrath, Matthew Donohue, and Clinton Reynolds constituted the Board of Auditors for the Adjustment of Claims for War Expenditures in 1862. Reece Marshall Newport (1838-1912) was born in Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania, graduated from Marietta (Ohio) College in 1860, was a Brigadier General during the Civil War, married Eliza Thompson Edgerton (1838- ) in 1863, moved to St. Paul in 1872, was the local treasurer and auditor of the Northern Pacific RailRoad from 1872 to 1882, and then became involved in the railroad construction and real estate businesses. Colonel Reece/Reese Marshall Newport and Eliza Thompson Edgerton Newport had three children, Luther E. Newport (1865-1930,) Mary Morgan Newport (1868- ,) and Reece Marshall Newport. Luther E. Newport and Rachael Newport (1869-1930) had one child, Beatrix Newport (1898- .) Reece Marshall Newport ( -1957,) a member of the Yale University Class of 1901, was the president of R. M. Newport & Company, Inc., dealing in railroad and trackage property, general city real estate, mortage loans, and insurance, his father's former company, located at the Pioneer Building and resided at 833 Grand Avenue. Reece Marshall Newport (1878-1957) was born in St. Paul, married Margaret Self (1895-1988) in 1916, and the couple had four children, Dorothy Ann "Nancy" Newport (1919- ,) Elisa Newport (1920- ,) Reece Marshall Newport (1921- ,) and Sally Newport (1923- .) Reece Marshall Newport was buried in Long Island National Cemetery, Farmingdale, Nassau County, New York. Edward H. Cutler was a member of the Swedenborgian Church in the late 1800's. In 1879, Marion B. Nattenburg was a domestic at the former nearby 209 Summit Avenue. Eliza. Edg. Newport ( -1909) and Joseph Frank Hanggi ( -1937) both died in Ramsey County. Frank J. Hetznecker (1889-1962) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hetznecker, and died in Ramsey County. Sophia Weber ( -1908) was the mother of Sophia Weber and died in Ramsey County. Albert E. Bates ( -1950) died in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Cathedral of the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Built between 1906 and 1915; Renaissance/Italian Mannerist/Baroque in style; Emmanuel Masqueray, original architect; Whitney Warren, construction supervision architect; Louis Millet, original stained glass designer, Charles Connick, subsequent stained glass window designer; Mark Balma, fresco painter; W. J. Hoy, original general contractor; Thomas Finn Company, original roofing contractor. The complex includes three buildings on 3.35 acres of land, the 81840 square foot, three story, Cathedral, built in 1907, a 14238 square foot, three story, second building, built in 1924, and a 2784 square foot, one story, third building, built in 1914. The Cathedral was originally built for $1.5 million. The building is the fourth cathedral for the Diocese/Archdiocese since it was created in 1851, with the first cathedral locatd at Bishop Joseph Cretin's log chapel, the second located between St. Peter and Wabasha Avenues and between Sixth and Seventh Streets, and the third located next door to the second cathedral. The exterior walls are made of Rockville granite, quarried at St. Cloud, Minnesota. The interior walls are made of American travertine, which was quarried at Mankato, Minnesota. The main walls of the chapels surrounding the sanctuary are Italian Botticino marble. The building is 306.5 feet high, 307 feet long, and 216 feet wide. It has a seating capacity of 3,000. The property was originally owned by Jeremiah W. Selby, who built a brick house here in 1856. Selby's widow, Stella Selby, sold the house to Norman W. Kittson in 1871 and Kittson built a mansion on the site in 1882. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. N. W. Kittson, their daughters, Norman Kittson, J. E. Kittson, L. C. Kittson, and A. W. Kittson all resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that N. W. Kittson, his daughters, Norman Kittson, Jr., J. E. Kittson, L. C. Kittson, A. Kittson, and Mrs. G. Demaray resided at the corner of Dayton Avenue and Summit Avenue. The 1889 city directory indicates that Norman Kittson, Miss M. Kittson, Mr. and Mrs. Louis Baker, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. L. C. Kittson, A. Kittson, and Mrs. G. Demaray resided at the corner of Dayton Avenue and Summit Avenue. The 1891 city directory indicates that Norman Kittson, Mr. and Mrs. L. C. Kittson, A. Kittson, and H. Kittson resided at this address. The 1893 and 1895 city directories indicate that Norman Kittson resided at this address. The Kittson mansion became a boarding house after Kittson's death in 1888. The property was purchased by the Archdiocese in 1904 and the boarding house was torn down in 1905. The cornerstone for the Cathedral was laid in 1907. Construction of the Cathedral was finally completed in 1922, under the supervision of architect Whitney Warren (1864-1943.) The 1930 city directory indicates that the Cathedral of St. Paul was located at this address. Whitney Warren also was commissioned to create the grand altar. The last two stained glass windows were installed in 1941. The building contains three large paintings, which are "The Entombment," painted by 19th century artist Theodule-Augustin Ribot, "The Crucifixion," by Minnesota native Nicholas Richard Brewer (1857-1949), and "The Descent from the Cross" (1867), by Karl-Ernest-Rodolphe-Heinrich-Salem Lehmann (1814-1882). The latest addition, the Balma Frescos, were completed in 1996. The Ernest Skinner organ in the sanctuary was installed in 1927. The Aeolian-Skinner organ in the choir loft was installed in 1963. The Diocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis was established by the Vatican in 1850 and elevated to an Archdiocese in 1888. It serves a 12-county area through 222 parishes, with more than 750,000 Catholics, 495 priests, and 1,400 religious sisters, brothers and deacons. The window facing east depicts the Resurrection. The south-facing rose window is inspired by the Beatitudes and the north-facing rose window depicts the eight North American martyrs. Jeremiah Wilcox Selby (1812-1865) was born in Trumbull County, Ohio, came to Minnesota in 1849, settled in St. Paul, owned a 50 acre farm on St. Anthony Hill, was the Ramsey County assessor, was a Ramsey County commissioner, was a member of the People's Ticket in the 1851 election, was a member of the Territorial House of Representatives representing Ramsey County (District 2) in 1852, was the vice president of the Territorial Agricultural Society in 1854, was a member of the State Agricultural Society from 1860 until 1864, was an elder in the First Presbyterian Church and an ardent supporter of the pastor, Rev. E. D. Neill, and died in St. Paul. Stella Beach Humphrey Selby (1824-1893) was born in Hudson, Ohio, married Jeremiah Wilcox Selby, came to Minnesota in 1849, married Omar D. Conger, first a Michigan Congressman and then a U. S. Senator from Michigan, in 1874, moved to Washington, D. C., and died in Washington, D. C. Jeremiah Wilcox Selby and Stella H. Selby had at least one child, Sophia Selby. Selby purchased forty acres of land on Saint Anthony Hill in 1847 to farm vegetables, with his property within the boundaries of what is now Dayton and Summit Avenues north and south, and from the Saint Paul Cathedral to Dale Street east to west. The Selby farm was considered foolhardy at the time, with Edmund Rice reportedly commenting "What a fool Selby is to go out into the woods." Jeremiah Wilcox Selby (1812-1855) was born in Trumbull County, Ohio, settled in St. Paul in 1849, had a farm on St. Anthony (now Cathedral) hill, was a member of the 1852 Minnesota Territorial House of Representatives, and died in St. Paul. Selby Avenue was named for Jeremiah Selby in 1854. Stella Selby was the president of the Ladies Aid Society in St. Paul during the Civil War. Norman Wolfred William Kittson (1814-1888) was born in Chambly, Lower Canada, was raised in Sorel, Quebec, Canada, the son of George Kittson and Nancy/Anne Tucker Kittson and the step grandson of the Alexander Henry, was an employee of the American Fur Company in 1830, was initially assigned to a post between the Fox River and the Wisconsin River, came to Minnesota in 1834 and engaged in the fur trade, was the sutler at Fort Snelling from 1834 to 1838, reentered the American Fur Company as a special partner in 1843, was an agent of Chotian June & Company in 1847, was the first to utilize the Red River ox carts to transport furs to St. Paul, was in the Minnesota Territorial Legislature from 1851 to 1855 (sometimes traveling to the session by snowshoe,) entered into partnership with William H. Forbes in 1851 and established the Old St. Paul Outfit for Indian supply trade goods and freighting to Red River, moved to St. Paul in 1854, was St. Paul mayor in 1858 (winning on a vote of 33 to 32,) became an agent of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1860, and established a line of steamers and barges on the Red River, the Red River Transportation Company in partnership with James J. Hill, helped to finance the Great Northern Railway with James J. Hill, Donald Smith (chief commissioner of the Hudson's Bay Company, became Lord Strathcona,) and George Stephens (railroad magnate, the president of the Bank of Montreal, became Lord Mount Stephen,) and died on a train en route to St. Paul. In 1864, Norman Wolfred Kittson married Elise/Elize Marion (1831-1867) of St. Boniface, Manitoba, the daughter of blacksmith Narcisse Marion (1811-1877,) of Norwood, Manitoba. In 1882, Norman Kittson purchased the Erdenheim Farm near Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, including the first great American sprinter, "Alarm," but sold both in 1888. Norman Kittson also owned for a time the pacing champion "Little Brown Jug." In 1883, Commodore Kittson purchased "Johnston," a champion pacer, for $20,000. In 1884, "Rataplan," sired by "Alarm," and owned by Norman W. Kittson, won the Iroquois Stakes race in Saratoga, New York. In 1879, Norman Kittson represented St. Paul's Second Ward on the city board of aldermen and was a member of the board of directors of the First National Bank of St. Paul. In 1888, Norman Kittson left an estate of $2.7 million, with sons Louis Kittson and James Kittson inheriting the Erdenheim Farm and with son Hercules Kittson's share placed in the hands of a trustee until he reached age 30. Kittson estate heirs in 1896 were Louis Kittson, the children of Anne Marie Kittson Heath (1866- ) and Roscoe Heath of Baltimore, Maryland, Henry Kittson of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mrs. Charles Weaver of Chicago, Illinois, James Kittson of Louisville, Kentucky, Hercules Kittson of St. Paul, Norman Kittson of St. Paul, Alfred Kittson of St. Paul, Mrs. Lewis Baker of Nashville, Tennessee, Mrs. Lena Kittson of Columbus, Ohio, and Elizabeth Kittson (Mrs. John F.) Baker of Cooperstown, New York. The will was also contested in 1896 by Margaret Robinson, a Menominee, who claimed to have married Norman Kittson in 1833 at Little Chute, Wisconsin (Michigan Territory,) to have had two children fathered by Norman Kittson, Sarah Kittson and David Kittson, and to be Norman Kittson's wife at the time of his death, but the claim was dismissed by the Ramsey County District Court because of contradictions or inconsistencies over the site of the alleged marriage, the minister officiating at the alleged marriage, and the validity of the marriage certificate for the alleged marriage. Kittson was married according to some sources three times, first to Louise/Elsie/Élise Marion from the Red River settlement in Manitoba, then to Sophie Perry/Parry, and finally to Mary A. Cochrane, or four times, including first to Agnes La Tender, the daughter of Pa-Si-Mon and Ma-Che-Quo-Nok. John G. Kittson and his younger brother, Norman Kittson, moved to Wisconsin in 1830. John G. Kittson (1811-1872) was born in Sorrel, Quebec, married Margaret "Hau-ka-wau-bie" Robinson, the daughter of So Shot Carron of the Menominee tribe, and died from illness that set on after fighting the 1871 Peshtigo, Wisconsin, fire. So Shot Carron's father was half French and half Abenaki and her mother was a full-blood Menominee. So Shot Carron was also known as Josette Carron. Alexander Kittson (1853-1883,) the son of Norman W. Kittson and Elise Marion Kittson, was born at North Pembina, Manitoba, married Elise Gingras, the daughter of Antoine Bllanc Gingras and Scholastique Trottier Gingras, in 1875, was educated at St. Boniface College, was a member of the Board of Education for Manitoba, was elected to the Manitoba Legislative Assembly in 1879 and served until 1883 for the constituency of Ste. Agathe as a Liberal Conservative. Alfred Kittson was the youngest son of Norman Kittson and, about 1890, married Violet K. Pace (1871- ,) a daughter of Henry Pace (1836-1899,) a watchmaker/jeweler in Ottawa, Ontario, and later in Lethbridge, Alberta, after emigrating from England. Violet Pace Kittson divorced Alfred Kittson and later, in 1909, married Frederick Boyd Phillips, a lawyer who officed at the Manhattan building and the son of Rev. R. D. Phillips, a Methodist minister. In 1898, Alfred Kittson was sued by the receivers of the Minnesota Savings Bank in Minnesota District Court and had a judgment of $22,000 entered against him on notes secured by the bank's president, W. F. Bickel, rejecting a defense by Kittson that he was drunk when he signed the notes and was a spendthrift who needed to have a guardian appointed for him. In 1897, Mrs. Lewis Baker, Jr., a daughter of Norman W. Kittson and the daughter-in-law of the U. S. Ambassador to Nicaragua, was sued over a real estate debt in a Minnesota District Court by Cecilia Paget. Norman Kittson's eldest brother, Angus Kittson, also was a fur trader (1783-1858) and was the great grandfather of Henry Norman Bethune (1890-1939,) the Canadian physician and surgeon who enlisted in the Canadian army during World War I, was wounded in action in France in 1915, subsequently provided medical services to the poor in Canada, provided medical services to the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, and became famous and highly respected in China for creating the medical "armada" in China called the "Barefoot Doctors." Norman Kittson's other brothers & sisters include William Kittson, husband of Helene MacDonald Kittson, the daughter of __?__ Finan, John Kittson, the Dean of Montreal and first principal of McGill University, Alexander Neil Kittson, the second Bishop of Toronto, James Kittson, another fur trader, and Donald Kittson, a steam boat owner and several sisters who were wives of other fur traders. Norman William Bethune, the son of Rev. John Bethune and Veronique Bethune, married George Kittson's eldest daughter, Margaret Kittson. Kittson was married four times, to Adele Marion, then in 1847 to Elise/Elsie/Louise Marion (1831- )(the couple had a daughter, Lucie Kittson (1849-1853) and a son, Henry Kittson (1848- ,)) then to Mary A. Clarke (the couple had five children,) and then to Agnes La Tender (the couple had a daughter, Therese Kittson.) Agnes La Tender was the daughter of Pa-Si-Mon and Ma-Che-Quo-Nok. Therese Kittson (1856- ) married Joseph Beaupre. Kittson's will mentions 11 of his children, but his grandson identified 26 children that his grandfather sired. In 1879, Norman W. Kittson, the general manager of the Red River Transportation Company and an agent of the Hudson Bay Company with offices at 92 East Third Street, resided at 235 Jackson Street and that Norman Kittson boarded at 235 Jackson Street. Norman Kittson, Sr., died with an estate valued at $1.26 million in real estate alone. The Kittson burial plot at Oakland Cemetery includes Norman W. Kittson (1814-1888,) Norman Kittson (1836-1927,) May A. Kittson (1842-1886,) John G. Kittson (1844-1884,) Louis Goyle Kittson (1866-1892,) Hercules Leonard Kittson (1865-1927,) Alfred Sibley (1874-1923,) and Alexander Henry Kittson (1883-1883.) In 1885, Minnie Clark/Mary King/Sheeny Kit/Mary Kittson was involved in litigation seeking a separation and maintenance from her alleged husband, Hercules Leonard "Hirk" Kittson, in New York State Court, based on a marriage allegedly contracted when Hercules Kittson was at Ms. Clark's residence, but was intoxicated at the time, and was subsequently found by a jury to be void because of Hercules Kittson's intoxication. Another son of Norman Kittson, Alfred Louis Kittson, repeated the situation in Hudson, Wisconsin, in 1891, allegedly marrying, under the name of William U. Fulton, the eldest of two chorus girls he was traveling with, Isabel Palmer, while he was intoxicated, and repented of the deed upon becoming sober and fled to Montana under the name of McIntosh. Angus Kittson (1783-1858,) Norman Kittson's eldest brother, also was a fur trader. Dr. John G. Kittson (1852-1908,) a son of Norman Kittson, served as a doctor with the North West Mounted Police in Canada until he retired from the force in 1882. Rev. Canon Henry Kittson (1848- ,) a son of Norman Kittson and Elise Marion Kittson of St. Boniface, Manitoba, was born at Pembina, Minnesota Territory, was educated at Berthier, Quebec, and at Bishops College, Lennoxville, Quebec, was ordained an Anglican priest in 1871, was engaged in missionary work for seven years, was the rector of St. John's Church in St. Paul, for four years, married Flora Macdonald Grant of St. Johns, Quebec, in 1875, was the assistant rector of the Church of the Ascension in Philadelphia from 1888 until 1892, was the rector of the Church of the Advent in Westmount, Quebec, and was the Rector of Christ Church Cathedral of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, after 1901. Joe Rolette (1820-1871) was born in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, was educated in New York, was employed by the American Fur Company at Pembina, Wisconsin Territory, in 1840, established an ox cart route between St. Paul and the Red River of the North, took over Kittson's Red River valley business in 1853, and died in Pembina, Dakota Territory. Joe Rolette went to Pembina to become a trader for the American Fur Company in 1841. Two years later, he set out for Saint Paul with wood carts loaded with furs, beginning the Red River Cartways. "Jolly Joe" Rolette was the flamboyant son of a Minnesota fur trading agent, Joseph Rolette, Jr., who managed a post for the American Fur Company near the Canadian border, was elected to the Territorial Legislature in 1852, journeyed to legislative sessions by dog sled, and gained infamy for a prank he played in the State Legislature late in his career when, as chairman of the Enrolling Committee, he pocketed the bill proposing to move the Capitol to St. Peter, Minnesota, and disappeared for several days, playing cards at his favorite hotel, and ensured that the City of Saint Paul remained the State Capital. Pierre Guillaume Sayer (1796-1849) was a Metis fur trader who had been trading to Norman Wolfred Kittson in Pembina, North Dakota, who was in direct competition to the Hudson's Bay Company and was accused of illegal trading of furs and was brought to trial in Upper Fort Garry in 1849 by the Court of Assiniboia. Sayer was backed by Metis leader Louis Riel, Sr., and a crowd of armed Metis men gathered outside the courtroom, and was found guilty of illegal trade by Judge Adam Thom, although no fine or punishment was levied, probably due to the intimidating crowd outside the courthouse. After the Sayer trial, the Hudson's Bay Company no longer could use the courts to enforce their monopoly on the settlers of Red River, the trade monopoly was abolished in 1870, trade in the region was opened to any entrepreneur, and the Hudson's Bay Company relinquished its ownership of Rupert's Land under the Rupert's Land Act of 1868, enacted by the Parliament of the newly formed Dominion of Canada. Whitney Warren was born in New York City, was a cousin of the Vanderbilts, enrolled for one year at Columbia University, studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, began practice in New York City in 1894, and convinced one of his first clients, a lawyer named Charles D. Wetmore (1867-1941,) to become his partner. Whitney Warren is best known for his design of Grand Central Station in New York, a project done in conjunction with the St. Paul architectural firm of Reed & Stem. Warren & Wetmore also designed the office tower portion of the now-abandoned Detroit Michigan Central Station, which was constructed in 1913. In 1908, Whitney Warren presented his idea for a novel stamp design to Postmaster General George von L. Meyer, resulting in a green special delivery stamp. Warren & Wetmore also designed the Deepdale Golf and Country Club in Great Neck, New York, in 1926, for William K. Vanderbilt II. Mark Balma (1957- ) was born in Wichita, Kansas, and grew up in the Brooklyn Center, Minnesota, and New Hope, Minnesota. Balma began his artistic training in Minneapolis at the age of 16 in the ateliers of Richard Lack and James Childs. He also studied in Italy. In the Fall of 1996, Balma completed two historical frescos in the Cathedral of St. Paul, with one fresco depicting the arrival of Bishop Joseph Cretin to St. Paul and the other fresco depicting the opening of the Cathedral. In 2000, an icon and a statue of St. Paul the Apostle was added to the building. The St. Paul Cathedral was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. John Clayton Nienstedt (1947- ) is the Archbishop of the St. Paul Archdiocese, suceeding Joseph Cretin (1799-1857,) Thomas Langdon Grace, O.P. (1814-1897,) John Ireland (1838-1918,) Austin Dowling (1868-1930,) John Gregory Murray (1877-1956,) William Otterwell Ignatius Brady (1899-1961,) Leo Binz (1900-1979,) John Robert Roach (1921-2003,) and Harry Joseph Flynn (1933- .) John Estrem is the Cathedral Rector. Louis Millet, of Chicago, designed windows for the chapels of the Blessed Virgin, St. Peter, and St. Joseph between 1917 and 1920. Millet also designed the windows for the Owatonna, Minnesota, National Farmer's Bank, designed by Louis Sullivan and George Elmslie. Charles Connick (1875-1945,) of Boston, was considered by many to be second only to Paul Chagal as the greatest stained glass builder of the twentieth century. His windows also grace St. Patrick's Cathedral and the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City and the chapel at Princeton University. Connick was a major promoter of the antique technique of stained glass window design and construction. Joseph Cretin (1799/1800-1857) was born in Lyons, France/Montluel, Ain, France, studied at the seminaires of Meximieux, Ain, France, L'Argentiere, Rhone, France, Alix, Rhone, France, and Saint-Sulpice, Paris, France, was ordained a priest by Bishop Alexander Raymund Devie in 1823, was vicar at Ferney, France, was a friend of John Vianney, the Cure of Ares, France, and of Peter Chanel, the Marist priest and missionary, became a missionary, emigrated to the United States, settled in Dubuque, Iowa, and worked among the Winnebago indians for ten years, became vicar-general of the Diocese of Dubuque, Iowa, in 1839, became rector of St. Raphael's Seminary (the current Loras College) in Dubuque, Iowa, in 1840, moved to Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, among the Winnebagoes, in 1843, was appointed by Pope Pius IX the bishop of the newly created 166,000 square mile Diocese of St. Paul and was consecrated at Belley, France, in 1850, built the second Cathedral of St. Paul, established a seminary in 1851, initiated the construction of the third cathedral, introduced the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet (Mother St. John Fournier, Sister Francis Joseph Ivory, Sister Philomena Vilaine and Sister Scholastica Vasques) into the diocese in 1851 to establish an academy for young ladies and to operate a hospital, organized the Catholic Temperance Society of St. Paul in 1852, established missions among the Ojibways, built a hospital on a site donated by H. M. Rice in 1853, acquired land for a cemetery in 1853 and 1856, introduced the Brothers of the Holy Family into the diocese to build schools for boys and establish a novitiate in 1855, arranged for a convent of the Benedictine order to be erected in St. Cloud, Minnesota, encouraged Catholic colonization into Minnesota, and died in St. Paul after a long illness. Thomas Langdon Grace, O.P. (1814-1897,) was born in Charleston, South Carolina, studied in both America and Italy, entered the seminary at Cincinnati in 1829, entered the priory of St. Rose, Kentucky, in 1830, went to Rome in 1837, was ordained a priest of the Order of Friars Preachers (Order of St. Dominic) in Rome in 1839, returned to the United States in 1844, was a minister in Kentucky and Tennessee, was appointed bishop of the Diocese of St. Paul in 1859, resigned as bishop of the St. Paul Diocese in 1884, was appointed as Titular Bishop of Mennith, Arabia, in 1884, and was appointed Archbishop of Siunia, Armenia, in 1889. In 1879, the Right Reverend Thomas L. Grace, Bishop of St. Paul, resided on Sixth Street between Wabasha Street and St. Peter Street. Totino-Grace High School, a Roman Catholic high school in Fridley, Minnesota, was named for Bishop Grace. John Ireland (1838-1918) was born in Burnchurch, County Kilkenny, Ireland, came to the United States in 1849, moved to St. Paul in 1852, studied in France from 1853 to 1861, was ordained in St. Paul in 1861, was mustered into the Fifth Minnesota Regiment as a chaplain in 1862 and resigned after 15 months in 1863, was appointed rector of the Cathedral of St. Paul in 1863, organized the first total abstinence society in Minnesota in 1869, was named coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of St. Paul in 1875, was named bishop of the Diocese of St. Paul in 1885, was named archbishop of the Archdiocese of St. Paul in 1888, and was the author of The Church and Modern Society: Lectures and Addresses, New York, D.H. McBride & Company, 1903. Austin Dowling was born in New York, New York, was ordained a priest in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1891, was appointed Bishop of the Diocese of Des Moines, Iowa, in 1912, and was appointed archbishop of the Archdiocese of St. Paul, in 1919. William O. Brady was born in Fall River, Massachusetts, was ordained a priest in 1923, was appointed bishop of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, in 1939, and was appointed Archbishop of St. Paul in 1956. Leo Binz was born in Stockton, Illinois, was ordained as a priest in 1924, was ordained as a Bishop in 1942, was assigned as the apostolic administrator of the Diocese of Winona, Minnesota, and then Coadjutor Bishop of Winona, was selected Coadjutor Bishop of the Archdiocese of Dubuque, Iowa, in 1949 and then Archbishop of Dubuque, and was reassigned as Archbishop of the Archdiocese of St. Paul in 1962. John Roach was born in Prior Lake, Minnesota, was ordained a priest in 1946, was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Saint Paul and Minneapolis in 1971, was appointed Archbishop of Saint Paul and Minneapolis in 1971, and retired in 1995. Nicholas Brewer was born in Olmstead County, Minnesota, was raised on a farm along the Root River in southeastern Minnesota, was a student in New York of Dwight Tryon and Charles Noel Flagg at the National Academy of Design, was a member of the American Federation of Arts, the California Art Club and the Salmagundi Club, and wrote an autobiography Trails of a Paintbrush, published in 1938. Theodule Augustin Ribot (1823-1891) began his studies at the Ecole des Arts et Metiers de Chalons, went to Paris where he worked as a store decorator and studied in the studio of Glaize, travelled through Germany, debuted in Paris at the Salon of 1861 and received medals in 1864 and 1865, and a medaille de troisieme classe in 1878, the same year in which he received the Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur, and was one of the founders of the Salon du Champs de Mars with Alphonse Legros, Fantin-Latour and Whistler. Henri (Karl-Ernest-Rodolphe-Heinrich-Salem) Lehmann was a German Neoclassical painter who studied under his father, Leo Lehmann (1782-1859), and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, exhibited regularly at the Salon, winning first-class medals in 1840, 1848, and 1855, received numerous commissions for large-scale compositions, became head of the Academie des Beaux-Arts in 1861, and taught Camille Pissarro and Georges Seurat. Norman Kittson ( -1927,) Nicholas R. Brewer ( -1927,) William J. Hoy ( -1928,) and William H. Fobes ( -1932) all died in Ramsey County. George A. Nash (1829-1912) was born in Yates County, New York, settled in St. Paul in 1854, was a pioneer, engaged in the drug business, later was engaged in insurance and real estate; was a county commissioner after 1906, and died in St. Paul. In 1879, George A. Nash, the general agent for the Union Mutual Life Insurance Company of Maine, located at 5 West Third Street, resided at the Southwest corner of Summit Avenue and Dayton Avenue and Marion B. Nattenburg was a domestic at the former nearby 209 Summit Avenue. The 1885 city directory indicates that Col. and Mrs. R. M. Newport, their daughter, Douglas Putnam, and Luther E. Newport all resided at the former nearby 217 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Edwin W. Winter and Elizabeth C. Winter (1848-1892,) who died of pneumonia, husband and wife, resided at the former nearby 215 Summit Avenue in 1892. [See note on Emmanuel Masqueray.]

226 Summit Avenue: Chancery, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Built in 1963 (1961 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Contemporary in style; Cerny Associates, architects. The two story, 47013 square foot, building replaced the Wilder Mansion, a great brick and stone house that was built in 1887 for Amherst Wilder, one of St. Paul's wealthiest men. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The Wilder Mansion replaced the George L. Otis house, which was built in 1863 and was razed in 1886. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mrs. George L. Otis and her daughters, Charles A. Otis, George W. Otis, and Lieutenant and Mrs. George D. Wallace all resided at this address. The 1889 and 1891 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Wilder and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1891 city directory also indicates that Bertha Haverty was a domestic employed at this address. The 1893 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Wilder, their daughter, and Miss Nancy Mitchell all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Wilder, their daughter, and Mrs. Nancy Mitchell all resided at this address. The 1902 University of Minnesota Alumni Record indicates that E. Villiers Appleby, an 1894 graduate and an oculist who officed at the Lowry Arcade, resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Fanny Spencer Wilder (1838-1903,) a widow and the mother-in-law of Ernest Villiers Appleby, who was born in the United States to parents also born in the United States and who died of cancer of the stomach, resided at this address in 1903. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. T. A. Schulze resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Catherine McConnon and the Most Reverend Austin Dowling, D.D., archbishop of St. Paul, both resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that the Most Rev. Austin Dowling D. D. and Rev. T. A. Welch both resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the Most Reverend Austin Dowling, D. D., the archbishop of the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis, resided at this address and that Anna Hoffman was a cook at this address. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that the Amherst Wilder residence was at this address from 1887 to 1959. The Wilder Mansion had functioned as the chancery for 41 years, until Archbishop John Gregory Murray (1877-1956) refused to continue to live there because he thought that it was too ostentatious. George LaMartine Otis (1829-1883) was born in Homer, Cortland County, New York, was the brother of Judge Alfred G. Otis of Atchison County, Kansas, the son of Isaac Otis ( -1854) and Caroline A. Otis ( -1883,) moved to Kalamazoo, Michigan, and attended Kalamazoo College, read the law at the law offices of Balch & De Yoe, was a counsel involved in the foreclosure of the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad mortgages, was a Democrat, was a lawyer, was the mayor of St. Paul, was a member of Minnesota House of Representatives for the Second District from 1857 until 1858, was a member of Minnesota Senate for the 21st District in 1866, and was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Minnesota in 1869, losing to Horace Austin. George L. Otis married Mary Virginia Mix, the daughter of Charles E. Mix, and the couple had five children, Caroline M. Otis (Mrs. George D.) Wallace, Martha E. Otis (Mrs. W. M.) Dickenson, Mary C. Otis (Mrs. W. F.) Newell, Charles A. Otis, and George W. Otis. Caroline Otis was the eldest daughter of Judge George L. Otis (1829-1883,) married Lieutenant George D. Wallace, a native of Yorkville, South Carolina, and a member of the U.S. Seventh Cavalry, in 1882, at Christ Episcopal Church in St. Paul, and they had one son, Otis A. Wallace. George D. Wallace was an 1872 graduate of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, was with the Seventh Cavalry in Montana in 1876, as acting engineer and acting topographical officer, but was assigned to Major Marcus A. Reno's contingent (Companies A, G, and M) at the Battle of Little Bighorn, which was separated from Custer's doomed main command (Companies C, E, F, I and L) and, with the eventual assistance of Captain Fred W. Benteen's contingent (Companies D, H, and K,) fought off the Indian attack five miles southeast and upstream from Custer's contingent. Wallace was involved in the recovery and burial of bodies from the Custer contingent after the battle and in the subsequent investigation of the Battle of the Little Big Horn, with his observations recorded in "Testimony before the Reno Court of Inquiry," January, 1879, in The Reno Court of Inquiry: Abstract of the Official Record of Proceedings, edited by W. A. Graham and published at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, by the Stackpole Company in 1954. There were allegations that that Lieutenant George Wallace committed perjury during the inquiry to cover for Major Reno, who was accused of cowardice at the battle of the Little Bighorn. At the Reno court of inquiry in 1879, nearly every participant who testified said he heard gunfire from downstream, and only Reno and Benteen claimed this gunfire did not occur. In 1890, Captain Wallace, then commanding Troop K of the Seventh Cavalry, was considered a friend of the Indians, but was killed at the battle of Wounded Knee in South Dakota, one of 31 soldiers killed during the assault on a group of 350 Lakota men, women, and children, with sources conflicting about whether he died of a Lakota gun shot wound (most sources) or whether he was tomahawked by members of Big Foot's band (a January, 1891, obituary.) Fanny Spencer Wilder (1837-1903) died in St. Paul. Nancy Mitchell ( -1948) died in Cass County, Minnesota. Austin Dowling ( -1930,) Catherine McConnon ( -1937,) and Anna J. Hoffman ( -1951) all died in Ramsey County. Thomas Anthony Welch (1884-1959) was born in Minnesota and died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Anna Hoffman (1880-1958) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. The 1894 St. Paul city directory lists Caroline Wallace and her son as living at the nearby former residence at 354 Summit Avenue. The 1910 federal census indicates that Otis A. Wallace (1899- ,) born in Minnesota to parents born in North Carolina and Minnesota, was a cadet at the U. S. Army Military Academy at West Point, New York. Amherst Holcomb Wilder, his wife, Fanny Spencer Wilder (1837-1903), and their daughter, Cornelia Day Wilder Appleby, established three trusts, in 1903, 1904, and 1905, to fund various social services in St. Paul. Amherst Holcomb Wilder (1828-1894,) the son of Alanson Wilder, a tanner, currier, and merchant and Evelina Holcomb, was born in Lewis, New York, attended the West Poultney, Vermont, Academy, moved to St. Paul in 1859, was engaged in the mercantile business and in stage and steamboat transportation, earned his wealth through transportation, banking, lumber, insurance, real estate, and manufacturing, married Fanny Spencer, the daughter of Hon. Joshua A. Spencer, of Utica, New York, in 1861, and the couple had one daughter, Cornelia Day Wilder (1868-1903.) Amherst Wilder initially was engaged in the manufacture of iron and in merchandising at Lewis, New York, in company with his father, then moved to St. Paul and was employed by J. C. & H. C. Burbank & Company from 1859 until 1866, was in the wholesale grocery business with Channing Seabury from 1866 until 1867, then was in government contracting and transportation with John L. Merriam, was a partner with John H. Charles of Sioux City, Iowa in a steamboat line on the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers, was a stockholder in the Saint Paul Foundry & Manufacturing Company, was a stockholder and director of the First National Bank of Saint Paul, was a stockholder and director of the Merchants' National Bank, was a director of the Saint Paul & Sioux City RailRoad, was vice president of the the Sioux City & Saint Paul RailRoad, was a director of the Saint Paul, Stillwater & Taylor's Falls RailRoad, was a director of the Hudson & River Falls RailRoad, and was an organizer of the Minnesota Valley RailRoad. Amherst Wilder was an incorporator of the St. Paul Boom Company, a firm organized to build and operate a boom on the Mississippi River below the Falls of St. Anthony in Minneapolis, with C. D. Gilfillan, Frederick Driscoll, C. D. Strong, D. D. Merrill, William Dawson, William R. Merriam, C. H. Bigelow, John S. Prince, and Maurice Auerbach. The St. Paul Boom Company became a Weyerhaeuser affiliate. Fanny Spencer Wilder (1837-1903) was born in Utica, New York, was a philanthropist, and died in St. Paul. Cornelia Day Wilder's life-long volunteer work strongly influenced Amherst H. Wilder's decision to leave his estate to help the less fortunate, especially if all members of his family were to die in a common accident, or if Cornelia Day Wilder would die childless. Cornelia Day Wilder married Dr. T. E. W. Villiers/E. T. Appleby. Cornelia Day Wilder died from complications following surgery and had no children. Cornelia Day Wilder Appleby (1868-1903) is buried in Oakland Cemetery in the Wilder family plot, along with Anny Spencer Wilder (1837-1903,) Amherst H. Wilder (1828-1894,) Alanson Wilder (1803-1875,) Evelina Holcomb Wilder (1807-1887,) Amherst Wilder Merriam (1888-1891,) John Lafayette Merriam (1887-1891,) John W. Merriam (1864-1899,) Helen Wilder Merriam (1830-1915,) John L. Merriam (1825-1895,) A. Wilder Merriam (1872-1905,) Robert H. Merriam (1866-1924,) Reuben D. Eggleston (1832-1904,) and Caroline Merriam Eggleston (1832-1922.) In 1879, Reuben D. Eggleston, a baggageman employed by the St. Paul & Sioux City RailRoad, resided at 183 Pine Street and John L. Merriam, a partner with Amherst H. Wilder in the law firm of Merriam & Wilder officing at 100 Jackson Street and vice president of the St. Paul & Sioux City RailRoad, resided at 84 Willius Street. John Lafayette Merriam (1825-1895,) the son of General William Merriam (1792-1854,) of Essex County, New York, and Jane Ismon Merriam (1798-1866,) of New Jersey, was born in Essex, New York, attended the Essex, New York, Academy and the Westport, New York, Academy, was the treasurer of Essex County, New York, as a Whig from 1857 until 1859, moved to St. Paul in 1860, was a partner in a stage and express business, Merriam & Blakely, with J. C. Burbank and Russell Blakely, was a partner in a commission business with J. C. Burbank, H. C. Burbank, and Amherst Wilder, was an incorporator of the St. Paul Foundry Company, was a stockholder in the First National Bank of St. Paul, was an organizer of the Merchants National Bank, was vice president of the St. Paul & Sioux City RailRoad, was a promoter of the Worthington & Sioux City RailRoad, was a director of the St. Paul, Stillwater & Taylors Falls RailRoad, was the president of a railroad construction company retained by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, was elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives as a Republican in 1870, serving as Speaker of the House, and was a delegate to the 1876 Republican Party National Convention. John L. Merriam initially married Mahala Kimpton De Lano (1831-1857) of Westport, New York, in 1848 and the couple had one child, William Rush Merriam. John L. Merriam then married Helen Marion Wilder (1830-1915) of Lewis, Essex County, New York, in 1858, and the couple had six children, including Alanson Wilder Merriam (1872-1905,) Jeanne E. Merriam (Mrs. William L.) McKenna (1864-1928,) John Wilder Merriam (1864-1899,) and Robert Hale Merriam (1868-1924.) In 1910, the three separate Wilder charities were incorporated and the organization became known as the Amherst H. Wilder Charity, with total assets of $2.6 million. In 1953, the name was changed to the Amherst H. Wilder Foundation. Wilder's Ferry, on the Missouri River, at Rocky Point, Montana, was named for Amherst Wilder by his friend C. A. Broadwater, a Helena, Montana, merchant and entrepreneur, in 1890. The altar at the Church of St. John the Evangelist in St. Paul was supplied by Mrs. Amherst Wilder and her daughter, Cornelia Day Wilder Appleby, in 1902. Henry Clay Burbank (1835-1905) was born in Lewis, New York, moved to Minnesota with his brother, James C. Burbank, in 1853, initially engaged in the forwarding and commission business, subsequently engaged in the wholesale grocery business in St. Paul until 1867 and in St. Cloud from 1867 until 1870, then engaged in the transportation and government contracting businesses, was a State senator as a Liberal Republican from Stearns County in 1873, and died in Rochester, Minnesota. Elizabeth "Sandy" Kiernat is the Chair of the Board of Directors of the Amherst H. Wilder Foundation of St. Paul and Tom Kingston is the president of the organization. Amherst Wilder Merriam (1888-1891) was a son of William Rush Merriam (1849-1931) and Laura E. Hancock Wilder (1855-1943.) The 1897 city directory indicates that Warren Carpenter, proprietor of the Summit Avenue House located at the nearby former 227 Summit Avenue, also resided at the nearby former 227 Summit Avenue. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. G. E. Skinner, James H. Skinner, and Mrs. J. E. Gibson all resided at the former nearby 229 Summit Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that George E. Skinner (1825-1895,) who died of heart disease, resided at the former nearby 229 Summit Avenue in 1895. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Gustave Scholle resided at the nearby 229 Summit Avenue in 1907. George Eldridge Skinner (1825-1895) was born in Le Roy, New York, moved to Faribault, Minnesota, in 1856, was a member of the Minnesota Senate in 1857, was the commissioner of lands for three railroad companies in Southern Minnesota, moved to St. Paul in 1880, and died in St. Paul. Reuben D. Eggleston, of Essex, New York, married Caroline C. Merriam Eggleston of Lewis, New York, in 1856. Helen Marion Wilder Merriam (1830-1915) was the daughter of Alanson Wilder (1804-1875) and Eveline Holcomb Wilder (1807-1887,) married (as second wife, following Mahala Kimpton DeLano (1831-1857,) who was the mother of Governor William Rush Merriam (1849 - 1931)) Col. John Lafayette Merriam in 1858, and the couple had four children, Jennie/Jeanne E. Merriam (Mrs. William) McKenna (1859-1928,) John W. Merriam (1864-1899,) Robert Hale Merriam (1868-1924,) and Alanson Wilder Merriam (1873-1905.) Col. John Lafayette Merriam was the son of Gen. William S. Merriam (1792-1854) and Jane Ismon Merriam (1798-1866.) Amherst Wilder Merriam (1888-1891) was the son of William Rush Merriam (1849-1931) and Laura E. Hancock Merriam (1855-1943.) Anny Spencer Wilder likely was Frances A. Spencer Wilder (1837-1903,) the daughter of Hon. Joshua Austin Spencer (1790-1857) and Electa C. Dean Spencer (1796-1881,) the wife of Amherst Holcomb Wilder, and the mother of Cornelia Day Wilder. Alanson Wilder Merriam married Bertha Constans in 1895. Gustave Scholle (1863-1937,) the son of Jacob Scholle ( -1897,) a Bavarian-born New York City developer and a founder of the Ethical Culture Society, and Getta Felsenheld Scholle ( -1898,) was born in San Francisco, California, attended public schools in New York City, New York, from 1870 until 1878, attended the College of the City of New York, New York, from 1878-90, was a member of the school board of St. Paul from 1885 until 1887, was the treasurer of the North West Wheel & Foundry Company from 1888 until 1895, was the first vice president of the Young Men's Sound Money League in St. Paul in 1896, attended the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute from 1890 until 1893, attended the Polytechnicum of Berlin, Germany, from 1893 until 1895, attended the Ecole des Fonts et Chausees of Paris, France, in 1896, raced the 21' 7" catboat "Valkerie" on White Bear Lake, Minnesota, in 1896, was the quartermaster general of Minnesota from 1898 until 1900, attended the University of Minnesota Law School from 1900 until 1903, was a lawyer and a civil engineer, was a Democrat, was a member of the Press Committee of the Democratic State Central Committee in 1902, was the treasurer of the St. Paul Symphony Orchestra Association, was the treasurer of the St. Paul Choral Club, was the president of the Neighborhood House Association, was the chairman of the Minnesota State Highway Commission in 1906, was the president of the Minnesota relief committee for California sufferers in 1906, was an unsuccessful candidate for the U. S. House of Representatives in the Fourth Congressional District in 1906, was the U. S. charge d'affaires in Madrid, Spain, in 1909, was the third secretary in the U. S. Embassy in Berlin Germany in 1910, edited Oeuvres de Turgot, published by Librairie Felix Alcan in Paris, France, in 1914, was the secretary of the American Legation in Havana, Cuba, in 1918, was the secretary of the American Embassy in Paris in 1919, retired from the U. S. Foreign Service in 1919, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, was a member of the White Bear Yacht Club, was a member of the Manhattan Club of New York, was a member of the Lafayette Club of Minnetonka, Minnesota, was a member of the Zeta Psi fraternity of North America, officed at the Dispatch Building in 1907, resided on the French Riviera after 1919, and died of a heart attack in Paris, France. Reuben D. Eggleston (1832-1904) was born in the United States and died in Ramsey County. Hardinge Scholle was the son of Gustave Schoole and was the director of the Museum of New York in 1919. Helen M. Merriam ( -1915,) James H. Skinner ( -1926,) Charles D. Strong ( -1935,) and Charles Henry Bigelow ( -1943) all died in Ramsey County. Alanson B. Wilder ( -1935) died in Hennepin County. Wilder Merriam (1873-1905) was born in the United States and died in Ramsey County. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Haldor Sneve resided at the former nearby 228 Summit Avenue in 1907. Haldor Peter Sneve (1865-1924,) the son of Peder/Peter H. Sneve and Anna Hammer Sneve, was born in Albert Lea, Minnesota, attended the Albert Lea, Minnesota, public schools, attended at the Minnesota Academy at Owatonna, Minnesota, graduated from the Medical College of Ohio at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1887, did one year's post-graduate work in Europe, served as the assistant surgeon for the National Military Home at Dayton, Ohio, married Katherine Stickney (1866-1952,) the daughter of Alpheus Beede Stickney (1840-1916) and Katherine Wilt Hertzog Hall Stickney (1842- ) in 1897, was a physician and surgeon, was the assistant superintendent of the Dayton, Ohio, Hospital for the Insane, was a neurologist and an alienist at the City and County Hospital of St. Paul, was the chief surgeon for the Chicago Great Western RailRoad, was a Lecturer in Mechano-Therapy at the University of Minnesota in 1901, was a clinical professor of Mental and Nervous Diseases at the University of Minnesota in 1910, was the author of the article "How to Treat Muscular and Joint Sprains of Railway Employees" in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1901, was the author of the monograph "A Case of Myasthenia Gravis" in 1902, lobbied for the creation of a Minnesota hospital for the inebriate in 1903, was the author of the article "The Treatment of Burns and Skin Grafting" in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1906, was the author of Treatment of inebriety and narcotism in 1907, was the author of the article "Gymnastics and Massage in the Treatment of Nervous Diseases" in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1910, was the president of the Minnesota Medical Association, indorsed, with Parks Ritchie, the application of T. E. W. V. Appleby for membership in the Minnesota Medical Association in 1898, was the president of the Ramsey County Medical Association, came to be recognized as having been 30 years ahead of his time as a surgeon in treating burn victims, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, won the doubles 8-Ball pool Tournament at the Minnesota Club in 1907, officed at the Lowry Arcade in 1907, and died in California. [See note for Frederick Driscoll for 266 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Maurice Auerbach for 400 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Dr. T. E. W. Villiers Appleby and Thomas Henry Montague Villiers Appleby for 301 Laurel Avenue.] [See note on the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad.] [See note on Burbank for 432 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the St. Paul Foundry Company for 1074 West Linwood Avenue.] [See note on the Saint Paul & Sioux City RailRoad.] [See note on the Sioux City & Saint Paul RailRoad.] [See note on the Saint Paul, Stillwater & Taylor's Falls RailRoad.] [See note on the Minnesota Valley RailRoad.] [See note on the Worthington & Sioux City RailRoad.] [See note on the Northern Pacific RailRoad.] [See note on the White Bear Yacht Club for 18 Kenwood Parkway.] [See note on Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.]

230 Summit Avenue: Archbishop's Residence. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1879 city directory indicates that Robert Flynn, a laborer, resided at the nearby former 232 Summit Avenue and that William A. Fowler, a clerk, boarded at the nearby former 232 Summit Avenue.

235 Summit Avenue: Charles Phelps Noyes/Joseph McKey House, Built in 1878 (1879 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Combination of Vernacular, Italianate, and French Second Empire styles. The building is a two story (three story according to Ramsey County property tax records,) 5464 square foot (8468 according to Ramsey County property tax records,) five bedroom, five bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. The house was built as a duplex and is now an apartment house. The house was constructed for Charles P. Noyes (1842-1931), who was a wholesale druggist. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Charles P. Noyes resided at this address from 1878 to 1881. The 1885, 1887, and 1889 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. Joseph McKey resided at this address. The 1891 and 1893 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. Joseph McKey and J. F. McKey all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Joseph McKey, A. W. McKey, and J. F. McKey all resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Marcus D. Grover (1841-1904,) the husband of Virginia A. Grover, who was born in Vermont to parents born in the United States and who died of gastric enteritis-pneumonia, resided at this address in 1904. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Virginia Grover Barnard (1861-1906,) the wife of Edward C. Barnard, who was born in the United States to parents also born in the United States and who died of tubercular meningitis, resided at this address in 1906. Other Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Edward Chester Barnard and Virginia Grover Barnard both resided at this address in 1906. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mrs. M. D. Grover and her daughter both resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Anna Bentley, the widow of Joseph Bentley, boarded at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mrs. Virginia Grover and her daughter both resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. Charles Phelps Noyes (1842-1921,) the son of Daniel Rogers Noyes and Phebe Griffin Lord Noyes, was born in Lyme, New London County, Connecticut, was educated at the Lyme, Connecticut, Academy, was educated at the Williston Seminary at Easthampton, Massachusetts, was employed in the banking house of Gilman Son & Company in New York in 1860, served in a New York regiment during the American Civil War, was engaged in the general store business at Port Huron, Michigan, in 1864, moved to St. Paul in 1868, became a partner in the firm of Noyes, Pett & Company, was a partner in the subsequent firm of Noyes Brothers, joined Daniel R. Noyes, Winthrop G. Noyes, and Edward H. Cutler in 1871 in establishing Noyes Brothers & Cutler, a wholesale firm dealing in drugs and related products, married Emily H. Gilman in 1874, was a partner of Daniel R. Noyes, Charles P. Noyes, Edward H. Cutler, Winthrop G. Noyes, Thomas E. Ludington, and Julian N. Kirby in 1907 in a subsequent reconfiguration of Noyes Brothers & Cutler, was the president of the State Savings Bank, was a member of the board of directors of the Merchants National Bank, was a member of the board of directors of the West Publishing Company, was a member of the board of directors of the St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company, was the vice president of the H. L. Collins Company, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, was a member of the Sons of the Revolution, was a member of the Society of Colonial Wars, was a member of the Society of the War of 1812, resided at 89 Virginia Avenue in 1907, and officed at the corner of Sixth Street and Sibley Street. Charles Phelps Noyes also was a delegate to the Indianapolis monetary convention (1898), was involved in the launching of the steamship "Dakota" (1904,) was the chairman of a St. Paul Commercial Club committee to erect a memorial to Joseph A. Wheelock (1806-1907,) was involved in planning the construction of a dam on the Mississippi River between Minneapolis and St. Paul. Charles Phelps Noyes also was a member of various committees of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church in St. Paul. Charles Phelps Noyes was the treasurer of the St. Paul Presbyterian Missionary Society (1884-1888) and of the Archaeological Institute of America (1912-1919.) Charles P. Noyes married Emily Hoffman Gilman, a women's suffrage activist. C. P. Noyes was the author, in 1907, of Noyes-Gilman Ancestry: Being a Series of Sketches with a Chart of the Ancestry of Charles Phelps Noyes and Emily H. (Gilman) Noyes, His Wife, published by the Higginson Book Company. Emily Hoffman Gilman Noyes was the author of A family history in letters and documents, 1667-1837, concerning the forefathers of Winthrop Sargent Gilman, and his wife Abia Swift Lippincott , privately published in 1919 in St. Paul. Emily Hoffman Gilman (1854-1930,) a daughter of Winthrop Sargent Gilman (1808-1884,) a merchant in Alton, Illinois, and Abiah/Abia Swift Lippincott Gilman (1817-1902,) married Charles Phelps Noyes, moved to Minnesota in 1874, and the couple had six children, including a daughter, Julia Gilman Noyes (Mrs. Henry Wheeler) de Forest (1875-1967.) Emily Hoffman Gilman Noyes was a supporter of a clandestine birth control center around World War I, was a founder of the St. Paul YWCA in the 1880's, was a founder of the Women's Welfare League in 1912, and was the vice president of the Minnesota Woman Suffrage Association in 1912. Emily Gilman Noyes was incuded on a recently constructed Women's Suffrage Memorial at the State Capitol Mall, along with other suffrage leaders Harriet Bishop, Fanny Fligelman Brin, Myrtle Cain, Mary Jackman Colburn, Sarah Tarleton Colvin, Gratia Countryman, Nellie Griswold Francis, Elizabeth Hunt Harrison, Ethel Edgerton Hurd, Nanny Mattson Jaeger, Bertha Berglin Moller, Julia Bullard Nelson, Anna Dickie Olesen, Mabeth Hurd Paige, Martha Rogers Ripley, Maria Sanford, Josephine Schain, Josephine Sarles Simpson, Sarah Burger Stearns, Maud Conkey Stockwell, Jane Grey Swisshelm, Clara Hampson Ueland, Marguerite Milton Wells, and Alice Ames Winter. Helen Gilman, a sister of Emily Hoffman Gilman Noyes, married Daniel Noyes, the brother of Charles Noyes. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Charles P. Noyes, a member of the church since 1868, Emily H. (Mrs. C. P.) Noyes, a member of the church since 1874, Charles Reinold Noyes, a member of the church since 1899, and Robert Hale Noyes, a member of the church since 1901, all resided at 89 Virginia Street. Henry Wheeler de Forest (1855-1938,) a New York lawyer, financier, and longtime associate of the late railroad magnate E. H. Harriman who was the President and Chairman of the Board of the Southern Pacific RailRoad, and Julia Gilman Noyes de Forest had one daughter, Alice Delano de Forest (Mrs. Francis Minturn) Sedgwick (1908-1988.) Alice Delano de Forest Sedgwick and Francis Minturn Sedgwick (1904- ) married in 1929 and had seven children, Hellmut Minturn Sedgwick, Jerome Minturn Sedgwick, Catherine Sedgwick, Edith "Edie" Minturn Sedgwick (Mrs. Michael Brett) Post (1943-1971,) an actress, socialite, and heiress who was associated with Andy Warhol and Bob Dylan, Susanna Sedgwick, Jonathan de Forest Minturn Sedgwick, and Robert Minturn Sedgwick. From 1882 to 1896, the owner and occupant of the house was Joseph McKey, who was the head of Joseph McKey & Company, which operated the Boston One Price Clothing Store. The Boston One Price Clothing Store was located at Third Street and Robert Street before 1895 and moved to Sixth Street and Robert Street in 1895, according to the 1895 city directory. There also were Boston One Price Clothing Stores located in Minneapolis, Denver, Colorado, and Billings, Montana. Marcus D. Grover ( -1904) was born in Wells, Vermont, was admitted to the bar in 1868, moved to St. Paul in 1887, became the general solicitor of the Great Northern RailRoad in 1888, and died in St. Paul. Fanny Fligelman Brin was born in Romania, emigrated to Minneapolis, graduated Phi Beta Kappa from the University of Minnesota, married and had three children, served the National Council of Jewish Women as president from 1932 to 1938, and was a civic leader and a pacifist. Myrtle A. Cain (1894-1980) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of McGovern, and died in Hennepin County. Myrtle Cain was a union activist, was one of Minnesota's first female representatives, served one term, and was the chief author of a law that prohibited people from wearing masks in public to conceal their identity in most circumstances and that was intended as leverage against the Ku Klux Klan or other masked mobs. Mabeth H. Paige also was elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives and served for 11 terms, from 1922 to 1942. Edward Chester Barnard (1863-1921) entered the U. S. Geological Survey in 1885, mapped the Fortymile District, Alaska, in 1898 and the Nome District, Alaska, in 1900, was the Chief Topographer of the International Boundary Commission from 1903 to 1915, and became Boundary Commissioner for the United States for the defining and marking of the boundary between the United States and Canada and between Alaska and Canada in 1915. Barnard Glacier, a 33-mile-long glacier in Alaska, is named for surveyor Edward Chester Barnard. Virginia Grover Barnard (1871-1906,) Daniel R. Noyes ( -1908,) Virginia A. Grover ( -1923,) Emily H. Noyes ( -1930,) Edward Hutchins Cutler ( -1935,) and Sarah Tarleton Colvin ( -1949) all died in Ramsey County. Joseph A. Wheelock (1830-1905) was born in Canada and died in Ramsey County. Gratia Alta Countryman ( -1953) died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Ethel Frances Hurd ( -1950) died in Crow Wing County, Minnesota. Clara Hampson Ueland ( -1927,) Nanny M. Jaeger ( -1938,) Anna E. Bentley ( -1940,) and Anna Bentley ( -1942) all died in Hennepin County. Fanny F. Brin (1884-1961) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Friedman, and died in Hennepin County. Bertha Moller ( -1936) died in Otter Tail County, Minnesota. Mabeth Hurd Paige ( -1961) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Campbell, and died in Hennepin County. Marguerite Wells (1872-1959) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Johnson, and died in Hennepin County. The current owner of record of the property is Pamela V. Rusten. Pamela V. Rusten is a realtor with Smart Home Owner, Inc., of Woodbury, Minnesota. Pamela V. Rusten also is listed as being associated as a management consultant located at 310 Clifton Avenue in Minneapolis. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on the St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company for 297 Bates Avenue.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the Minnesota Club for 170 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.]

236 Summit Avenue: Archbishop's Residence/Former Francis B. Clarke and Lena B. Thompson Clarke residence; Built in 1963; Contemporary in style; Cerny Associates, architects. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Francis "Frank" B. Clarke resided at this address from 1884 to 1893. The 1885, 1887, 1891, 1893, and 1895 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Clarke resided at this address. The 1900 federal census indicates that Thomas Foley (1841- ,) a self-employed railroad contractor and the head of household, who was born in Canada to parents who were born in Ireland and moved to Minnesota in 1882, his wife, Jessie A. Foley (1860- ,) who was born in Canada to parents who were born in Canada, a daughter, Mary G. Foley (1881- ,) a student who was born in Canada, a daughter, Louise Foley (1883- ,) a student who was born in Minnesota, a son, F. Francis Foley (1886- ,) a student who was born in Minnesota, a son, John R. Foley (1888- ,) a student who was born in , a son, Frederick E. Foley (1891- ,) a student who was born in Minnesota, a daughter, Anne Foley (1893- ,) who was born in Minnesota, a son, Arthur C. Foley (1896- ,) who was born in Minnesota, and a son, Philip L. Foley (1899- ,) who was born in Minnesota, a boarder, Clara M. Rayfair (1879- ,) a teacher who was born in Canada to parents who were born in Canada, a servant, Ellen Meagher (1870- ,) a seamstress who was born in Wisconsin to parents who were born in Ireland, a servant, Mary Anastrone (1867- ,) a cook who was born in Sweden to parents who were born in Sweden, a servant, Lena Belgems (1874- ,) a housemaid who was born in Minnesota to parents who were born in Ireland, a servant, Michael McGarry (1879- ,) a coachman who was born in Ireland to parents who were born in Ireland, a servant, Alice Andrew (1875- ,) a waitress who was born in Canada to parents who were born in Canada, and a servant, Martha Kempe (1877- ,) a housemaid who was born in Germany to parents who were born in Germany, all resided at this address. The 1910 federal census indicates that Jessie A. Foley (1860- ,) the head of household, who was born in Canada to parents who were born in Canada, a daughter, Mary G. Foley (1881- ,) who was born in Canada, a daughter, Louise Foley (1883- ,) who was born in Minnesota, a son, F. Francis Foley (1886- ,) who was born in Minnesota, a son, John R. Foley (1888- ,) who was born in , a son, Frederick E. Foley (1891- ,) who was born in Minnesota, a daughter, Anne Foley (1893- ,) who was born in Minnesota, a son, Arthur C. Foley (1896- ,) who was born in Minnesota, and a son, Philip L. Foley (1899- ,) who was born in Minnesota, a housekeeper, Ellen Meagher (1865- ,) who was born in Wisconsin to parents who were born in Ireland, a cook, Emma Donderson (1873- ,) who was born in Wisconsin to parents who were born in Norway, a chauffeur, Fred R. Williams (1884- ,) who was born in Virginia to parents who were born in Virginia, a seamstress, Teresa H. Smith (1885- ,) who was born in Minnesota to parents who were born in Germany, and a housemaid, Mary Hart (1890- ,) who was born in Ireland to parents who were born in Ireland, all resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that A. C. Foley, P. L. Foley, and F. T. Foley all resided at this address. Fred E. Foley was a World War I veteran who resided at this address in 1919. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. D. O'Brien, Jr., resided at this address. Francis Byron Clarke (1839-1911) was born in Madison County, New York, moved to St. Paul in 1871, married Lena B. Thompson, was employed by the West Wisconsin Railway Company, was the general traffic manager of the St. Paul & Sioux City RailRoad in 1880, became a life member of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1882, was a member of the board of directors of the St. Paul Title Insurance and Trust Company, was the traffic manager of the Great Northern RailRoad in 1902, was a member of the board of directors of the First National Bank of St. Paul in 1902, was a law partner of James Cormican after 1901, moved to Asteria, Oregon, and died in Portland, Oregon. Ellen Meagher ( -1926) died in Ramsey County. Martha Linnea Kempe (1902-1978) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. John R. Foley ( -1949) died in Le Sueur, County, Minnesota. Frederic E. B. Foley (1891-1966) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Craig, and died in Ramsey County. Philip L. Foley (1899-1974) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Charles Duffy O'Brien ( -1934) died in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The 1879 city directory indicates that Josephine Brown was a domestic and Frank Liverpool was a coachman at the nearby former 238 Summit Avenue and that William A. Culbertson, a partner with Maurice Auerbach, George R. Finch, and William H. VanSlyck in Auerbach, Finch, Culbertson & Company, a wholesale dry goods, woolens, notions, and carpet dealer located at 50-60 Jackson Street, resided at the nearby former 238 Summit Avenue. In 1881, W. A. Culbertson was a member of the board of trustees of the Dayton Avenue Presbyterian Church. William Arthur Culbertson (1840-1885,) a son of William Stuart Culbertson (1814-1892) of New Albany, Indiana, and Eliza Vance Culbertson (1822-1865,) began working as a clerk in his father's dry goods store, Culbertson & McCord Wholesale Dry Goods, in 1860, became his father's business partner in W. S. Culbertson & Son Dry Goods business in 1861, moved to St. Paul, and became a banker. William Stuart Culbertson invested in St. Paul banks from 1880 until 1885. W. A. Culbertson's brother's house, the Samuel A. Culbertson Mansion in New Albany, Indiana, was designed by Minneapolis architect William Channing Whitney, who also designed the Minnesota Governor's Mansion. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on Frederick E. B. Foley for 761 West Osceola Avenue.] [See note on the St. Paul & Sioux City RailRoad.] [See note on the First National Bank of St. Paul for 331 Maple Street.] [See note on Maurice Auerbach for 400 Summit Avenue.]

239 Summit Avenue: Gen. William B. Bond House/Colonel William B. Bend House; Built in 1882 (1900 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Elizabethan/Victorian/Altered Tudor Revival in style; George Wirth, original architect. The structure is a two story, 4912 square foot, 13 room, six bedroom, six bathroom, stucco house, with a detached garage. The house has been totally altered since its construction in 1882. Its frilly, open porch, and Victorian quality was traded in the 1920's for a Tudor Revival style exterior. The original owner of the house, from 1882 to 1908, William B. Bend, was secretary and treasurer of the St. Paul Harvester Works. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that William B. Bend resided at this address from 1882 to 1906. The 1885 and 1887 city directories indicate that Colonel and Mrs. W. B. Bend and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1891 and 1893 city directories indicate that Colonel and Mrs. William B. Bend, their daughter, and Harold P. Bend all resided at this address. The 1895 city directory indicates that General and Mrs. William B. Bend, their daughter, and Harold P. Bend all resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that William Bradford Bend (1837-1905,) the husband of Isabella Bend, who was born in New York City to parents born in the United States and who died of a carbuncle and septicaemia, resided at this address in 1905. In 1905, W. B. Bend, a lay reader for the Episcopal Church of St. John the Evangelist, resided at this address. In 1914, C. M. Worsham resided at this address. The 1915 Woman's Who's who of America, compiled by John William Leonard and published by The American Commonwealth Company of New York, indicates that Emily Huntington (Mrs. John Edwin) Miller resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Charles Patterson, Mrs. Elizabeth Shaffer, and W. P. Shaffer all resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Noyes resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that C. Reinhold Noyes and his wife, Dorothy Noyes, all resided at this address. In 1934, John M. Blakeley and Emily Robbins Blakeley all resided at this address and were notable members of St. Paul society. In 1978, the house was a residence for a religious order of women. William Bradford Bend married Isabella Tomes (1840- ) and the couple had five children, Mary Aspinwell Bend (Mrs. Theodore) Sedgwick (1878- ,) Isabella Hadden Bend (Mrs. George Edward) Wood/Ward (1865- ,) Edith Ludlow Bend (1868-1886,) Harold Pelham/F. Bend (1870- ,) and Charles Meredith Bend (1874- .) Harold Bend (1870-1974) was born on Staten Island, New York, and moved to Saint Paul with his family at age seven. His father had lost money in a Wall Street crash and came West to start over. In 1895, Harold Bend helped found the Saint Paul-based sugar brokerage firm of Earl-Bend (later named Bend, Southall-Sleepack) and remained with the firm for 70 years. Harold Bend did not make his fortune from the sugar business, but made his fortune as an early investor in the Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company, loaning $5,000 to 3M sometime before World War I, which was repaid in stock and which split 192 times during his lifetime. Harold Bend and his wife, Glen Blakeley Bend, gave The Saint Paul Foundation its largest donation, a bequest of more than $32 million, when Harold Bend died at age 103. Mr. and Mrs. Harold P. Bend also established the Harold P. Bend Scholarship Fund at Carlton College, Northfield, Minnesota, in 1965. In 1909, Mr. and Mrs. Harold P. Bend did not take the Cooper house on Summit Avenue as they originally intended, but moved to 683 Goodrich Avenue, at the corner with St. Albans Street. Harold P. Bend won the Minnesota Golf Association Amateur Championship in 1904, representing the Town & Country Country Club, won the Minnesota Golf Association Senior Amateur Championship in 1923 and 1924, representing the Town & Country Country Club,and was a noted St. Paul golfer in national golf publications in 1911 and in 1916. Mary Aspinwall Bend Sedgwick (1878-1963,) the wife of Theodore Sedgwick and the daughter of William Bradford Bend and Isabella Tomes Bend, was born in St. Paul, died in Sharon, Connecticut, and is buried in the Sedgwick family plot at Stockbridge Cemetery, Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Theodore Sedgwick was the son of Henry Dwight Sedgwick II and Henrietta Ellery Sedgwick. Theodore Sedgwick and Mary Aspinwall Bend Sedgwick had four children, Theodore Sedgwick, Jr. (1904-1931,) Edith Ludlow Sedgwick (Mrs. George Dandridge) Gibson (1906-1925,) Harold Bend Sedgwick (1908- ,) and Charles Sedgwick (1912- .) C. Reinhold Noyes was the author of America's Destiny in 1935 and was the author of The Institution of Property, published by Humphrey Milford in London in 1936. C. R. Noyes was the author of Economic Man in Relation to His Natural Environment in 1948. C. Reinhold Noyes was an economist. C. Reinhold Noyes was in the pharmaceutical industry in 1941, was a member of the board of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and was a member of a special reading committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research that reviewed a book by Milton Friedman critical of the American Medical Association's monopolistic practices. C. R. Noyes' five-year term as National Bureau of Economic Research Representative expired in 1945. C. Reinhold Noyes wrote Walter Lowrie, an Episcopal priest and Kierkegaard scholar, a birthday poem in 1951. Charles Reinold Noyes was the author of Etymology of early legal terminology in 1936 and of Property and sovereignty in 1945. Charles Reinold Noyes graduated from Yale University in 1905, married twice, first to Henriette Denny Turney (1888- ) and secondly to Dorothy Quincey Grinnell (1886- ,) spent winters in New York and spent summers in the fox hunting section of Chester County, near Avondale, Pennsylvania. Dorothy Quincey Grinnell (Mrs. Charles Reinold) Noyes (1886- ) was a daughter of Edwin Morgan Grinnell and Sarah Jackson Stone Grinnell and was the sister of Charlotte I. Grinnell, who in 1910 married Alexander Forbes, a grandson of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Charles Reinold Noyes was the son of Charles Phelps Noyes (1842-1921) and Emily Hoffman Gilman Noyes and was the grandson of Daniel Rogers Noyes (1793-1877) and Phoebe Griffin Lord Noyes (1797-1875.) Charles Phelps Noyes was born in Lyme, New London, Connecticut, lived at 89 Virginia Street in 1888, and was a wholesale drug sales agent for Noyes Brothers & Cutler in Saint Paul in 1904. The siblings of Charles Reinold Noyes were Julia Gilman Noyes (1875- ,) Katherine McCurdy Noyes (1875-1884,) Emily Hoffman Noyes (1880-1880,) Robert Hale Noyes, Sr. (1886-1983,) and Lawrence Gilman Noyes (1893- .) Charles Reinold Noyes graduated in 1905 from Yale University. Charles Reinold Noyes married Dorothy Quincey Grinnell (1886- ) in 1908, divorced before 1933, and the couple had three children, Charlotte Irving Noyes (1908- ,) Charles Phelps Noyes (1911- ,) and Dorothy Quincy Noyes (1914- .) Charles Reinold Noyes later married Henriette Denny Turney (1888- ) in 1933. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Noyes resided at 1 Heather Place. Lawrence Gilman Noyes graduated from Yale University in architecture in 1916 and graduated in 1922 from Columbia University. Emily Huntington Miller (1833- ) was born in Brooklyn, Connecticut, the daughter of Dr. Thomas Huntington and Pauline Clarke Huntington, received a bachelor's degree from Oberlin College, received a master's degree from Northwestern University in 1857, received a honorary doctorate from Northwestern University, married John Edwin Miller in Brooklyn, Connecticut, in 1860, was the dean of women and assistant professor of English Literature at Northwestern University, opposed woman's suffrage, was an author and poet, and was involved in Sunday school teaching, temperance work, foreign mission work, and settlement house work. Emily Huntington Miller (1833-1913) was the author of From Avalon, A. C. McClurg & Company, Chicago, 1896, Songs From the Nest, Kindergarten Literature Company, Chicago, 1894, and Little Lad of Bethlehem Town, P. Elder and Company, San Francisco, 1911, and was the editor of The Little Corporal: An Illustrated Magazine, published in Chicago, Illinois, by John E. Miller in 1874. William Bradford Bend (1837-1905,) Elizabeth Shaffer ( -1918,) Ellen Meagher ( -1926,) Emily Robbins Blakeley ( -1933,) Walter P. Shaffer ( -1940,) and Charles Patterson ( -1941) all died in Ramsey County. Harold P. Bend (1870-1974) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Tomes, and died in Ramsey County. Dorothy Noyes ( -1954) died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. The current owners of record of the property are Cheryl R. Loeffler and James M. Loeffler. [See note on the 3M/Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company for 682 Fairmount Avenue.] [See note on Harold P. Bend for 34 Kenwood Parkway.] [See note on Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.]

Summit Avenue Hike 2 Architectural Notes

Description of Housing Styles

Summit Avenue Hikes - Architectural Style Notes

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Information from the University of Minnesota, Northwest Architectural Archives, was used in this webpage.

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