Site hosted by Angelfire.com: Build your free website today!

Thursday Night Hikes: Architecture Notes - St. Paul Architects 1859-1903


Observations on St. Paul Architects 1859-1903

Summit Avenue Hikes

Assembled by

Lawrence A. Martin

Minneapolis, Minnesota

August 10, 2001

Adams, Dewey & Smith, architects, designed 1374 Summit Avenue, the Ruth B. Wheeler/Perry Smith House, built in 1889, Victorian/Queen Anne in style. Adams, Dewey, & Smith was a St. Paul architectural firm.

David Adler (1882-1949) was born in Milwaukee, the only son of Therese Hyman Adler and Issac David Adler, a successful wholesale maker of men's clothing, but spent most of his life in Chicago. He attended prep school in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. He then attended Princeton University, graduating in 1904. Adler drew upon his training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. He married Katherine Keith in 1916. Early in his career, he lacked a professional license as an archtitect and depended on his partners, first Henry Dangler, and then Robert Work, for the credentialing of his work. Notwithstanding his lack of a license, he elected to the prestigious American Institute of Architects in 1926. In 1929, he received an architect's license from the State of Illinois. Adler worked independently in Chicago for most of his career, although he did have a professional association with Robert Work from 1917 to 1928. Adler had a love for symmetry, including even designing false doors to balance a functioning door. His career spanned four decades, during which time he undertook commisions for about 200 projects, the majority of them single-family residences which are located in 15 states, from Massachusetts to Hawaii, along with one in British Columbia. An intensely private man, Adler shunned the public spotlight, did not market himself, or his work, with most of his commissions coming as the result of referrals from satisfied clients and friends, and did not appear at public ceremonies in his honor, and never took a commission from a client whose tastes he did not like. David Adler and Robert Work, architects, designed 366 Summit Avenue, the Egil Boeckmann and Rachel Hill Boeckmann House, built in 1928, Georgian Revival in style.

William Linley Alban (1873-1961,) the son of Milton Alban and Chloe Sarah Blodgett Alban, was born in Plover, Portage County, Wisconsin, attended the Stevens Point, Wisconsin, public schools, graduated from the Chicago School of Architecture in 1897, was an architect in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, from 1897 until 1899, was the chief draughtsman for Omeyer & Thori (Didrich Omeyer and Martin P. Thori,) architects, in St. Paul from 1899 until 1905, married Gertrude Van Houten in 1903, resided in Ramsey County, was a partner with Omeyer, Thori, and James Fisher in Thori, Alban & Fisher, architects, after 1905, was a partner in Alban & Fisher, was a partner in Alban & Lockhart, was a partner with Charles Hausler in Alban & Hausler, architects, in 1914, was a member of Ellerbe & Company, initially followed Gothic and Neoclassical designs, subsequently became Sullivanesque, and tended to specialize in church, school, and public building design. William Linley Alban began his architectural practice in St. Paul in 1906, working in the architectural firms Thori, Alban & Fisher, Alban & Fisher, Alban & Hausler, Alban & Lockhart and Ellerbe & Co., and died in St. Paul. Alban designed the Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church of St. Paul. William L. Alban was an architect located at the Endicott Building. Charles A. Hausler went into partnership with William Alban from 1911 to 1913.

Alden & Harris, architects, designed 2015 Summit Avenue, the J. J. Corneveaux House #2, built in 1921, Georgian Revival in style, and 1164 Summit Avenue, the Albert P. Wallich House, built in 1914, Craftsman/Prairie Style/Colonial Revival/Medieval Rectilinear in style.

Robert Spencer Alden (1810-1877,) the son of Elisha Alden (1788-1858) and Sally Avery Alden (1784-1846,) was born in Verona, Oneida County, New York, married Abby Caroline Strong (1816- ,) the daughter of William Pratt Strong and Caroline Franklin Strong, in Bergen, Genesee, New York, in 1834, moved to St. Anthony/Minneapolis from Indiana in 1856/1866, was briefly associated with Franklin Long, designed the Winslow House, 55 Prince Street SE, in St. Anthony, the Metropolitan Hotel of St. Paul, and the Academy of Music in Minneapolis, was a Mason, and died in Minneapolis. Robert Spencer Alden and Abby Caroline Strong Alden were the parents of Mary Jane Alden (Mrs. Watts) De Lameter (1836-1859,) Juliet/Juliette Alden (Mrs. Charles Francis) Powell (1839- ,) and Dudley Locke Alden (1851- .)

N. A. Aleauphilt, architect, designed 688-690 Oakland Avenue, built in 1911, Queen Anne in style.

Alladin Improvement Company, builder and architect, designed 696 Summit Avenue, built in 1963, Bungalow in style.

American Building Company, architect and builder, designed 1096 Summit Avenue, built in 1922, Dutch Colonial in style.

O. G. Amlee, architect, designed 567 West Lincoln Avenue, the Ladislav J. Pavlicek House, built in 1910; Tudor Revival in style.

G. A. Anderson, architect, designed 2215 Summit Avenue, the Archibald Bush House, built in 1927, Tudor Villa in style; and 1894 Summit Avenue, the Warner Ogden House, built in 1924, Mildly Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style.

Gust Anderson, architect, designed 1683 Summit Avenue, the Orville Helgeson House, built in 1911, Tudor Villa in style; 1537 Summit Avenue, the Leonard Lampert, Jr. House, built in 1925, Georgian Revival in style; and 1366 Summit Avenue, the F. A. Upham House #1, built in 1910.

Antler Corporation, builders and architects, designed 1799 Summit Avenue, the M. Donnelly House, built in 1957, Contemporary in style.

Warren Arend, architect, designed 1212 Summit Avenue: Warren Arend House; Built in 1956; Contemporary in style.

Leon Eugene Arnal (1881-1963) was born in Mouret, France, received a classical education in architecture at the École des Beaux Arts, Marseilles, graduating in 1899, and the École des Beaux Arts, Paris, graduating in 1910, funded through a scholarship from the city of Marseilles, taught at the University of Pennsylvania School of Architecture as an assistant to Paul Phillippe Cret from 1911 to 1918, served in the French army during World War I and was awarded the British Military Cross for his service as a liaison officer with the British forces, returned to the U.S. after the war and joined the firm of Magney & Tusler in Minneapolis, where he was the chief designer until 1935, taught in the University of Minnesota School of Architecture from 1919 until his retirement in 1948, and died in Minneapolis. Among the buildings in Minneapolis that Arnal designed for Magney & Tusler were the Women's Club Building (1927,) the U.S. Post Office (1934,) and the Foshay Tower (1928-1929,) all designated as landmark structures by the Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission. Arnal was a member of the American Institute of Architects, achieving both fellowship and emeritus status, and also joined the Minneapolis Chapter of the AIA. Arnal also assisted local architects Roy Childs Jones and Clarence Johnston in the design of former Memorial Stadium at the University of Minnesota (1921-1923.) Léon Eugène Arnal was the chief designer for the architectural firm of Magney & Tusler, later known as Setter, Leach & Lindstrom, and subsequently acquired by Leo A. Daly. There is a Leon Arnal Memorial Thesis Award presented annually by the University of Minnesota's College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.

Ask & Moen, architects, designed 632 West Lincoln Avenue, the P. J. Schaub House, built in 1907, Classical Revival in style.

Associated Architects & Engineers, architects, designed 2279 Summit Avenue, the George L. Burg House, built in 1964, Contemporary in style.

Jay Axelrod, architect, designed 1889 Summit Avenue, the A. L. Goffstein House, built in 1926, Twenties Villa in style; and 1480 Summit Avenue, the Harry L. Brown House, built in 1929, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style.

S. M. Bartlett, architect, designed 1761 Summit Avenue, the R. B. Whitacre House, built in 1916, Tudor Rectilinear in style.

Asher Bassford, architect, designed 267 West Seventh Street, the Louise Block building, built in 1885, Queen Anne/Richardson/East Lake business structure in style. Asher Bassford was principally a contractor when he resided in St. Paul. Asher Benjamin Bassford (1847-1932) was the son of Asher Benjamin Bassford (1805-1887) and Lucy Jane Stuart Bassford (1833-1898) and was the brother of Edward Payson Bassford. He was born in Calais, Maine, moved to Minnesota before 1880, moved to Lansdowne, Deleware County, Pennsylvania, before 1890, and moved to Florida before 1920.

Charles Asher Bassford ( 1879-1945,) the son of architect Edward Payson Bassford (1837–1912,) was an architect at age 20, became the St. Paul city architect, and designed the Zoological Building at St. Paul's Como Park in 1936, with the building constructed by the Works Projects Administration (W.P.A.) Charles A. Bassford resided at 707 Iglehart in 1910 and resided at 1070-1/2 Ashland in 1930. Charles A. Bassford, Sr., (1879- ) married Helen I. Bassford (1886- ) in 1906 and the couple had two children, Katherine Isabelle Bassford (1908- ) and Charles A. Bassford, Jr. (1914- .) Katherine Isabelle Bassford was a cleaning woman at a retail store in 1930. Minerva C. Uhler (1895- ) was a lodger in the Bassford household in 1910. Charles A. Bassford, Sr., had six siblings, Maria D. Bassford (1867- ,) Adelia/Adel Bassford Cereday (1872- ,) Hannah Bassford (1876- ,) Edward P. Bassford (1872- ,) a bookkeeper and a broker, Raymond Bassford (1882- ,) and Mark J. Bassford (1885- ,) a railroad steam engineer. Charles A. Bassford joined his father's architectural office in 1902. He was the city architect for the City of St. Paul between 1904 and 1908 and between 1930 and 1945, designing many buildings and many Winter Carnival Ice Palaces with architect Clarence W. Wigington. Charles Asher Bassford ( -1945) died in Ramsey County. Charles A. Bassford, architect, designed 1156 Summit Avenue, the George R. Holmes House, built in 1907, Baroque Revival/Classical Rectilinear in style, which is Bassford's only house on Summit Avenue.

Charles Bassford, the son of architect Edward Payson Bassford (1837-1912,) was an architect at age 20, became the St. Paul city architect, and designed the Zoological Building at St. Paul's Como Park in 1936, with the building constructed by the Works Projects Administration (W.P.A.) Charles A. Bassford resided at 707 Iglehart in 1910 and resided at 1070-1/2 Ashland in 1930. Charles A. Bassford, Sr., (1879- ) married Helen I. Bassford (1886- ) in 1906 and the couple had two children, Katherine Isabelle Bassford (1908- ) and Charles A. Bassford, Jr. (1914- .) Charles A. Bassford is credited with assisting in the design of several St. Paul buildings, many with St. Paul architect Clarence "Cap" Wigington, including the Aldine Playgrounds, the Arlington Playground, the Baker School Playgrounds, the Belvidere Playgrounds, the Bluff Playgrounds, the Catherine Welsch-Smith Memorial Building, the 1936-1937 Cedar Street Toboggan Slide, City Hall & Court House, the Cleveland Junior High School, the Como Golf Refectory, the Como Park Club House, the Como Park Pavilion, Edgecumbe School, Groveland Park Elementary School, Harding High School, Hayden Heights Elementary School, the Highland Bath House, the Highland Park Pool, Linwood and Farnsworth Schools, Horace Mann Elementary School, Monroe Junior High School, the St. Paul Municipal Airport, the Newell Park, the Phalen Bath House, the Phalen Park Golf Course, the St. Paul Public Safety Building, the Rice and Lawson Playground, the Scheffer Playgrounds, the St. Clair Playground, the Unidale Playgrounds, the Wilder Playgrounds, the St. Paul Work House, and the 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, and 1947 St. Paul Winter Carnival Ice Palaces. Charles Bassford, architect, designed 862 West Osceola Avenue, the J. M. Dickson House/Charles Trudeau House, built in 1896, Queen Anne/Georgian Revival in style, 796 West Osceola Avenue, the H. E. Erty House, built in 1891, Georgian Revival in style, 18 Crocus Place, the Grant S. Macartney House, built in 1922; Georgian Revival in style, and 745 West Lincoln Avenue, the James Doran House, built in 1893, Colonial Revival in style.

Edward Payson Bassford (1837-1912) was the son of Asher Benjamin Bassford and Lucy J. Bassford, was born at Calais, Maine, graduated from the Calais, Maine, Academy, studied architecture in Boston at the school of Charles Panter/Painter, and was living at Newton, Massachusetts. Not long after he entered the school, the Civil War broke out, and he enlisted in Company B of the 44th Massachusetts Regiment in September, 1862. His unit was mustered out in June, 1863, and he was discharged at Readville, Massachusetts. He then moved to Portland, Maine, and set up a joint architecture practice with Thomas J. Sparrow. The partnership lasted about a year, then he and his wife, Hannah Bassford (1843-1876), moved to St. Paul in 1866. He was a very successful architect. Bassford married twice, first to Hannah Todd, and after Hannah Bassford died, remarried in 1878 to Catherine Murphy (1856-1886/1896,) who was born in Canada. Bassford had three children with each wife, Maria D. Bassford (1867- ,) Edward Payson Bassford, Jr. (1870-1976,) Hannah M. Bassford (1876- ,) Charles A. Bassford (1879- ,) Raymond Bassford (1882-?,) and Mark Bassford (1885- .) Adel Bassford (1872- ) also was a daughter of E. P. Bassford, although she may have been adopted or was a step-daughter. Edward P. Bassford was a Democrat and suceeded Cass Gilbert as the superintendent on the construction of the Federal Courthouse in St. Paul, now the Landmark Center, in 1893. Edward P. Bassford resided at 441 Iglehart Street in 1900. Edward P. Bassford designed the St. Paul Court House and City Hall, the Guardian Building, and the McColl Building. Edward P. Bassford also designed 482 Holly Avenue, the William Catzson House, built in 1914; 680 North Greenbrier Street, the Peter Mueller and Emma Mueller Classen House, built in 1887, Classicized Queen Anne in style; 223-229 Eagle Parkway, the J. M. Armstrong House/Armstrong-Quinlan House, built in 1884; 35 Irvine Park, the Murray-Lanpher House, built in 1886, Queen Anne in style; 802 Fairmount Avenue, the James Cleary House, built in 1897, Colonial Revival in style; 857 Fairmount Avenue, the N. S. Rose House, built in 1902, Georgian Revival in style; 591 West Lincoln Avenue, the G. L. Wilson House, Built in 1891; 791 West Lincoln Avenue, the A. W. Heyware House, built in 1905, Georgian Revival in style; and 854-856 West Lincoln Avenue, the Edward McKinney House, built in 1899, Classical Revival in style. Edward P. Bassford and Andrew J. Van Deusen designed the Nicollet County Courthouse and Jail, a Romanesque Revival courthouse and Queen Anne jail.

Lambert Bassindale (1875-1945) was born in Racine, Wisconsin, was educated at the Chicago Art Institute, worked with Chicago and New York City architects in the design of the Cook County Court House and City Hall and the Chicago Northwestern Terminal and the Union Railway Terminal in Kansas City, came to St. Paul in 1918 as an associate architect with Charles Frost for the St. Paul Union Depot and the Great Northern Station in Minneapolis, designed the Great Northern, Northern Pacific, Omaha and Northwestern Railroad office buildings, the First National Bank, the Lowry Hotel, Midway Hospital, the Northern Pacific Hospital (1918,) St. Luke's Hospital Nurses Home, the Northern Pacific Hospital Nurses Home, and the Wilder Day Nursery, was selected in 1931 as architect for the St. Paul Federal Building with the Chicago firm of Holabird & Root, retired in 1938, and moved to Alexandria, Indiana. The 1930 city directory indicates that Lambert Bassindale, an architect located at the Endicott Building, and his wife, Blanche Bassindale, a music teacher, an opera singer, and Schubert Club member who appeared in Lehar's "The Merry Widow" in Chicago, and their children, Maria Bassindale and Robert Bassindale, resided at 457 Holly Avenue, the Henry W. Fagley House/E. H. Bailey House. The Bassindales resided at 457 Holly Avenue until 1938. [See note on the St. Paul Union Depot Company.] [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on the Chicago Northwestern RailRoad.] [See note on the Northern Pacific RailRoad.] [See note on the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad.]

C. W. Bazier, architect, designed 2350 West Lake of the Isles Parkway, the Allyn K. Ford House, built in 1929.

Charles A. Beckel was an architect in St. Paul in 1913 and designed the house at 2349 Bourne Avenue, in the St. Anthony Park neighborhood, a Prairie style house. Thomas W. Mitchell, a professor, was the original owner of the house, which was built at the cost of $6,000.

Thomas Becken & Sons, architects, designed 584 West Lincoln Avenue, built in 1912; Tudor Revival in style. Thomas Becken ( -1949) died in Ramsey County.

Charles J. Beggs, architect, designed 435 Summit Avenue, the Chester Berry House, built 1954, Modern brick rambler/Contemporary in style.

John Belair (1904-1976) was born in Minneapolis, received his architecture degree from the University of Minnesota in 1934, worked for a succession of architectural firms from 1921 to 1944 as a draftsman, designer, and mechanical engineer in the Twin Cities, Montana, and Canada, began as a draftsman in the firm of Stebbins, Haxby, & Bissell, became a full partner of the firm in 1944, retired from Bissell, Belair & Green in the early 1970's, and died in Minneapolis. Bissell (Cyrus Y. Bissell,) Belair & Green (Gene L. Green) designed the Blake School, Hopkins, Minnesota (1945-1947;) Bancroft School, Minneapolis (1912;) Holy Rosary Convent and School, Minneapolis (1931;) Highcroft School, St. Louis Park, Minnesota (1926;) Owatonna State School Cottages, Owatonna, Minnesota (1950;) Wadena (Minnesota) High School (1929;) Phi Kappa Sigma Fraternity House and Zeta Psi Fraternity House, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (1926 and 1925 respectively;) and residences for Lloyd Pattee (1939) and Dr. F.C. Rodda (1925.)

Charles E. Bell (1858-1932) was educated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, worked as a carpenter for seven years before moving to the Midwest, where he practiced with a succession of partners. Bell designed the Montana State Capitol with John H. Kent, designed the South Dakota Capitol, designed numerous county courthouses in Minnesota, South Dakota, Iowa and Wisconsin, and designed the Brin Glass Company building in the Minneapolis Warehouse District in 1919. He preferred the Beaux Arts or Renaissance Revival Styles.

Walter A. Bemis, architect, designed 969 West Lincoln Avenue, the Edward M. Crist House, built in 1925, Bungalow in style.

S. T. Bennet, architect, designed 713 West Lincoln Avenue, the John Silver House, built in 1919, Queen Anne in style and 753 West Lincoln Avenue, the J. H. Hensel House, built in 1882, Queen Anne in style.

J. T. Bennets, architect, designed 695 Fairmount Avenue, the Martha Braley House, built in 1893, Queen Anne in style.

Nelson Benson, architect, designed 1896 Summit Avenue, the A. Johnson House, built in 1925, Tudor Revival/Twenties Villa in style.

Percy Dwight Bentley (1885-1965) was born in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1907 and from the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1911, was an accomplished pianist with a St. Paul orchestra, was a protégé of Frank Lloyd Wright and designed many large residences in the LaCrosse area, designed homes and businesses in St. Paul, was variously a member of the architectural firms of Bell & Bentley, of Bentley & Hausler, of Percy D. Bentley, and of Bentley-Worthen Architects, relocated to Oregon in 1935, and continued his architectural career in the Eugene, Oregon, area.

E. B. Bergholtz, architect, designed 691 West Osceola Avenue, the Charles Straus House, built in 1901, Queen Anne/Victorian in style and 691 West Osceola Avenue, built in 1890, Victorian in style. The 1891 city directory indicates that E. Bruno Bergholtz was an architect located at the Gilfillan Building and resided at 121 Wayzata.

Frank J. Berres, an architect, resided at 65 George Street East.

George Emile Bertrand (1859-1931) was born in Superior, Wisconsin, was educated in Boston and Minneapolis and began practicing professionally in 1881, established an architectural firm in Minneapolis in 1886, formed a partnership with Walter Keith from 1890 until 1894, partnered with Arthur B. Chamberlin from 1897 to 1931. George Emile Bertrand also wrote various articles on classical architecture which were published in The Western Architect. Bertrand tended to design classically-inspired residential and commercial buildings. Bertrand and Chamberlin designed nine buildings in the Minneapolis Warehouse District, including the Dean & Company warehouse at 410 Washington Avenue North (1902,) the Northwestern Glass Company buildings at 215/219 Second Street North (1912/1918,) and the Parlin & Orendorff Plow Company at 607 Washington Avenue North (1910.)

Philip C. Bettenburg (1900-1968) was born in Minnesota, was educated at the University of Minnesota, established an architectural practice in St. Paul, formed a partnership with George R. Townsend and Sidney L. Stolte, as Bettenburg, Townsend & Stolte, in 1922 and designed the Anoka, Minnesota, City Hall, First National Auto Bank in St. Paul, the Minneapolis Armory, and the A. L. Cole Memorial Building in Pequot Lakes, Minnesota.

Cyrus Bissell (1885-1976) was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, received his B.S. in Architecture from Columbia University in 1908, was a draftsman and project manager in several architectural firms from 1908 to 1917 in New York City, New York, for Delano & Aldrich and for Nelson & Van Wagonen, in Montreal for Brown & Vallance, and in Albany, New York, for Marcust, Reynolds, was assistant chief estimator in the Construction Division of the War Department during World War I for two years, joined Stebbins & Haxby in Minneapolis in 1920, and remained a partner throughout the rest of his career.

Alan Black, architect, designed 574 Summit Avenue, the Oakland Apartments, built in 1898, Classical Revival in style, and 550 Summit Avenue, the Oakland Apartments, built in 1898, Renaissance Revival/Classical Revival in style.

Thomas R. Blanck, RA, is an architect, is a founder of the Cass Gilbert Society, is an architectural consultant for St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Virginia, Minnesota, and is an advisor to the Capitol Area Architectural and Planning Board.

George Blewet, architect, designed 1560 St. Clair Avenue, the St. Clair Theater/St. Clair Raquetball Club/St. Clair Fitness Center/Cinema Ballroom, built in 1923 and altered in 1929, Streamlined Moderne/Art Moderne in style.

George W. Blood, architect and builder, designed 1042 West Linwood Avenue, built in 1909, Bungalow in style, and 1390 Summit Avenue, the J. C. Fitzgerald House, built in 1922, Georgian Revival in style.

W. D. Blumenthal, Inc., architect and builder, designed 1935 Summit Avenue, the Fannie Olkon House, built in 1922, Prairie Style/Early Modern Rectilinear in style, and 1439 Summit Avenue, the Ben L. Kostuck House, built in 1925, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Christopher Adam Boehme (1865-1916) was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, was a builder and contractor, completed the special course in architecture offered by the University of Minnesota prior to the establishment of the School of Architecture at the University in 1916, worked with architect Warren Dunnell for 14 years, was a partner with Victor Cordella from from 1903 until 1911. Boehme designed the St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Browerville, Minnesota, Our Lady of Lourdes Church in Little Falls, Minnesota, several Gluek Brewing Company buildings, and the Maytag Company Building at 515 Washington Avenue North, built in 1916. C. A. Boehme also designed 243 Bates Avenue, the Holman United Methodist Church/Ecclesia Codominiums, built in 1904, Shingle/Craftsman in style. Christopher A. Boehme and Victor Cordella, architects, designed 2600 Park Avenue South, the Turnblad Castle/American Swedish Institute, built 1903-1908, French Chateau/Chateau in style, and the P. F. Laum & Sons building at 415 First Avenue North, built in 1903.

Emil Bostrum, architect, designed 839 Fairmount Avenue, the Oscar Hallam House, built in 1905, Queen Anne in style.

Brack & Brothers, architects and builders, designed 1722 Summit Avenue, the Professor Preston T. Jackson House/Macalester College Student Housing, built in 1886, Victorian/Vernacular Stick in style.

Thomas Brady, architect, designed 803 West Lincoln Avenue, the W. A. Miller House, built in 1895, Georgian Revival in style.

Bream & Sons, architects, designed 1353 Summit Avenue, the William Segal House, built in 1954, Contemporary in style.

F. L. Breitkreutz, architect, designed 1850 Summit Avenue, the Bertha (Mrs. J. L.) Hinners House, built in 1907, Simplified Rectilinear in style, and 1834 Summit Avenue, the John W. Nabersberg House, built in 1906, Mildly Colonial Revival/Simplified Rectilinear in style, altered by a subsequent enclosure of the porch.

C. M. Brettschneider, architect and builder, designed 1575 Summit Avenue, the Harry Drauger House, built in 1908, Colonial Revival/Mission/Georgian Rectilinear in style, and 1414 Summit Avenue, the C. J. Stevens House, built in 1908, Tudor Rectilinear in style.

__?__ Brinckenhoff, architect, designed 607 West Lincoln Avenue, the C. W. Miller House; Built in 1886, Classical Revival in style.

A. H. Brown, architect, designed 681 West Lincoln Avenue, the Herman Schnell House, built in 1883, Classical Revival in style.

Edwin Hacker Brown (1875-1930) was born in Worcester, Massachusetts. He attended Harvard University and graduated in 1896 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He then entered Worcester Polytechnic Institute, where he received a S.B. degree. After moving to Minneapolis about 1910, he formed a partnership with Edwin H. Hewitt. Brown married Susan Christian (1879- ), of Minneapolis, the daughter of John Augustus Christian, in 1912 and the couple adopted two children, Lucian Hall Brown (1915- ) and Winthrop Lane Brown (1915- .) Lucian Brown married Mary Adelaid Fisher in 1937. During World War I, Brown served in America and Europe in the Red Cross and returned after the war to resume his architecture practice with Hewitt. Brown established the Architects Small House Service Bureau in 1920, an organization that eventually became national in scope and which provided architect-produced plans for inexpensive houses that would help alleviate the post-war housing shortage. Brown died of pneumonia at age 54 in Minneapolis.

Henry Brown, architect, designed 767 Fairmount Avenue, the John E. Haycock House, built in 1899, Georgian Revival in style, 642 West Lincoln Avenue, the B. F. Ellison House, built in 1866, Classical Revival in style, and 670 West Lincoln Avenue, the John Hart House, built in 1892; Queen Anne in style.

Brown & Dowling, architects, designed 771 Fairmount Avenue, the John E. Haycock House, Built in 1884, Queen Anne in style.

Emma Gruetzke Brunson (1887-1980) was born in St. Paul, worked as a drafter and specifications writer with Augustus F. Gauger for 15 years, established her own architectural office, registered as an architect in 1921, soon after enactment of the Minnesota law requiring registration for architects and engineers, continued in a one-person practice until her retirement in 1968, and designed the Emma Brunson (1925,) Hugo Koch (1923,) Theodore Maier (1926,) C. E. Smith (1926,) and Dr. W. B. Stone residences.

Frank W. Brunson was a draftsman for architect Clarence H. Johnston.

John H. Bryant, architect and builder, designed 1037 St. Clair Avenue, built in 1886, Victorian in style.

Charles William Buechner (1859-1924,) the son of Carl Ernst Buechner and Josephine Buchs Buechner, was born in Darmstadt, Germany, was educated in Switzerland, France, and Germany, ending his training at Solothurn, Switzerland, came to St. Paul in 1874, became a surveyor with the St. Paul, Minneapolis, & Manitoba Railway and later with the Northern Pacific RailRoad Company, was employed in the Tracks, Bridges, & Buildings Department of the Northern Pacific RailRoad until 1883, married Elsie Munch in 1890, worked and studied architecture in the office of Clarence H. Johnston until 1892, entered into a partnership with John H. Jacobsen from 1892 until 1902, then became a partner of Henry Orth at the end of his career, was a member of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, was a Mason, and was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club. Buechner and Henry W. Orth designed the St. Paul Labor Temple (1922,) the Lagoon Theatre (Minneapolis, 1915,) several buildings for Luther Seminary (1921, 1923,) the Henry Orth residence (St. Paul, 1915,) the Ramsey County Poor Farm Barn (Maplewood, 1918,) the Shriners' Hospital (Minneapolis, 1922,) 19 courthouses in Minnesota and the Dakotas (1907-1926), the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church/Christ Lutheran Church (1930,) and almost 100 residences. Buechner and Orth, architects, also designed 373 Maple Street, the Peter John and Louisa John House, built in 1906, Colonial Revival styled house and carriage house, 862 Fairmount Avenue, the A. C. Floan House, built in 1911, Georgian Revival in style, 1434 Summit Avenue, the Henry F. Stock House, built in 1910, with 1925 alteration, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style, and 1149 Summit Avenue, the O. G. Hasper House, built in 1904, Simplified Rectilinear in style. [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.]

Buchner & Orth, architects, 880 West Osceola Avenue, built in 1922, Bungalow in style.

Carl Buetow was born in St. Paul, attended night school at the University of Minnesota while working in the office of Reed & Stem, architects, from 1910 to 1913, was employed successively in the offices of C. H. Johnston and Alban & Lockhart from 1913 to 1917, joined Lambert Bassindale in 1918 and prepared the plans for the Northern Pacific Beneficial Association (NPBA) Hospital in the Midway district of St. Paul, spent the following year in charge of the architectural department of the Louis F. Dow Co., planning and remodeling small banks in five states, worked in the office of the City Architect of St. Paul as job captain for that city's school building program from 1923 to 1928, and, in 1929, opened his own architectural practice in St. Paul and practiced until his retirement in 1960. The Louis F. Dow Co., stationers and bank designers, also had an architectural department, employing St. Paul architect Carl Herbert Buetow (1893-1987) in his formative years. During the Great Depression, Buetow designed and supervised the construction of many buildings in Minnesota under the building construction program of the Work Progress Administration (WPA.) [See note for the Northern Pacific RailRoad.]

Leroy Sunderland Buffington (1847-1931) was born and educated in Cincinnati, Ohio. His first employment was with the architectural firm of Hannaford & Anderson, from which he left in 1871 to move to St. Paul. He entered into partnership with Abraham Radcliffe, an established architect, which lasted until 1874, when he moved to Minneapolis and opened an office that he continued to maintain until 1931. He had no partners after 1874. In 1880, he was appointed the official architect of the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Railway Company, and by 1885, he had one of the largest practices in the Twin Cities. He received a patent on "Iron Building Construction" in 1887 for the steel skeleton method of construction for high-rise buildings, but Buffington became the object of widespread derision by short-sighted critics and his claim was challenged in 1893 in a court suit, Buffington's Iron Building Company vs. William H. Eustis, which he eventually lost. P. H. Gunckel represented Buffington, while D. F. Morgan and A. C. Paul represented William H. Eutis. Buffington proposed a revolutionary design for a 28-story "cloudscraper" in 1887, which was more than twice the height of any office building then in existence, and in 1888, his patent for a system of self-supporting wrought-iron framing intended for tall buildings was granted. Buffington's rigid system had no dependence on masonry and utilized built-up wrought-iron columns, instead of cast-iron columns, that were riveted, not bolted, to floor girders as well as iron shelf angles that supported the building's lightweight masonry and glass envelope at each floor. Buffington designed the second Minnesota capitol building (1883,) four buildings at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Campus, that are on the National Register of Historic Places, Eddy Hall (1886,) Pillsbury Hall (1889,) Nicholson Hall (1890,) and Burton Hall (1894,) and the Willoughby Building, Chicago, Illinois (1887.) In 1923, he also designed the George C. Howe mausoleum in Lakewood Cemetery, Minneapolis, built by the Bierman Monument Company. Leroy Buffington, architect, designed 445 Summit Avenue, the Herman Greve House/Shipman-Greve House, built between 1882 and 1883, Queen Anne/English Queen Anne/Revival/Richardsonian Romanesque/Casual in style. [See note for the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba RailRoad.]

Butler Brothers Company, architects and builders, designed 516 Summit Avenue, the William Butler House, built in 1882, Renaissance Revival/Mission Revival/Italianate Renaissance/Beaux Arts/Classicial Revival in style, and 2120 Summit Avenue, the Walter Butler House/University of St. Thomas Development Office, built in 1924, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style.

BWBR Architects was founded by Ingemann and Bergstedt. Milton Bergstedt, Chuck Wahlberg (joined in 1950,) Lloyd Bergquist (joined in 1957,) and Fritz Rohkohl (joined in 1953) comprised BWBR Architects. Chuck Wahlberg became the president of BWBR in 1974 and retired in 1985. Fritz Rohkohl became the president of BWBR in 1980 and retired in 1993. Milton Bergstedt and Jim Hirsch formed a partnership in 1951, designed the Early American Life Insurance Building in Highland Park and moved the partnership from downtown St. Paul to the building, Milton Bergstedt designed the Radisson Hotel, in St. Paul, the Degree of Honor Building, in St. Paul, Medtronic's Rice Creek Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota, and the 1939 St. Paul Winter Carnival Ice Palace. Milton V. Bergstedt was a Minnesota architect, the son of Edward Bergstedt, the grandson of August Bergstedt and Marianna Carlson Bergstedt, and the nephew of Victor Bergstedt.

Ry Caanderser, architect, designed 628 Grand Avenue, the Dale Apartments, built in 1919.

Car-Dell Company, architects, designed 2045 Summit Avenue, the Jay J. Levine House, built in 1936, modified French Chateau/British American French Chateau in style.

John Carlson/J. M. Carlson/John M. Carlson (1841- ,) architect, the son of Carl Johanson Carlson and Christina Jonson Carlson, was born in Wexico, Sweden, was educated in Swedish public schools, served two years in the Swedish militia, emigrated to the United States, moved to New York City, New York, in 1866, then moved to Chicago, was a carpenter from 1866 until 1868, married Christina Magnuson in 1868, moved to St. Paul in 1868, was a foreman employed by Wiley Brothers for 13 years, was a partner in Wiley & Carlson in 1881, purchased Wiley's interest in the firm in 1890, built the second Minnesota capitol building, was a member of the St. Paul Board of Water Commissioners from 1898 until 1902, was a member of the St. Paul Builders Exchange, was the president of the St. Paul Union Cemetery Association, and designed 27 Crocus Place, built in 1922, Queen Anne in style and 661 Goodrich Avenue, the W. A. Long House, built in 1905, Colonial Revival in style.

J. M. Carlston, architect, designed 611 Summit Avenue, the Cyrus C. DeCoster House, built in 1887, Elizabethan/Tudor Revival in style.

C. K. Carpenter, architect, designed 1838 Summit Avenue, the A. H. Holler/Heller House, built in 1921, Tudor Revival/Twenties Villa in style.

William H. Castner ( -1892) was a self-taught architect who apprenticed briefly with Abraham M. Radcliffe, was a partner of August Knight in 1883, was a partner of Franklin D. Hyde (1849- ) from 1891 until 1992 in Dubuque, Iowa, designed buildings almost exclusively in the Shingle style from 1887 until 1890, designed the William Moran Spec houses at 1048-1050 Hague Avenue, reportedly designed the Rochat Block, 273-277 West Seventh Street, reportedly designed the Lauer Flats, 228-240 Western Avenue South, reportedly replace Charles Town Mould as the architect on the Minnesota Club building, 317 Washington Street, in 1884, and designed 558 West Lincoln Avenue, built in 1890; Eastlake in style.

J. O. Cederburg, architect, designed 1645 Summit Avenue, the Dr. Robert Earl House, built in 1922, Georgian Revival/Colonial in style.

Cerny Associates began in the 1870's, when Franklin Bidwell Long (1842-1912) established his architectural practice. Franklin Bidwell Long was born in Afton, New York, left New York in 1859 and lived and worked as a carpenter and builder in Chicago and as a draftsman for J. C. Cochrane, an architect, moved to Minneapolis about 1868, was in private practice until 1874, when he briefly associated with Robert Alden, then joined Charles F. Haglin in a partnership in 1875 and 1876, became one of Minneapolis' leading contractors, worked for the Milwaukee Road RailRoad from 1877 to 1881, returned to private architectural practice in 1881 to 1884, was a partner of Frederick G. Kees (1852-1927) from 1884 to 1897, and, in 1897, joined his son, Louis L. Long (1870-1925), and Lowell A. Lamoreaux (1861-1922) in a practice that lasted until Franklin Long's death. In 1920, Olaf Thorshov (1883-1928), a native of Norway who had migrated to the U.S. about 1901, became a partner in the firm of Long, Lamoreaux & Long (subsequently renamed Long & Thorshov.) Roy Norman Thorshov (1905-1992), the son of Olaf Thorshov, was born in Minneapolis, graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1928 with a bachelor's degree in architecture, and joined his father's partnership, became a full partner in Long & Thorshov, and, in 1942, was joined by Robert George Cerny (1908-1985.) The firm then was renamed Thorshov & Cerny. When that partnership dissolved in 1960, Cerny became head of his own firm, Cerny Associates. Robert Cerny was born in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, was awarded a B.A. in architecture at the University of Minnesota in 1932, and an M.A. at Harvard University in 1933, was employed as Associate Architect for the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1933-1934 and in 1935-1936, was a partner in Jones & Cerny in Minneapolis from 1937 to 1942, when he joined Roy Thorshov in practice (1942-1960,) taught at the School of Architecture at the University of Minnesota from about 1936 until his retirement in 1976, and died in Minneapolis. Robert George Cerny also introduced the concept of a domed football stadium in downtown Minneapolis in the 1960's. Cerny Associates, architects, designed 226 Summit Avenue, the Chancery of the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis, built in 1963, Contemporary in style, and 236 Summit Avenue, the Archbishop's Residence, built in 1963, Contemporary in style. [See note for the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad.]

Arthur Bishop Chamberlin (1865-1933) was born in Solon, Ohio, moved to Minneapolis where he received his architectural education, worked as a draftsman in Minneapolis from 1884 to 1889, relocated to Seattle in 1890, working as a draftsman and delineator for Saunders & Houghton (1890-1891,) John Parkinson (1891-1893,) William Boone (1893,) and practicing as an architect from 1893 to 1894, returned to Minneapolis in 1896 and partnered with George Bertrand in 1897. Minneapolis designs by Bertrand and Chamberlin include the Northwestern Knitting Company (1906,) the Minneapolis Athletic Club (1912,) and the Physicians and Surgeons Building (1910/1915.)

Cecil Bayless Chapman (1876-1918) was born at Dubuque, Iowa, was made a member of the Minnesota Chapter, American Institute of Architects, in 1912 and became its secretary-treasurer in 1916, continuing in that office until his death. He was made a member of the American Institute of Architects in 1915. Cecil Bayless Chapman, an architect who officed at the N. Y. Life Building, resided at 2335 West 21st Street according to the 1909 city directory. Cecil Bayless Chapman was the architect for Sumner Library in Minneapolis.

James Chisholm (1840- ) was an architect from Ontario who moved to Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in 1877, and primarily worked in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. James Chisholm designed 505/507/509 Holly Avenue, the Holly Row, built in 1887, Richardsonian Romanesque in style.

C. A. Clarke was the architect for 434 Laurel Avenue, the O'Neil Flats/Former St. Elmo's Apartments, built in 1891.

F. A. Clarke was the architect, with Carl Peterson, for 476 Laurel Avenue, built in 1912, Colonial Revival in style.

F. T. Clarke was the architect for 475 Laurel Avenue, the Former San Mateo Apartments, built in 1892 and Classical Revival in style.

Arthur C. Clausen, architect, designed 1944 Summit Avenue, the Dr. John C. Nelson House, built in 1912, Craftsman/Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style.

Serenus Colburn (1871-1925,) the son of Richard R. Colburn and Letitia Terry Colburn, was born in Ansonia, Connecticut, had a public school education, came to Minneapolis in 1886, was an apprentice and a draughtsman to architect James C. Plant from 1887 until 1891, entered the office of William Channing Whitney in 1891 as head draftsman, was an architect, became a junior partner of Frederick Kees in 1898 or 1899, married Harriet E. Whitcomb in Minnesota in 1899, designed a number of important buildings, including the Brown & Bigelow Building (1913,) the Chamber of Commerce/Grain Exchange Building (1900-1902,) Advance Thresher-Emerson Newton Plow Company Building (1900-1904,) and the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company warehouse (1910-1911,) entered into a partnership with Ernest Forsell in 1921 until his death, was a member of the American Institute of Architects, was a member of the Commercial Club, was a member of the Automobile Club, engaged in the hobby of automobiling, officed at the Kasota Building and resided at 2913 Park Avenue in Minneapolis. Serenus M. Colburn, associated with Kees & Colburn, an architectural firm located at the Donaldson Building, a partnership with Frederick Kees, resided at 2915 Park Avenue according to the 1909 city directory. [See note on Brown & Bigelow for 757 West Linwood Avenue.]

W. E. Collins, architect, designed 1800 Summit Avenue, the Wilkie E. Collins House, built in 1910, Simplified Rectilinear in style.

John T. Comes (1873-1922) of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was one of the country's foremost Catholic church architects in the first two decades of the 20th Century. John T. Comes, architect, designed 1099 Summit Avenue, St. Luke's Catholic Church, built in 1924, Southern European Romanesque Revival in style.

Charles Jay Connick (1875-1945), of Boston, was considered by many to be second only to Paul Chagal as the greatest stained glass builder of the 20th century. His windows also grace St. Patrick's Cathedral and the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City and the chapel at Princeton University. Connick was a major promoter of the antique technique of stained glass window design and construction. Connick was responsible for all of the windows in the Heinz Memorial Chapel, University of Pittsburgh; the Stephen Foster Shrine; Fourth Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh; Grace Cathedral; Chapel of Grace, St. Dominic's; Star of Sea Church, San Francisco, California, windows in St. Martin's Chapel; St. John the Divine; St. Vincent Ferrer; St. James; St. Michael; St. Peter, New York, New York; Westminster Presbyterian, Buffalo, New York; Chapel, Princeton, New Jersey; East Liberty Presbyterian Church; Calvary Church, Pittsburgh; Church of the Covenant, Erie; Pine Street Presbyterian Church, Harrisburg; Chapel Hill School, Pottstown, Pennsylvania; Fourth Presbyterian Church; St. Chrysostom's Church, Chicago; Church of the Holy Spirit, Lake Forest; First Methodist Episcopal Church, Evanston, Illinois; All Saints Church, Brookline; Sayre Memorial Chapel, Reformatory, Framingham; Chapel, Boston University; Chapel, Holderness School, Plymouth, New Hampshire; Trinity Chapel, National Shrine, Washington, D. C.; Franklin Street Presbyterian Church; St. Paul's Cathedral, Baltimore, Maryland; Chapel of the Little Flower, Detroit, Michigan; Christ's Church, Fenwick, Colorado; Chapel Holy Spirit, Cincinnati; Trinity Catholic Church, Cleveland, Ohio; House of Hope, Presbyterian Cathedral, Nazareth Hall Chapel, St. Paul; Hennepin Avenue Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota; and the American Church, Paris.

Sovio Conrad, architect, designed 696 Goodrich Avenue, the T. G. Walther House, built in 1895, Classical Revival in style.

Victor Cordella (1872-1937) was born in Krakow, Poland, studied at the Royal Academy of Aft in Krakow, Poland, came to the United States in 1893, worked under Twin Cities architects Cass Gilbert, Warren Dunnell, and Charles Aldrich, was a partner with Christopher Adam Boehme, and designed the St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Browerville, Minnesota, Our Lady of Lourdes Church in Little Falls, Minnesota, and the Swan Turnblad residence/American Swedish Institute (1903-1907.)

Frederick G. Corser (1849- ,) the son of C. B. Corser and Rhoda Chapman Corser, was born in Rochester, New York, was educated in the Rochester, New York, common schools, attended the Rochester Free Academy, was employed in Rochester, New York, until 1878, moved to Minneapolis in 1878, was an architect, and practiced as an architect in Minneapolis after 1878, married Lucinda Hewson in 1880, was the editor of the Western Architect magazine, resided at 615 James Avenue North in 1907, and officed at the New York Life Building in 1907. Corser designed the Franklin C. Griswold House, 15-17 Maple Place, in 1886, St. Stephen's Catholic Church, 2211 Clinton Avenue South, Richardsonian Romanesque in style, in 1891, the Stonehouse Square Apartments in 1895, Little Sisters of the Poor Home for the Aged, 215 N. E. Broadway, in 1895 (also added wing in 1905,) and Wesbrook Hall at the University of Minnesota, 77 Pleasant Street SE, Renaissance Revival in style, in 1896.

John H. Coxhead practiced in Buffalo, New York, and Washington, D. C., was the architect for several buildings in Yankton, South Dakota, for the Old Main building at the Red River Valley University in Whapeton, North Dakota, the McKinney Stables at the Empire City Farms, Cuba, New York, and for a building at the Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia, all of which are on the National Register of Historic Places, and also was involved in deliberations by the City of Buffalo related to the future of the 1901 Pan-American Exposition grounds and buildings in 1902. Coxhead designed nine buildings at the Virginia Union University, of which six still stand (Pickford Hall, currently the presidential executive offices, the Campus Police, and the Sydney Lewis School of Business; Kingsley Hall, currently the Samuel Dewitt Proctor School of Theology; Coburn Hall, currently the Dr. Allix B. James Chapel; the Martin E. Gray Hall, currently the School of Teacher Education & Interdisciplinary studies and the Division of the Social Sciences; Baptist Memorial Hall, currently the location of Sponsored Programs and Upward Bound; and the "Power Plant," formerly the Industrial Training School.) John H. Coxhead, architect, designed 668 East Fourth Street, the Tandy Row, built in 1888, Victorian in style with Queen Anne details, 956 St. Clair Avenue, the Hiram H. Backus House, built in 1890, Victorian in style, 962 St. Clair Avenue, built in 1888, Queen Anne in style, and 992 St. Clair Avenue, the Oscar A. Turner House, built in 1891, Victorian in style.

Mathew/Matthew Craig, an architect associated with James Knox Taylor, designed 284 South Exchange Street, the Knox-Austin-Rogers House, built in 1885, Queen Anne in style.

Ralph Adams Cram was very good at planning buildings and at blocking in general forms, while Goodhue had an excellent eye for decorative detail. Cram was America's premier Gothic Revival architect. Cram and Goodhue established the firm and themselves in history as winners of the 1904 International Competition to design the campus of the American Military Academy at West Point over a slate of much better known architects. By 1898, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (1869-1924) joined Cram (Ralph Adams Cram (1863-1943)) and Wentworth (Charles Francis Wentworth (1861-1897)) as a partner, forming the predecessor of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson (Frank William Ferguson( -1926)), and was the alter-ego of Cram. While Wentworth took care of the more business-oriented work of the firm, a role that Cram professed was not his calling, Cram and Goodhue played off each other in the designs of the firm's new churches. Goodhue left the partnership in 1914 to practice alone after falling out with Cram. Ralph Adams Cram, architect, designed 775-795 Summit Avenue, the House of Hope Presbyterian Church, built in 1903, English Perpendicular/Gothic Revival in style.

A. D. Crossfield, architect, designed 818 Fairmount Avenue, the M. L. Merrill House, built in 1882.

Sam Cukier, architect, designed 1845 Summit Avenue, the Ruth Cukier House, built between 1969 and 1970, Contemporary in style.

Beaver Wade Day (1884-1931) was born in Lisbon, North Dakota, was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, where he received his degree in architecture in 1908, moved to St. Paul where he worked with Allen Stem from 1908 to 1918, and then joined Max Toltz and Wesley King in partnership in 1919. He served on the State Board of Registration from 1929 until 1931.

Design Consultants, builders and architects, designed 362-364 Summit Avenue, built in 1977, Contemporary condominium in style.

J. A. Deutschlander, architect, designed 2032 Summit Avenue, the J. P. Kennedy House, built in 1936, Tudor Villa in style.

A. R. Dewey, architect, designed 757 Fairmount Avenue, the R. C. Gooding House, built in 1895, Queen Anne in style.

E. V. Dodae, architect, designed 788 Goodrich Avenue, the E. C. Murdock House, built in 1890, Queen Anne in style.

J. M. Doherty, architect, designed 748 Goodrich Avenue, the A. T. Koerner House, built in 1889.

Edward J. Donohue/Donahue was a partner of St. Paul architect Edward P. Bassford. Edward J. Donohue, an architect, resided at the former 835 West Lincoln Avenue. Edward J. Donohue, architect, designed 964 West Lincoln Avenue, the Mrs. J. E. Perry House, built in 1908, Jacobethan in style, 1866 Summit Avenue, the E. J. Daly House, built in 1912, Bungalow in style, and 1481 Summit Avenue, the John H. Donohue House, built in 1905, Slightly Tudor Revival/Medieval Rectilinear in style. Edward J. Donohue was an architect located at the Gilfillin Block according to the 1908 city directory and resided at 835 West Lincoln Avenue. Edward J. Donohue was a partner of St. Paul architect Edward P. Bassford.

John H. Donohue (1852-1940) was a prominent St. Paul builder.

__?__ Donohue, architect, designed 853 West Lincoln Avenue, the E. J. Donohue House, built in 1902, Classical Revival in style.

Adam L. Dorr, an architect who officed at the Lumber Exchange Building, resided at 2449 Humboldt Avenue South according to the 1909 city directory.

Peter Dowling, architect and builder, designed 1568 Summit Avenue, the F. M. Wheeler House/Macalester College Residence, built about 1920, Georgian Revival in style.

Dowling & Ruse, architects, designed 475 Holly Avenue, the Hudson/Gilbert House, built in 1888, Queen Anne in style.

Warner B. Dunnell (1851- ,) the son of Mark H. Dunnell and Sarah A. Dunnell, was born in Norway, Maine, was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, Massachusetts, and the School of Fine Arts in Paris, France, was the superintnedent of construction of governmental buildings before 1880, then started an architectural practice in Minneapolis, designed the State Soldier's Home in Minneapolis, designed various public schools, including the Douglas School in 1894, designed the Hospital for the Insane at Fergus Falls, Minnesota, designed the State Reform School in Red Wing, Minnesota, neo-Romanesque/Richardonian Romanesque in style, designed the F. A. Watson residence, 1916 Girard Avenue South, in Minneapolis, in 1901, married I. A. Ogden in 1892, resided at 2408 Aldrich Avenue South in 1907, and officed at the Security Bank Building.

F. J. Eder, architect, designed 1171 Summit Avenue, the Otto N. Raths House, built in 1925, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Edwins & Edwins, architects, designed 463/464 Maria Avenue, the First Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), built in 1917.

__?__ Ellenholm, architect, designed 865 Fairmount Avenue, the Pearson/Sweeney House, built in 1880, Georgian Revival in style;.

Franklin Herbert Ellerbe (1870-1921) was born in Mississippi, began his architectural career, at age 39, after working as a St. Paul building inspector and as the chief draftsman for the St. Paul architect Mark Fitzpatrick, and died in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Ellerbe & Round gained national distinction by designing the original building of the Mayo clinic (1912-1913). Franklin Ellerbe and Olin Round, architects, designed 590 Summit Avenue, the Greve Oppenheim and Lillian Oppenheim House, built in 1913, Prairie School in style, and 1950 Summit Avenue, the J. F. George House, built in 1911, Bungalow in style. Ellerbe Architects, alteration architects, redesigned 712 West Osceola Avenue, the Lettau/Michaud House, built in 1888 and altered in the 1930's, Queen Anne/Victorian in style. Ellerbe & Co., architects, designed 2241 Summit Avenue, the R. O. Bishop House, built in 1955, Contemporary in style, and 2078 Summit Avenue, the former Christ Child School/University of St. Thomas, Christ Child Hall, built in 1955, Contemporary in style.

Thomas Farr Ellerbe (1892-1987) was the son of Franklin H. Ellerbe and entered his father's firm following military duty with the Minnesota National Guard before and during World War I. After his father's death, Thomas F. Ellerbe expanded the company to the largest architectural practice in Minnesota, specializing in the design of medical facilities, educational, industrial, and commercial structures, including the Plummer Building at the Mayo Clinic (1922-1928,) the St. Paul City Hall and Ramsey County Court House (1931-1932,) Cardozo Building (St. Paul)(1931,) College of St. Thomas (St. Paul, 1928-1946,) the Northwest Airlines hanger at Holman Field (St. Paul)(1942-1943,) the Cleveland, Ohio, Clinic and Hospital (1922,) the Mayo Clinic Diagnostic Building (1953-1969,) the Sacred Heart Church (St. Paul, 1949,) and a number of buildings for the University of Notre Dame (South Bend, Indiana.)

H. M. Elmer, architect, designed 54 Crocus Place, the Aberle House, built in 1926, Jacobethan in style, 1969 Summit Avenue, the Edward G. Riedel and Hulda Riedel House, built in 1925, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style, 1788 Summit Avenue, the Peter Maendler House, built in 1913, Simplified Rectilinear in style, 1753 Summit Avenue, the Reuben Blumberg House, built in 1926, Period Revival/Tudor Villa in style, and 1719 Summit Avenue, the Wilfred Johnson House, built in 1925, Tudor Villa in style.

Charles Engelbrecht, architect, designed 796 Fairmount Avenue, the A. E. Boyesen House, built in 1892, Georgian Revival in style.

A. G. Erickson, architect, designed 2156 Summit Avenue, the A. A. Klemmer House of the University of St. Thomas, built in 1913, Two-story American Foursquare/Simplified in style, 1815 Summit Avenue, the J. B. Forrest House #3, built in 1938, Contemporary in style, 1811 Summit Avenue, the J. B. Forrest House #2, built in 1938, Late bland Colonial Revival/Georgian Revival in style, and 1801 Summit Avenue, the J. B. Forrest House #1, built in 1938, Georgian Revival in style.

__?__ Esterman, architect, designed 928 West Lincoln Avenue, the Mrs. J. B. Sanborn House, built in 1907, Georgian Revival in style.

George Feick, Jr., (1880-1945,) the son of George Feick, Sr., a contractor, was born in Sandusky, Ohio, graduated in Architecture from Cornell University in 1903, joined Purcell in partnership in 1907, and worked in Minneapolis as an architect with Purcell, Feick & Elmslie until 1913. Feick to return to Sandusky, Ohio, in 1914, and resumed contracting in the rapidly expanding business of his father. The house he designed at 2022 Summit Avenue, the John Leuthold/Dr. Ward L. Beebe House, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977 for its architectural significance.

Feldstein and Miller, architects, designed 1917 Summit Avenue, the Feldstein and Miller House, built in 1925, 1920's Villa in style.

Martin Fenstad, architect, designed 1825 Summit Avenue, the Louisa Lindeke House, built in 1911, Simplified Rectilinear in style.

Morton Fenstad, architect, designed 1487 Summit Avenue, the F. E. Mahler House, built in 1910, Georgian Revival Variant in style.

Jacob Fine, architect, designed 1884 Summit Avenue, the A. S. Fine House, built in 1931, Spanish Colonial/Spanish Colonial Revival in style.

Henry Firmenger, architect, designed 2048 Summit Avenue, the Charles Coddon House, built in 1919, Prairie Style/Classical Revival/Early Modern Georgian Revival in style.

Mark Fitzpatrick (1866-1956) graduated from Fordham University with honors in architecture in the mid-1880's. He was employed as local supervising architect for the construction of the James J. Hill house (1889-1891). Fitzpatrick's practice included residences, churches, commercial structures, and institutional buildings. Mark Fitzpatrick designed 470 Summit Avenue, the C. J. McConville House, built in 1919, Spanish Colonial Revival in style, 296 Bates Avenue, The Binder Apartments, built in 1898, Classical Revival in style, 431 St. Clair Avenue, the Lauer House, built in 1907, Mildly Colonial Revival/Prairie Style in style, 917 Goodrich Avenue, the C. J. Meade House, built in 1886, Sullivanesque in style, 620-622 Lincoln Avenue, built in 1875, Classical Revival in style, 470 Summit Avenue, the John McConville House/C. J. McConville House, built in 1894, Spanish Colonial Revival in style, 1740 Summit Avenue, the Dr. J. C. Nelson House, built in 1909, Tudor Villa in style, 1567 Summit Avenue, the John J. Dobson House, built in 1906 and altered in 1914, Tudor Revival/Prairie Influence/Tudor Villa in style, and 1464 Summit Avenue, the T. D. Lovering House, built in 1906, Medieval Revival/Medieval Rectilinear in style. [See note on Constantine J. McConville for 470 Summit Avenue.]

C. A. Fowble, architect and builder, designed 1798 Summit Avenue, the T. A. Matthews/Ida and Alice Mathews House, built in 1910, Mildly Colonial Revival/Craftsman/Simplified Rectilinear in style.

H. J. Frandson, architect, designed 1897 Summit Avenue, the Dr. T. C. Fulton House, built in 1910, Tudor Villa in style, and 1883 Summit Avenue, the J. R. Fry House, built in 1910, Tudor Revival/Craftsman/Bungalow/Tudor Villa in style.

L. Fridman, architect, designed 1200 Summit Avenue, the Morris Rossman and Mary Rossman House, built in 1921, Prairie Style/Mission Revival/Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Joseph Frisby, architect and builder, designed 2154 Summit Avenue, the Herbert A. Folsom House of the University of St. Thomas, built in 1912, Oversized Bungalow/Tudor Revival in style.

Charles Frost was a Chicago architect who designed many railroad buildings, including the Minneapolis Great Northern RailRoad depot, the Minneapolis Milwaukee RailRoad depot, the St. Paul Union Depot (1923,) and the James J. Hill RailRoad and Bank building (1916.) Charles Frost, architect, designed the addition for 260 Summit Avenue, the Louis Hill House/Louis Warren Hill and Maud Van Cortlandt Taylor Hill House, built in 1903 with a major addition, the front half and portico, in 1913, Classical Revival/Beaux Art/Georgian Revival in style, for which Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was the original architect and contractor. [See note for the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note for the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad.] [See note on James Jerome Hill for 240 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Louis Warren Hill for 260 Summit Avenue.] [See note for the St. Paul Union Depot Company.]

Carl A. Gage, architect, designed 2424 West Lake of the Isles Parkway, built in 1930, Tudor/European Villa in style, and 2740 West Lake of the Isles Parkway, built in 1917, Georgian Revival in style. Carl A. Gage (1881- ) also was the architect for "West Winds," a 15-room Tudor-style home built between 1928-1930 by William E. Goodfellow on the west shore of Lake Calhoun that, since 1976, has housed the Bakken Library and Museum. James V. Vanderbilt and Carl A. Gage were partners in an architectural firm in 1925-1926.

__?__ Ganeer, architect.

Ganley Brothers, architects, designed 616 Summit Avenue, built in 1928, both Late Classical Revival in style, and 610 Summit Avenue, the New York Apartments/610 Summit Avenue, built in 1927, Classical Revival/Late Classical Revival in style.

A. L. Garlough, architect, designed 2020 Summit Avenue, the C. A. Taney House, built in 1913, Early Modern Rectilinear in style, and 1220 Summit Avenue, the John McCardy House, built in 1909, Simplified Rectilinear in style.

F. W. Gates, architect, designed 1211 Summit Avenue, the Frances W. Gates House, built in 1922, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Augustus Gauger (1852-1929) was born in Germany, the son of Michael Freidrich August Gauger and Christine Kroning Gauger, and came to the U.S. with his family in 1862. He first worked as a carpenter in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, studied architecture in Chicago, and came to St. Paul in 1875. After serving as an architectural draftman and apprenticing with architect Edward Bassford, Gauger set up his own architectural practice in 1878, remaining active until the late 1920's. While managing his own firm, Gauger also served successively as architect to the State Board of Education (1881-1887), was St. Paul city building inspector (1894-1895), was a member of the committee revising the St. Paul Building Code (1896, 1910-1911), and was the architect to the Board of Trustees of the Minnesota State Soldiers' Home (1905-1929). Gauger designed six houses on Summit Avenue. 465 Summit Avenue was considerably altered after construction. 301 Summit Avenue was moved to 107 Farrington Avenue. Three Summit Avenue houses were demolished after fires. Gauger liked towers, but the design proved to be ill suited for Minnesota winters. He designed public buildings in 14 states. Augustus Gauger also designed 223 Bates Avenue/707 Wilson Avenue, the Schornstein Grocery & Saloon, built in 1884, 862 East Fifth Street, the Alma Helmes House, built in 1889, 672 North Greenbrier Street, the Otto Mueller and Marie Hamm Mueller House, built in 1891, Queen Anne in style, 374-376-378 Maria Avenue, the Schoch Building, built in 1885; Victorian Commercial block in style, 721-733 East Seventh Street, the William Frederic Stutzman Block, built in 1884 and 1885 and altered in 1889, Eclectic in style, 729 East Sixth Street, the Darius Hevener House, built in 1889, Queen Anne in style, 306 South Exchange Street, the Rogers-Johnson House, built in 1881, 803 West Osceola Avenue, the Alfred J. Krank House, built in 1906, Tudor Revival/Mildly Tudor Revival in style, 988 Fairmount Avenue, built in 1914, 736 Goodrich Avenue, the H. E. Habighorst House, built in 1909, Queen Anne in style, 833 Goodrich Avenue, the Christopher C. Andrews House, built in 1882, Queen Anne in style, 600 Grand Avenue, the C. E. Hughes House, built in 1896, Italianate in style, 521 Grand Hill, the J. H. Ames House, built in 1905, Queen Anne in style, 574-576 West Lincoln Avenue, the Goforth House, built in 1885, Queen Anne/Eastlake in style, 687 West Lincoln Avenue, built in 1894, Queen Anne in style, 731 West Lincoln Avenue, the Newell/Johnson House, built in 1885, Queen Anne in style, 911 West Lincoln Avenue, the L. E. Shield House/Shields Residence, built in 1904, Classical Revival in style, and 295 Summit Avenue, the Albert H. Lindeke and Louise Lindeke House, built in 1885, Queen Anne in style, for which Reed and Stem were the architects for the 1903 stone porch addition and for which Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was the architect for the garage addition, 465 Summit Avenue, the William Constans and Bertha Constans House, built in 1886, Queen Anne/Neoclassical and Baroque Revival in style, and 241 George Street West, the Samuel Diering/Dearing House, built in 1885, Victorian in style. Gauger was the renovation architect for 50 Irvine Park, the Henry J. Horn House, built in 1869 and remodeled in 1881 and in 1976, Victorian eclectic style. He was a fellow in the American Institute of Architects. He married Albertine O. Nitschke in 1878 and the couple had seven sons, Edward C. Gauger (a physician), Paul C. Gauger, Alfred W. Gauger, Raymond R. Gauger, Walter Gauger, Augustus Gauger, Jr., and Albert Gauger. In the early 1900's, the Gauger family resided at 1183 Como Boulevard.

George Gerlach, architect and builder, designed 184 Summit Avenue, the C. D. Kerr House, built in 1889, Queen Anne/Victorian in style.

Cass Gilbert (1859-1934) was born in Zanesville, Ohio, the son of Gen. Samuel Augustus Gilbert and Elizabeth Fulton Wheeler Gilbert, worked as a carpenter's helper and draftsman for Abraham Radcliff in Saint Paul in 1876, and was a Massachusetts Institue of Technology-trained architect, where he studied architecture from 1878 until 1879 under __?__ Letang with William R. Ware, traveled in Europe in 1880, joined the New York architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, began his practice in St. Paul in 1882, formed a partnership with James Knox Taylor from 1882/1884 until 1892, won the competition for the third Minnesota State Capitol in 1896, was a fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1899, moved to New York in 1899, was the president of the American Institute of Architects from 1908 until 1909, pioneered the development of the skyscaper with his design of the Woolworth Building in 1911, designed the West Virginia State Capitol in 1926, designed the U. S. Supreme Court building in 1931, and died in Brockenhurst, England. Cass Gilbert married Julia T. Finch of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Cass Gilbert's designs range from the Gothic-style Woolworth Building, the first skyscraper, and the United States Custom House in New York City to the U.S. Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C., the St. Louis Art Museum, the Arkansas State Capitol, the Minnesota State Capitol, the Brazer Building in Boston (1896,) the Broadway Chambers Building, New York City (1900,) the Essex County Courthouse, Newark, New Jersey (1902,) the Union Club, New York City (1902), Festival Hall and Art Building, St. Louis, Missouri (1904), Finney Chapel, Oberlin College, Ohio (1908,) the Detroit Public Library (1921,) the First Division Monument, Washington, D. C. (1924,) the New York Life Insurance Building (1928,) and the West Virginia State Capitol. He was the consulting architect for the George Washington Bridge, which crosses the Hudson River in upper Manhattan, New York City. President Theodore Roosevelt made Cass Gilbert chairman of the Council of Fine Arts, and President Wilson reappointed him. Gilbert served as president of the American Institute of Architects in 1908 and 1909, and helped found the Architectural League of New York, serving as its president for two years. Gilbert died in Brockenhurst, England. Cass Gilbert designed 548-554 Portland Avenue, the Portland Terrace/Bookstaver House, built in 1890, Italian Renaissance/Romanesque Revival in style, 505 Summit Avenue, the George Freeman House, built between 1894 and 1896, Rectilinear Medieval/Tudor Revival in style, 1044 Wilson Avenue, built in 1883, Victorian in style, 901 Portland Avenue, the St. Clement's Episcopal Church, built in 1894, Gothic/English country church style, 634 Goodrich Avenue, the D. S. Bryant House, built in 1890, Shingle in style, 657 Goodrich Avenue, built in 1889, 506 Grand Hill, the J. D. Armstrong House, built in 1890, 514 Grand Hill, the William J. Dean House, built in 1892, Colonial Revival in style, 318 Summit Avenue, the William H. Lightner House, built in 1893, Richardsonian Romanesque in style, 339 Summit Avenue, the Crawford Livingston House/Charles H. F. Smith House, built in 1898, Medieval-Rectilinear/Romanesque Revival/Italianate/Gothic in style, the Former 505 Summit Avenue, the Freedman-Krueger House/George Freeman House, built between 1894 and 1896, Gothic Revival/Rectilinear Medieval/Tudor Revival in style, 937 Summit Avenue, the Dr. E. K. VonWedel Spredt House, built in 1899, Queen Anne/Craftsman/Tudor Revival in style, and 943 Summit Avenue, the Stiles W. Burr House, built in 1899, Georgian Revival/Queen Anne/Colonial Revival in style. Gilbert and Taylor, architects, designed 839 West Osceola Avenue, the F. M. Finch House, built in 1890; Queen Anne in style, 1 Crocus Hill, the John D. O'Brien House/Cass Gilbert House, built in 1905, Queen Anne/Tudor Revival in style, 804 Goodrich Avenue, the C. L. Kluckholn House, built in 1910, Queen Anne in style, 520 Grand Hill, the Clark House, built in 1902, Georgian Revival in style, 1 Heather Place, the Cass Gilbert House, built in 1894, Tudor Revival in style, 322-324 Summit Avenue, the Lightner-Young House, built in 1886, Richardsonian Romanesque/Classical Revival in style, 332 Summit Avenue, the Edgar C. Long/Archibald Guthrie House, built in 1912, Romanesque Revival in style, and 365 Summit Avenue, the Frank B. Bass House/Griggs House, built in 1885, originally Queen Anne Victorian in style and subsequently Classical Revival/Colonial Revival in style.

Edna Glass, architect, designed 2130 Summit Avenue, the Edna Glass House/University of St. Thomas President's House, built in 1918, Two-story Colonial Revival/Twenties Villa in style.

Sal Goldie, architect, designed 1920 Summit Avenue, the Dr. M. N. Moss House, built in 1931, Spanish Colonial in style.

William Golla, architect, designed 2166 Summit Avenue, the Ernest J. Murphy House of the University of St. Thomas, built in 1950, Cottage/Bungalow in style.

By 1898, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (1869-1924) joined Cram (Ralph Adams Cram (1863-1943)) and Wentworth (Charles Francis Wentworth (1861-1897)) as a partner, forming the predecessor of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson (Frank William Ferguson ( -1926),) and was the alter-ego of Cram. While Wentworth took care of the more business-oriented work of the firm, a role that Cram professed was not his calling, Cram and Goodhue played off each other in the designs of the firm's new churches. Cram was very good at planning buildings and at blocking in general forms, while Goodhue had an excellent eye for decorative detail. Cram was America's premier Gothic Revival architect. Cram and Goodhue established the firm and themselves in history as winners of the 1904 International Competition to design the campus of the American Military Academy at West Point over a slate of much better known architects. Goodhue left the partnership in 1914 to practice alone after falling out with Cram.

Leo Goodkind, architect, designed 318 Ryan Avenue/Former 318 Franklin Street South, the Goodkind-Koenen House, built in 1905, Victorian in style. Leo Goodkind graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1892 and then went to the University of Minnesota to study architecture. Leo Goodkind was the architect for the 1905 Goodkind-Koenen residence at 318 Ryan Avenue in St. Paul's Irvine Park. Leo Goodkind ( -1943) died in Ramsey County.

George J. Grant was the architect for 462 Holly Avenue, the George Grant House, built in 1905, Queen Anne in style. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that George J. Grant resided at 462 Holly Avenue from 1884 to 1924. George Johnstone Grant (1839/1841-1924) was born in Pictou/Picton, Nova Scotia, Canada, to parents born in Scotland, George Grant and Katie Matheson Grant, was educated in public schools in Nova Scotia, initially worked on a farm, then worked as a carpenter, became a master builder, married Theresa Thompson in 1867, was a contractor building a portion of the Canada Pacific RailRoad until 1880, moved to St. Paul in 1880, was a building contractor, built the James P. Allen Building in 1888, was the builder of the Pioneer Press Building in 1889, built the House of Hope Presbyterian Church in 1914, built the Merchant's Bank Building in 1915, built the Minnesota Boat Club Boathouse on Raspberry Island, was the supervising builder of the St. Paul Assembly Plant for the Ford Motor Company, was a member of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce, resided at 462 Holly Avenue, officed at the Exchange Bank Building in 1920, officed at 893 Como Avenue in 1924, and died of a cerebral hemorrhage. The Grant Construction Company of St. Paul remains in the construction business, with Fred Murname as president from 1955 until 1980. Teresa T. Grant (1836-1922) was the wife of George J. Grant, was born in Canada to parents also born in Canada, and died of arteriosclerosis. [See note for the Canada Pacific RailRoad.]

Carl Thomas Gray was the restoration architect for 255-257 Summit Avenue, the W. E. Howard House, built in 1884 with alterations in 1899, Altered Queen Anne in style, for which Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was the initial alteration architect.

Gene Green (1926- ) was born in Madelia, Minnesota, began his career in 1948 as a draftsman for Haxby, Bissell, & Belair, graduated from the University of Minnesota with a degree in architecture in 1950, became a partner in the firm in 1959, and was a senior partner in Green, Nelson & Weaver.

Griswold, Rauma, Egge & Olson, architects, designed the University of St. Thomas School of Divinity, constructed 1988/1989.

Abram H. Haas, architect, designed 756 Fairmount Avenue, the V. J. Rothschild House, built in 1912, Queen Anne in style.

Charles F. Haglin (1849-1921) was born in Hastings, New York, was educated in the public schools of that city and became a draftsman in the office of a Syracuse architect in his late teens, moved to Chicago and, in 1873, relocated to Minneapolis and entered practice with Franklin B. Long. The Long-Haglin partnership ended in 1876 and Haglin entered into partnership with Frederick Corser/Corner for about five years. In 1881, Haglin formed a contracting firm with Charles Morse/Moore, and together they built a number of large structures in Minneapolis, including the Globe Building (1882) and the William Washburn residence ("Fairoaks" 1883,) both designed by E. Townsend Mix of Milwaukee. The company also erected the Minneapolis City Hall and Court House (1895-1905.) While the City Hall and Court House project was underway, the partnership dissolved and Haglin operated the firm on his own until 1909, when B. H. Stahr joined as partner and the new company became known as the Haglin-Stahr Company, constructors of fireproof elevators and mills. Between about 1900, when his association with Morse ceased, and his partnership with Stahr began in 1909, Haglin's company built such Minneapolis structures as the Radisson Hotel (1909,) the Chamber of Commerce Building (later, Grain Exchange Building)(1901,) the Donaldson office building, the Minneapolis Gas & Light Company, the Orpheum Theater, the Plaza Hotel, and the residences for George Peavey, Frank Peavey, Franklin Crosby, E. W. Decker, F. B. Semple (1901,) L. S. Donaldson, and George H. Partridge. In 1907, Haglin was a builder and contractor who resided at 321 South Eighth Street and officed at the Lumber Exchange Building, was a half-owner of the Minneapolis Stone Company, and was a member of the board of directors of the Kettle River Stone Company. Late in his life, Haglin admitted his three sons into the partnership and the firm operated as C. F. Haglin & Sons. In 1920, the company contracted to rebuild Hibbing, Minnesota, after the entire townsite was moved to make way for an expansion of an open pit iron ore mine. Haglin died in Long Beach, California. Haglin designed the Former 2210 Park Avenue South, the Former George Peavey House, built in 1903, Renaissance Revival in style.

O. Hahn, architect and builder, designed 1352 Summit Avenue, the Joseph M. Dickson House, built in 1899, Colonial Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style.

Hall & McDougall, architects.

Henry R. P. Hamilton (1857-1943) was born in New Prospect, New York, was a fellow in the American Institute of Architects from 1889 until 1915, with the merger of the Western Association of Architects into the American Institute of Architects, was a member of the Federal Architectural Bureau, supervised the construction of buildings on Ellis Island, New York, was a renowned architect of public school buildings and other public buildings in Cleveland, Ohio, retired in 1928, and died in Cleveland, Ohio. Hamilton designed 745 East Margaret Street, the Margaret Street Police Substation, built in 1888; Modified Italianate in style and 750-752 West Lincoln Avenue, the J. P. Knowles House, built in 1890.

C. Hamm, architect, designed 926 Summit Avenue, the Dr. J. C. Whitacre House, built in 1889, Tudor Revival/Bungalow in style.

Havelock E. Hand/E. Havelock Hand, architect, designed 644 Summit Avenue, the C.A. Dibble House/Charles A. Dibble House, built in 1880, Queen Anne/Victorian in style and the Julian H. Sleeper House, built in 1884, moved from 574 Holly Street, Victorian in style for exterior, Gilded Age/Eastlake/Renaissance Revival in style for interior. Havelock E. Hand worked for Harvey Ellis in 1879 or 1880, designed a brick Victorian fire station in 1890 at 676 E. Bedford Street in the Payne-Phalen neighborhood, was a fellow in the American Institute of Architects before 1907, but was dropped from membership in 1907.

__?__ Hanlen, architect, designed 702 Fairmount Avenue, the James T. Clark House, built in 1891, Shingle in style.

William T. Harris, architect, designed 2029 Summit Avenue, the William Harris House, built in 1925, Mediteranean Revival/Spanish Colonial in style. William Harris, the house owner, and William T. Harris, the architect of the house, were different people. William T. Harris (1883-1965) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County.

Ernest Hartford had partnered with Silas Jacobson from 1910 to 1914. Ernest Hartford ( -1913) died in Ramsey County. Ernest Hartford and Charles Hausler, architects, designed 1058 St. Clair Avenue, the Malcolm D. McMillan House, built in 1915, Prairie Style in style, and 1725 Summit Avenue, the Louis F. Shaw House, built in 1915, Early Modern Georgian Revival in style. Ernest Hartford and Silas Jacobson, architects, designed 1017 Summit Avenue, the Frank J. Bowlin House, built in 1913, Georgian Revival in style, 1982 Summit Avenue, the B. F. Robertson House, built in 1910, Early Modern Rectilinear in style, 1504 Summit Avenue, the G. E. Routh House, built in 1911, Early Modern Georgian Revival in style, and 1490 Summit Avenue, the Dr. H. E. Hunt House, built in 1911, Tudor Revival/Tudor Rectilinear in style.

__?__ Hasslen, architect, designed 900 Goodrich Avenue, the W. H. Clark House, built in 1888, Georgian Revival in style, and 945 West Lincoln Avenue, the A. D. Brown House, built in 1890.

Olai Haugen, architect, designed 1812 Summit Avenue, the C. E. Bergman House, built in 1914, Tudor Rectilinear in style.

John Haulen, architect, designed 1127 Summit Avenue, the Smith and J. W. Taylor House, built in 1891, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Charles A. Hausler (1889-1971) was born in the West Seventh Street neighborhood of St. Paul. In his late teens, he apprenticed with Louis Sullivan in Chicago. When he returned to St. Paul, Hausler went into partnership with William Alban (1911-1913) and later with Percy Bentley (1914) and Ernest Hartford (1915-1916). He was St. Paul's first City Architect (1914-23) and designed many St. Paul schools, branch libraries, fire stations, and park buildings, some in the Prairie School style. Hausler was elected to the State Senate in 1922. He retired from politics after sixteen years of service and reestablished his architectural practice in 1939. Hausler's architectural career extended nearly to his death. Notable buildings that he designed are the St. Paul Temple of Aaron (1954;) the St. Anthony Park Bank Building (1917;) the St. Anthony Park Branch Library (1917;) the Faribault (Minnesota) School for the Deaf (1931;) the Labor Temple (St. Paul) (1930;) St. Mary's Catholic Church (Hague, North Dakota)(1930;) and the Minnesota Building (St. Paul)(1928.) Ernest Hartford and Charles Hausler, architects, designed 1058 St. Clair Avenue, the Malcolm D. McMillan House, built in 1915, Prairie Style in style. Charles Alfred Hausler and Percy Dwight Bentley, architects, designed 975 West Osceola Avenue, the Frank Seifert and Rosa Seifert House, built in 1914, Prairie School in style. Charles Hausler, architect, designed 526 Grace Street, the Charles Hausler House, built in 1917, Prairie Style in style. Charles Hausler, architect, designed 1 George Street East, the Riverview Branch Public Library, built in 1916 and remodeled in 1989.

Warren H. Hayes (1847-1899,) the grandson of President Rutherford B. Hayes, was born in Prattsburgh, New York, attended Watkins Academy and Genessee Wesleyan Seminary in Lima, New York, graduated from Cornell University in 1871 with a degree in civil engineering opened an architectural office in Elmira, New York, in 1871, relocated to Minneapolis in 1881, and died in Minneapolis. In addition to the St. Paul Central Presbyterian Church, he also designed Westminster Presbyterian Church, Minneapolis (1897,) First Baptist Church, Portland, Oregon (1894,) Fowler Methodist Episcopal Church/Scottish Rite Temple, Minneapolis (1894,) First Presbyterian Church, Mankato, Minnesota (1893,) the McKesson Building, Minneapolis (1892,) Wesley United Methodist Church, Minneapolis (1891,) Ormsby Hall, Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin (1889,) the Student Christian Association/Music Education building, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (1888,) the First Congregational Church, Minneapolis (1886,) Old Main Hall, Hamline University, St. Paul (1883,) the Lyman-Eliel Drug Company at 24 Third Street North, Minneapolis (1892,) the Creamery Package Manufacturing Company at 333 Washington Avenue North, Minneapolis (1895,) and the Brattleboro Methodist Church, Brattleboro, Vermont (1880.) Warren H. Hayes specialized in church design on the East Coast and in Minneapolis.

David Heide, renovation architect, redesigned 40 Crocus Place, the Leo Goodkind House, built in 1864, Tudor Revival/Cotswold Cottage in style.

__?__ Henley, architect, designed 825 Fairmount Avenue, the J. S. Mackey House, built in 1909, Queen Anne in style.

Herter Brothers was the most progressive American interior design and furniture production firm of the late 19th century in America. Gustave Herter and his younger half-brother Christian were both born in Stuttgart, Germany, and trained in Europe before emigrating to the United States.

Edwin Hawley Hewitt (1874-1939) was a native of Red Wing, Minnesota who attended Hobart College in Geneva, New York, then transferred to the University of Minnesota to complete his undergraduate work and took night classes at the Minneapolis School of Fine Arts while working in the architectural office of Cass Gilbert during vacations, then left Minnesota in 1896 to study architecture for one year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Hewitt spent the next three years in the firm of Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge in Boston and sought further training at the prestigious Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, finishing first among all foreign applicants and second overall on the entrance examination. Hewitt took his degree in 1904, ranking second in a class of fifty. Hewitt was the primary designer of the firm, and was one of the leading practitioners of revival architecture in Minneapolis, executing commissions large and small in a wide variety of styles. Hewitt designed several Minneapolis buildings, including the Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company Building, the Loring Park Office Building (Northwestern National Life Insurance Co.), the Northwestern Bell Telephone Building, the Cathedral Church of St. Mark, the Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church, the former Gateway Pavillion (1920-1950), the Washburn Crosby Company Utility Building, the Architects and Engineers Building, and a six-story art deco apartment complex at 2615 Park Avenue. Hewitt renovated the Eugene Carpenter House at 300 Clifton Avenue. Hewitt also designed the William N. Ryerson/A.G. Thomson House in Duluth, Minnesota, built in 1909, the Christ Episcopal Church Parish House in Red Wing, Minnesota, built in 1910, and the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity chapter house at the University of Minnesota, built in 1924. Hewitt also donated an ambulance to the American Field Service in France during World War I. Edwin Hacker Brown (1875-1930) was a brother-in-law of Edwin H. Hewitt. Hewitt was a good friend of John Scott Bradstreet (1845-1914,) the Minneapolis interior designer. Edwin H. Hewitt, the primary designer of the firm, was one of the leading practitioners of revival architecture in Minneapolis, executing commissions large and small in a wide variety of styles. Hewitt & Brown buildings probably are familiar to visitors of downtown Minneapolis, the Loring Park area, or the Washburn-Fair Oaks neighborhood. Edwin Hawley Hewitt (1874-1939) was a native of Red Wing, Minnesota who attended Hobart College in Geneva, New York, then transferred to the University of Minnesota to complete his undergraduate work. During these years, he took night classes at the Minneapolis School of Fine Arts and worked in the architectural office of Cass Gilbert during vacations. Formal architectural training was still in its infancy in the United States, so Hewitt left Minnesota in 1896 to study architecture for one year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He spent the next three years in the firm of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge in Boston, a firm known for its period revival churches throughout the United States. Akin to hundreds of aspiring American architects, Hewitt sought further training at the prestigious Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, finishing first among all foreign applicants and second overall on the entrance examination. Hewitt took his degree in 1904 and ranked second in a class of 50. The Beaux-Arts School would exert a profound influence on Hewitt's architecture. It taught a method of architecture that stressed the orderliness, symmetry, and balance found in classical monuments. But Beaux Arts architects like Hewitt did not limit their inspiration to antiquity. He experimented with a wide variety of styles, including medieval, Renaissance, and baroque forms that they hoped would bring order to a rapidly changing society. Hewitt and Brown structures include the Edwin H. Hewitt House/Hodroff & Sons Funeral Chapel, 126 Franklin Avenue E., in 1906; the Cathedral Church of St. Mark, 519 Oak Grove, in 1911; the Charles S. Pillsbury House, 106 22nd Avenue E., in 1912; the Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church, 511 Groveland, in 1914; the Washburn-Crosby Company Utility Building, 628-630 2nd St. S., in 1914; the Architects and Engineers Building,1200-08 2nd Ave. S., in 1920; the Northwestern National Life Insurance Company Building/Loring Office Building, 430 Oak Grove, in 1924; the Northwestern Bell Telephone Company Building, 224 5th Street S., in 1930-1932; the Brooks/Thomas House, 1600 Mt. Curve, in 1905; the Eugene J. Carpenter House, 300 Clifton Avenue, in 1906; the Minneapolis Club, 729 2nd Avenue S., in 1907; the Loose Wiles Biscuit Company, 701 Washington Avenue N., in 1912; the Dunwoody Institute, 818 Wayzata Boulevard, in 1914; the McKnight Building, 2nd Ave S. & 5th St., in 1914; the Metropolitan National Bank Building, 2nd Ave S. and 6th St., in 1917; the Citizens Aid Society, 701 Washington Avenue N., in 1920; the University Baptist Church, 1219 University Avenue S.E., in 1924; the Lake of the Isles English Lutheran Church, 2020 W. Lake of the Isles Parkway; and the Blake School, 110 Blake Road, Hopkins, in 1912.

Edgar J. Hodgson was an architect in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1882, designing the third Huntington County jail, was the partner of Allen H. Stem (1856-1931) in St. Paul for one year in 1890, and eventually moved his architectural practice to Denver, Colorado. Hodgson & Stem, architects, designed 596 Grand Avenue, built in 1879, Shingle in style, 251 Summit Avenue, the Horace P. Rugg House, built in 1887, Romanesque Revival/Renaissance Revival/Victorian Romanesque/Richardsonian Romanesque in style, and 665 Summit Avenue, the C. E. Ritterhouse House, built in 1889, Queen Anne in style.

Isaac Hodgson was a prominent architect in Indianapolis, Indiana, until he moved to Minneapolis around 1880 to open a new firm with his son. Isaac Hodgson was the architect for the Morgan County, Indiana, Courthouse, built in 1859, for the Henry County, Indiana, Courthouse, built in 1869, for the Bartholomew County, Indiana, Courthouse, built in 1874, for the former Minneapolis Exposition Building and Tower, built in 1886 and the site of the 1892 Republican National Convention, for the Josiah M. and Addie Fleming/Babcock Brothers house in Denver, Colorado, built in 1891, for the Croke-Patterson-Campbell mansion in Denver, Colorado, built in 1891, and for the historic Dr. Charles Wolcott Enos house in Denver, Colorado, built in 1891. Isaac Hodgson attended the Third Annual Convention of the Western Association of Architects in Chicago in 1886 with L. S. Buffington, C. E. Baldwin, F. G. Corser from Minneapolis and D. W. Millard from Saint Paul and contributed an article "Hints on a national style of architecture" to the Proceedings of the Third Annual Convention of the Western Association of Architects, published in Minneapolis by Baldwin, Bruce & Brundage in 1886. Hodgson was the architect for the house at 665 Summit Avenue and for 848 Goodrich Avenue, the B. J. Shipman House, built in 1898, Shingle in style.

Thomas H. Hodne, Jr., is a design architect consultant and a professor at the School of Architecture and Landscape Design at the University of Minnesota.

George H. Hoit and Company, architects, designed 2637-2639 East Lake of the Isles Parkway, the Harry F. Legg House, built in 1911. Queen Anne in style.

Oscar M. Hokanson (1871-1951), born in St. Paul, and eventually a practicing architect in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, apprenticed as an architect with Augustus F. Gauger in St. Paul and with John H. Coxhead of Buffalo, N. Y., and Washington, D. C.

Holabird & Root of Chicago, architects, designed the University of St. Thomas Owens Science Hall & Frey Science and Engineering Center, constructed between 1995 and 1997.

Thomas Gannett Holyoke (1876/1886-1925) was born in St. Paul, was a student in Paris, was the chief draftsman for Cass Gilbert from 1884 to 1891 and from 1896 to 1899, including the Minnesota State Capitol project, and designed a total of five houses on Summit Avenue. A person named Thomas Holyoke owned the farm that the trustees of Macalester College purchased for the campus in 1888. Thomas Holyoke (1886-1925) initially was a draftsman for Cass Gilbert before setting up his own architectural practice. He also owned a large farm in the former Reserve Township, which became St. Paul's Merriam Park and Highland Park neighborhoods. Holyoke also donated land from his farm to Macalester College. Thomas Gannett Holyoke (1866-1925) was a church member of Unity Church-Unitarian. Thomas G. Holyoke designed 493-495 Portland Avenue, the Fred Bigelow House, built in 1904, Tudor Revival in style, 500 Summit Avenue, the Dr. Cornelius Williams House, built in 1904, Georgian Revival in style, 744 West Osceola Avenue, the E. L. Patterson House/Eugene L. Patterson House, built in 1912, Tudor Revival in style, 712 West Linwood Avenue, the Edmund S. Houghtaling House, built in 1904, Tudor Revival in style, 700 West Linwood Avenue, the Samuel E. Turner House, built in 1913, Tudor Revival in style, 744 West Osceola Avenue, the Eugene Patterson House, built in 1912, Tudor Revival in style, 301 Summit Avenue, the George W. Gardner House, built in 1905, Georgian Revival in style, 344 Summit Avenue, the Watson P. Davidson and Sarah Davidson House, built in 1915, Beaux Arts/Tudor Revival/Tudor Manor in style, 500 Summit Avenue, the Dr. Cornelius Williams House, built in 1904, Georgian Revival in style, 952 Summit Avenue, the Charles Beckhoefer House, built in 1914, Elizabethan/Tudor Revival in style, and 990 Summit Avenue, the Henry Glassbrook Allen and Ruth Allen House, built in 1916, Georgian Revival in style. Holyoke, Jemne & Davis, architects, designed 15 Crocus Hill/593 Goodrich Avenue, built in 1922, Tudor Revival in style.

Stirling Horner was an architect employed by C. H. Johnston and resided at 1 Heather Place. After a period of meandering output in his firm before 1910, Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., reorganized his office management with the hiring of a corps of well-trained assistants with long term commitments to the firm, Edward S. Nelson, an engineer, Clarence H. "Howard" Johnston, Jr., an architect, and Stirling Horner, an architect. Stirling Horner and C. H. Johnston, Jr., were the architects for the L. J. Shields Estate on White Bear Lake in Dellwood, Minnesota, in 1933. Stirling Horner was the author of a paper on the Minnesota Historical Society building in the Minnesota History Bulletin in 1916. Harry Stirling Horner received a Bachelor of Science degree in Architecture from the College of Engineering of the University of Illinois in 1909. Stirling Horner was the lead draftsman for C. H. Johnston, Sr., for the Institute of Anatomy building at the University of Minnesota in 1910. Stirling Horner became a full member of the American Institute of Architects in 1921, the same year that Horner became an associate meber of C. H. Johnston's firm and had his name added to the letterhead with Edward S. Nelson and Howard Johnston. By 1932, Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was no longer involved in the functions of his firm and C. H. Johnston, Jr., and Stirling Horner were the two architects appearing on project drawings. In 1933, with C. H. Johnston, Jr., becoming firm president, Edward Nelson and Stirling Horner becoming copartners in the firm of C. H. Johnston, architects-engineers. Afte the death of Clarence H. Johnston, Sr. (1859-1932,) the firm relied on four major pre-Depression clients for the bulk of its later work, limped out of the Depression, and ultimately went out of business in 1960. Harry Stirling Horner (1884- ) was born in Madison, Wisconsin, the son of Frank S. Horner (1856- ) and Anna L. Stirling Horner (1858- .)

John Howe, architect, designed 865 Mound Street, the Ter Wisscha and Lano House, built in 1995.

Homer H. Hoyt, architect, designed 1209 Summit Avenue, the Homer H. Hoyt House, built in 1911, Bungalow in style.

E. R. Hubbell, architect, desined 809 Goodrich Avenue, the E. R. Hubbell House, built in 1895, Shingle in style.

Walter Ife, architect, designed 728 West Osceola Avenue, the C. A. Eckman House, built in 1892, Victorian in style, 776 Fairmount Avenue, the C. S. Bunker House, built in 1905, Colonial Revival in style, and 728 West Osceola Avenue, the C. A. Eckman House, built in 1892, Victorian in style.

William M. Ingemann (1896-1980), Victor Ingemann's son, became a St. Paul architect. William Ingemann was born in St. Paul and was educated at the University of Minnesota (1915-1922) and the American Academy in Rome. He served in World War I as an ambulance driver and as an engineer for the American Red Cross. Early in his career, he was associated with Cass Gilbert (1921-22) and Electus Litchfield (1922-26) in New York City. In 1926, Ingemann opened an office in St. Paul. He married Dorothy Brink, also of St. Paul, in 1927. She was employed as a renderer in Ingemann's office from 1927 to 1936. During World War II, Ingemann served as a major in the Army Air Corps and, after the war, was in partnership with Milton Bergstedt until 1958. Ingemann retired in 1961, moved to Mexico in 1965, and died there in 1980. Dorothy Brink (ca. 1903-1991) was raised in St. Paul. She was among the first women to graduate from the University of Minnesota School of Architecture, in 1925. The Ingemann architectural firm designed the prestigious Lowell Inn (originally Sawyer Hotel) in Stillwater, Minnesota, and buildings at the University of Minnesota, Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota,) Augsburg College (Minneapolis,) Concordia College (Moorhead, Minnesota,) and Hamline University (St. Paul.) William Ingemann and Dorothy Ingemann lived at 828 Summit Avenue, an unsuccessful French Second Empire Style house that they designed, but the house has subsequently been replaced. William Ingemann was the architect for the Elmer L. Anderson house, located at 2230 West Hoyt Avenue in St. Anthony Park and built in 1951. The Ingemann architectural firm designed the prestigious Lowell Inn (originally the Sawyer Hotel) in Stillwater, Minnesota, and buildings at the University of Minnesota, Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota,) Augsburg College (Minneapolis), Minnesota State University-Moorhead (Moorhead, Minnesota,) Concordia College (Moorhead, Minnesota,) and Hamline University (St. Paul.) Victor Ingemann (1877-1922) founded the Ingemann Brothers contracting company with his brother George Ingemann in 1884. When Lars P. Jorgenson joined the firm, it became Ingemann & Company. The firm designed hundreds of houses and business buildings in the Twin Cities. Ingemann & Co., architect and builder, designed 1936 Summit Avenue, the Victor Ingemann House, built in 1912, Period Revival/Tudor Revival/Craftsman/Tudor Villa in style.

Irving & Casson were the replacement architects for 240 Summit Avenue, the James Jerome Hill House, built between 1888 and 1891, Richardsonian Romanesque in style, which was designed by Peabody, Stearns & Furber, original architects. [See note on James Jerome Hill for 240 Summit Avenue.]

Thomas Ivey, architect and builder, designed 1591 Summit Avenue, the Frank J. Waterous House, built in 1904, Craftsman/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style.

Allen W. Jackson, architect, designed 1731 Summit Avenue, the George G. Whitney House, built in 1912, Twenties Villa in style.

August Jackson, architect, designed 881 Fairmount Avenue, the Mann House, built in 1889, Shingle in style.

Jansen and Oberg, architects, designed 314 Ryan Avenue/Former 314 Franklin Street South, the Maria Gross House, built in 1906, Victorian in style.

Magnus Jemne (1882/1887-1964/1974), a Norwegian, was a St. Paul architect architect who was born outside Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Peters, designed the 1931 St. Paul Women's City Club/Jemne Building at Kellogg Boulevard and St. Peter Street, and died in Ramsey County. Magnus Jemne was a veteran of World War I from Ramsey County who resided at 71 West Winifred Street in St. Paul in 1919. Magnus Jemne, architect, designed the World War I Monument at the West End of Summit Avenue, built in 1922, Beaux Arts in style.

F. J. Jenny, architect, designed 1773 Summit Avenue, the Herbert A. Sullwold/J. L. Sullwold House, built in 1910, Tudor Villa in style.

Charles E. Johnson, architect, designed 1510 Summit Avenue, the Dr. Charles R. Ball House, built in 1907, Colonial Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style.

Louis Johnson, restoration architect, designed 2218 West Lake of the Isles Parkway, the Emery Mapes House, built in 1915 and restored in 1986, Italianate-style villa.

Norman Johnson, architect, designed 2249 Summit Avenue, the Charles Coddon House, built in 1951, Contemporary in style, and 1389 Summit Avenue, the Yale Libman House, built 1952, Contemporary in style.

Johnson-Schwartz, architects, designed 1358 Summit Avenue, the E. Barenson House, built in 1918, Simplified Rectilinear in style.

C. H. Johnston, Jr., architect, designed 11 Crocus Hill, the Clarence H. Johnston, Jr., House, built in 1911, Tudor Revival/Arts & Craft in style, and 1979 Summit Avenue, the Moses C. Shapira House #2, built in 1924, Mediteranean Revival/Early Modern Georgian Revival in style. The 1930 city directory indicates that Clarence H. Johnston, Jr., an architect with the Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., architectural firm, and his wife, Naneen Johnston, resided at 11 Crocus Hill.

Clarence Howard Johnston, Sr. (1859-1936,) the son of Alexander Johnston and Mary L. Buckout/Louise Buckhont Johnston, practiced architecture in Minnesota for 54 years and was the Minnesota State Architect for 30 of those years. He designed virtually all of the buildings on 35 state-owned sites, including several on the University of Minnesota's main campus in Minneapolis. He was born in Waseca, Minnesota, and graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1880. Johnston initially worked for Abraham M. Radcliffe, then Edward Bassford, then William Robert Ware, and then the Herter Brothers and C.B. Atwood. Johnston founded the Sketch Club in New York, which later became the Architectural League. He returned to St. Paul in 1886. He was a Mason, was a member of the American Institute of Architects, and was a member of the Minnesota Club. In private practice, Johnston designed numerous residences and public buildings, including 52 projects (42 houses) still extant along Summit Avenue. He married Mary L. Thurston in 1885 and the couple had six children, Cyrus Thurston Johnston, Clarence Howard Johnston, Jr., Helen Johnston, Harrison R. Johnston, Requa Johnston, and Mary Louise Johnston. Clarence Howard Johnston, Jr., known as Howard, was the lead designer for his father in 1911. Cyrus Thurston Johnston, known as Thur, joined his father's firm in 1915 and took charge of the mechanical system (heating, plumbing and ventilation) planning. Helen Johnston married Roger Kennedy in 1915. Clarence Howard Johnston, Sr., was a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects and was a past president and director of the Minnesota chapter. Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., designed 461 Holly Avenue, the Edward Sawyer House, built in 1889, Colonial Revival in style, 555-559 Portland Avenue, the Church of St. John the Evangelist, built in 1888, Gothic Revival in style, 596-604 Summit Avenue, the Summit Terrace, built in 1890, Victorian in style, 490 Summit Avenue, the Addison Gardner Foster House, built in 1883; Victorian Romanesque in style, 476 Summit Avenue, the Chauncey M. and Martha Griggs House, built in 1883, Richardsonian Romanesque/Shingle in style, 745 West Osceola Avenue, the H. B. Hinckley House/Nathaniel B. Hinckley House, built in 1902, Georgian Revival in style, 767 West Linwood Avenue, the William Weiscopf House, built in 1900, Tudor Revival in style, 710 West Linwood Avenue, the Francis Savage House/Robert E. Olds House, built in 1914-1915, Georgian Revival in style, 696 West Linwood Avenue, the Edward S. Stringer House, built in 1913, Tudor Revival/Voyseyesque/Period Revival in style, 555-559 Portland Avenue, the Church of St. John the Evangelist, built in 1888, Gothic Revival in style, 544 Portland Avenue, built in 1888, Richardsonian Romanesque in style, 383-385 Portland Avenue, built in 1901, combination of Georgian and Neo-classical in style, 7-9 Crocus Hill, the John L. Erdahl House, built in 1907, Georgian Revival in style, 90 Crocus Place, the O'Brien House, built in 1926, Tudor Revival in style, 707 Fairmount Avenue, the L. A. Robinson House, built in 1890, Georgian Revival in style, 731 Fairmount Avenue, the Dennis A. Murphy House, built in 1885, Tudor Revival in style, 725 Goodrich Avenue, the C. E. Gooch House, built in 1900, Georgian Revival in style, 743 Goodrich Avenue, the Oscar Hallam House, built in 1907, Georgian Revival in style, 767 Goodrich Avenue, the William G. White House, built in 1888, Shingle-style in style, 781 Goodrich Avenue, the A. A. Doolittle House, built in 1892, Georgian Revival in style, 653 Grand Avenue, the John B. West House, built in 1900, Colonial Revival in style, 502 Grand Hill, built in 1894, 30 Kenwood Parkway, the McNeil S. Stringer House, built in 1885, English Cottage/Period Revival in style, 656 West Lincoln Avenue, the G. R. Ramsey House, built in 1895, Classical Revival in style, 804 West Lincoln Avenue, the Oliver Crosby House, built in 1890, Classical Revival in style, 745 West Osceola Avenue, the Nathaniel B. Hinckley House, built in 1891, 21-27 South St. Albans Street, the Henry M. Byllesby Rowhouse, built in 1893, Romanesque Revival/Victorian Romanesque in style, 255-257 Summit Avenue, the W. E. Howard House, built in 1884 with alterations in 1899, Altered Queen Anne in style, 260 Summit Avenue, the Louis Hill House/Louis Warren Hill and Maud Van Cortlandt Taylor Hill House, built in 1903 with a major addition, the front half and portico, in 1913, Classical Revival/Beaux Art/Georgian Revival in style, 261 Summit Avenue, the James H. Weed House, built in 1891, Jacobethan/Victorian/Neo-gothic/Gothic Revival in style, 275 Summit Avenue, the Charles A. Schuneman House/Summit Manor, built in 1889, Late Gothic/Georgian Revival/Medieval Revival in style, 323 Summit Avenue, the Edward Nelson Saunders House, built in 1892, Victorian Romanesque/Renaissance Revival/Romanesque Revival in style, 345 Summit Avenue, the Augustus K. Barnum House/Albert W. Lindeke House, built in 1919, Elizabethan/Tudor Villa in style, 370 Summit Avenue, the John R. Mitchell House, built in 1909, Federal/Georgian/Colonial Revival in style, 442 Summit Avenue, the Summit Court Apartments, built in 1898, Colonial Revival in style, 476 Summit Avenue, the Chauncey M. Griggs and Martha Griggs House/Upham House, built in 1882 and carriage house built in 1910, Richardsonian Romanesque/Shingle in style, 490 Summit Avenue, the Addison Gardner Foster House, built in 1890, Romanesque Revival/Victorian Romanesque/Richardsonian Romanesque in style, 596-604 Summit Avenue, the Ron House Apartments/Summit Terrace, built in 1888, Richardsonian Romanesque/Victorian in style, 629 Summit Avenue, the William T. Kirke and Nellie Kirke House, built in 1905, Elizabethan/Mildly Queen Anne in style, 650 Summit Avenue, the Nienaber House, built in 1892, Georgian Revival/Colonial Revival in style, 656 Summit Avenue, built in 1892, Georgian Revival/Queen Anne/Colonial Revival in style, 701 Summit Avenue, the W. H. Elsinger House, built in 1908, Renaissance Revival/Tudor/Medieval Revival in style, 705 Summit Avenue, Jacob Dittenhofer and Bettie Dittenhofer House, built in 1898, Renaissance Revival/Eclectic/Medieval Revival/Gothic in style, 735-739 Summit Avenue, the Former First Church of Christ Scientist/River of Life Church, built in 1913, Neoclassical/Classical Revival in style, 761 Summit Avenue, the Gebhard Bohn and Lena Bohn House/Gechart Bohn House, built in 1883, Georgian Revival/Beaux Arts/Renaissance Revival in style, 807 Summit Avenue, built in 1900, Tudor Villa/Tudor Revival in style, 955 Summit Avenue, the Carlos N. Boynton House, built in 1904, mildly Baroque/Jacobean/Jacobethan in style, 986 Summit Avenue, the Leo A. Guiterman House, built in 1889, Georgian Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, 1005 Summit Avenue, the Michael H. Foley House, built in 1906, 2260 Summit Avenue, the University of St. Thomas/St. Paul Seminary, St. Mary's Chapel, built in 1901, Romanesque Revival in style, 2010 Summit Avenue, the Frederick Crosby and Edith Crosby House, built in 1910, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style, 1943 Summit Avenue, the Louis L. Dow/Louis F. Dow House, built in 1913, Tudor Villa in style, 1873 Summit Avenue, the Lytton James Shields House, built in 1912, Early Modern Rectilinear in style, 1789 Summit Avenue, the Mrs. Mary E. Monkhouse House, built in 1917, Period Revival/Colonial/Craftsman/Georgian Revival Variant in style, 1635 Summit Avenue, the W. N. S. Ivins House/Macalester College School of Journalism/Macalester College International Center/Current Macalester College President's House, Built in 1907, Simplified Rectilinear/Arts and Crafts in style, 1525 Summit Avenue, the Dr. Arthur Sweeney House, built in 1910, Georgian Revival in style, 1456 Summit Avenue, the Alb I. Shapira House, built in 1912, with an addition and repairs in 1942, Tudor Villa in style, 1376 Summit Avenue, the Rush B. Wheeler House, built in 1909, Early Modern Rectilinear in style, 1345-1347 Summit Avenue, the Walter Butler and Pierce Butler House, built in 1900, NeoJacobean/British American Dutch Renaissance in style, 1317-1319 Summit Avenue, the Charles Dibble and Julia B. Dibble House, built in 1895, Colonial Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, and 1141 Summit Avenue, the William Ivins House, built in 1919 and altered in 1934 and 1937, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style. Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., and William Willcox designed 587-601 Summit Avenue, the Summit Terrace/the F. Scott Fitzgerald House, built in 1889, Richardsonian Romanesque in style, 749 Summit Avenue, and the Rush B. Wheeler and Harriet Wheeler/Jason W. Cooper II House, built in 1888, Queen Anne/Victorian in style. Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was the alteration architect for 1023 West Linwood Avenue, the W. H. Lightner House, with alterations in 1932, and for 432 Summit Avenue, the James C. Burbank House, built in 1862-1863, Italian Villa/Italianate villa/Tuscan/American Bracketed in style. Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was the architect for the garage addition for 295 Summit Avenue, the Albert H. Lindeke and Louise Lindeke House, built in 1885, Queen Anne in style.

Harry Wild Jones (1859-1935,) the son of Rev. Howard M. Jones and Mary White Smith Jones, was born in Michigan, was educated at the university grammar school of Providence, Rhode Island, received his architectural education at Brown University and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, worked as a draftsman for Henry Hobson Richardson in 1883 before coming to Minneapolis, married Bertha J. Tucker of Boston in 1883, was employed by William Channing Whitney and James C. Plant for two years before he opened up his own office in 1885, served as a Professor at the University of Minnesota, was a President of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, was a member of the Minneapolis Park Board for 12 years, and was a member of the Minneapolis Commercial Club. His Minneapolis designs include the Lakewood Cemetery Chapel (1908,) the Minnetonka Yacht Club (razed,) and West High School (razed.) He also designed churches in China, India, and Burma. Jones designed two of the best known buildings in the Minneapolis Warehouse District, the Lindsay Brothers Warehouse at 400 First Street North (1895) and the Butler Square Building at 518 First Avenue North. Jones resided at Nicollet Avenue and 51st Street in 1907 and officed at the Lumber Exchange Building in 1907.

Edgar Eugene Joralemon (1858-1937) was an architect who was born in Illinois, the son of James Joralemon, a builder and carpenter, and Caroline V. Joralemon, lived in Minneapolis from 1867 to 1897 and in the Niagara Falls-Buffalo, New York, area, from 1898 to 1933, and died in Pasadena, California. Edgar E. Joralemon married Elizabeth "Lizzie" Rafter (1858-1933) and the couple had a son, Frederick Eugene Joralemon (1887-1907.) "Orff & Joralemon Architects" was formed in 1893 by Fremont D. Orff and Edgar E. Joralemon. Based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the firm existed until 1897 when the partners pursued separate careers in Minneapolis and New York state respectively. Both men were also practicing architects before they formed the Orff & Joralemon firm. Edgar E. Joralemon began his career in Minneapolis during the early 1880's when he worked on his own and as a draftsman for the L. S. Buffington, F. B. Long, and the Orff Brothers firm and in partnership with Charles Ferrin before becoming a partner with Fremont Orff in 1892. Joralemon also designed several large residential properties in Minneapolis and a number of other structures as well, including a public school in Chaska, Minnesota (1885,) a building at the South Dakota Agricultural College in Brookings (1887,) plus hotels, tenements, commercial blocks and other work mainly in Minneapolis. In 1898 he moved to Niagara Falls, New York, where he continued his architectural career until about 1921 The main body ofhis work kom this period comprised schools, 18 ofwhich are currently known, in addition to two libraries and a theater. Except for two schools in Ohio, all this work was done in New York State. Fremont Orff and Edgar Joralemon were products of an informal apprenticeship system where rendering, design and engineering skills were learned on the job in the offices of established architects and/or in the building trades. "Orff & Joralemon Architects" saw at least 65 of their designs built. As F. D. Orff and E. E. Joralemon pursued their separate careers after 1897, school commissions became increasingly important to both. The period of experimentation with new forms was over, however, and their post-1897 schools are either minor re-workings of the plans fiom 1893-97 or predominantly in the neo-Gothic, Renaissance or Beaux Arts modes. This is especially evident in Joralemon's work until 1920, when he designed an elementary school in Dunkiuk, New York which set a new direction in school design for most of the U S. This is most likely his last completed building, and its single-story layout and open plan around a courtyard were unusual at the time. Joralemon designed 1900 LaSalle Avenue, the George W. Van Dusen and Nancy B. Van Dusen House/1900 LaSalle Guest House/Van Dusen Center, built in 1892, addition constructed in 1961, Beaux Arts/Richardsonian Romanesque/French Renaissance/Chateauesque in style for the house and Contemporary for the addition.

Charles E. Joy (1837-1905,) architect, designed 702 East Fourth Street, the Edward W. White House, built in 1888, Late Queen Anne in style and 91 Crocus Place/former 594 Goodrich Avenue, the Bushnell-West House; Built in 1863, Queen Anne/Shingle in style. Joy was born in Dover, New Hampshire, initially was a printer, began the practice of architecture in 1874, moved to St. Paul in 1884, was a partner of D. W. Millard in 1888, and had several commissions in the Burlington Heights section of St. Paul. He also briefly was a partner with Mark Fitzgerald. He designed two of the most noted of the St. Paul Winter Carnival ice palaces in 1887 and in 1888 and also designed the Leadville, Colorado, ice palace in 1895-1896. He additionally designed 482 Point Douglas Road South in St. Paul and also designed and resided in 882 Point Douglas Road South in St. Paul.

Philip C. Justus, architect and builder, designed 1451 Summit Avenue, the Philip C. Justus House, built in 1929, Period Revival/Tudor Villa in style.

Charles W. Kampfer, an architect and a partner with Max O. Buetow in the architect firm of Kampfer & Buetow, and his wife, Emma Kampfer, resided at 103 Bates Avenue.

Seeman Kaplan (1895-1963) was a native of Minneapolis, graduated with honors in architecture from the University of Minnesota in 1918, and joined in a partnership with Liebenberg in 1921. Kaplan managed the engineering and business details of the company until his death. Although Liebenberg suffered from the anti-Semetism for which Minneapolis had become noted at the time, Liebenberg & Kaplan was noted for designing more than 200 motion picture theatres in the Upper Midwest, with many of the early theaters featuring an art deco style. Twin City theaters designed by Liebenberg & Kaplan include the Uptown Theater (1928,) the Granada/Suburban World Theater (1928,) the Varsity Theater, the Campus Theater, and the Riverview/Riverside Theater (1948.) Other Liebenberg & Kaplan-designed theaters were the Hollywood Theaters in La Crosse, Wisconsin, and in Grand Forks, North Dakota, the Astor Theater in Duluth, the New Ulm, Minnesota, Theater, the Time Theater in Austin, Minnesota, the Maco Theater in Virginia, Minnesota, the Norshor Theater in Duluth, and the Egyptian Theater in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The firm also designed private residences, radio and television stations, commercial structures, hospitals, and synagogues, including Temple Israel in Minneapolis in 1928, distinguished by stunning acoustics. Those acoustics led to a congregation member hiring Liebenberg to design his first movie theater, the Granada. In the Granada Theater design, Liebenberg used stadium seating, tucked the bathrooms under the risers to conserve space, and lined the back walls with acoustic sound baffles made of sugar-cane waste. His design of the Granada Theater caught the attention of Paramount Pictures.

William F. Keefe was the architect and builder of 863-865 West Linwood Avenue, built in 1922, Prairie School in style, and of 1205 Summit Avenue, the William F. Keefe House, built in 1922, with 1952 addition to the rear of the house, Prairie Style/Early Modern Rectilinear in style. In 1915, William F. Keefe had his architectural office in the American National Bank and resided at 1239 Charles Avenue.

Frederick Kees (1852-1927) was born in Baltimore, Maryland, worked for architect E. C. Lind in Baltimore, Maryland, from 1865 until 1871, and again from 1872 to 1878, with a brief hiatus in Chicago in 1871-1872, moved to Minneapolis in 1878 and entered the office of Leroy Buffington, became a partner of B. W. Fisk (Kees & Fisk) from 1882 to 1884 and then joined Franklin Long in partnership, then practiced on his own after the firm dissolved in 1897 until 1899, when he formed a partnership with Serenus Colburn (Kees & Colburn) until 1925, and for almost two years afterward, was a partner of H. G. Bowstead (Kees & Bowstead,) and died in Minneapolis. Frederick Kees designed the Minneapolis City Hall and the Minneapolis public library. Kees and Colburn, architects, designed 2540 Park Avenue South, the Charles M. Harrington and Grace Harrington House/Zuhrah Shrine Center, built in 1906. Kees also pursued various business interests and was President of the Western Architectural Publishing Company and Auto Gas Regulating Company. Kees and Colborn also designed well known buildings in Minneapolis, including the Advance Thresher Building (1900,) the Emerson Newton Plow Company (1904,) the Pittsburg Plate Glass Company (1910,) the Deere Webber Company at 800 Washington Avenue North (1902), the Stearn Building at 327 First Avenue North (1904,) the Minneapolis Ford Plant at 420 Fifth Street North (1913,) and the Wyman Partridge & Company building at 110 Fifth Street North (1916.)

Keiffer Brothers, architects, designed 640-644 Grand Avenue, St. Paul Plumbing & Heating, built in 1927.

W. A. Keller, architect, designed 870 West Osceola Avenue, the F. C. Rogers House, built in 1905, Georgian Revival in style.

Ernest J. Kennedy (1864-1938) was born in Mankato, Minnesota, and moved to Minneapolis at age 10, attended the University of Minnesota in 1888, but did not graduate, later attended the Sorbonne in Paris and the Berlin and Munich Polytechnics, returned to Minneapolis and had set up his own architectural practice by 1897, specializing in the design of mansions and residences in Minneapolis and the vicinity of Lake Minnetonka area. Among his residential clients were Alfred Pillsbury, Gilbert and Archie Walker, Francis Janney, Rufus Rand, J. B. Gilfillan, and F. M. Crosby. He was also responsible for the design of numerous commercial structures in the area, including the Essex Building (1911) in downtown Minneapolis in which Kennedy had his office for many years. His 40-year practice was succeeded by Hiram H. Livingston. Ernest Kennedy also designed Shevlin Hall at the University of Minnesota in 1906. Ernest Kennedy was an architect who practiced at 722 Boston Block and resided at 229 Fifth Avenue SE according to the 1909 city directory. Kennedy designed 116 East 22nd Street, the Alfred F. Pillsbury House, built in 1903, English Tudor Gothic in style, and 2115 Stevens Avenue South, the Edward Chenery Gale House/Minneapolis Branch of the American Association Of University Women Building, built in 1912, Italian Renaissance Revival in style.

__?__ Kinasley, architect, designed 667 Goodrich Avenue, the J. L. Donahower House/O. F. Sherman House, built in 1897, Queen Anne in style.

Wesley Eugene King (1879-1959) was born in Monticello, Minnesota, and graduated from the Anoka High School in 1897, received his civil engineering degree from the University of Minnesota in 1905, and worked in the Bridge Department of the Great Northern Railway from 1908 to 1910, when he became a partner of Max Toltz. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.]

__?__ Kinesley, architect, designed 711 West Lincoln Avenue, the Henricks/Allen House, built in 1889; Georgian Revival in style.

William Kingsley, architect, designed 793 Fairmount Avenue, the Asa G. Briggs House, built in 1896, Georgian Revival in style.

E. F. Klinkerfues, architect and builder, designed 1605 Summit Avenue, the Samuel A. Anderson House, built in 1905, Tudor Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style.

August Knight, renovation architect, designed the renovation of 307 Walnut Street, the John Matheis House, built in 1853, Greek Revival in style with Italianate style additions.

Adolf Koerner, architect, designed 703 West Lincoln Avenue, the C. E. Howland House, built in 1901, Queen Anne in style, and 1617 Summit Avenue, the W. S. Gilliam/Mrs. May/Mary Mather Gilliam House, built in 1906, Simplified Rectilinear in style.

Krapp & Holm, architects and builders, designed 94 Crocus Place, the C. H. Biorn House, built in 1891, Georgian Revival in style.

Hermann Kretz (1860-1931) was the architect for and also lived at 579 Summit Avenue and at 768 Summit Avenue in 1907. Kretz, the son of John Kretz and Margaret Marre Kretz, was born in Essen, Germany, was educated at the University of Essen and the Technical School at Holzminden, Lower Saxony, Brunswick, Germany, went to work for his uncle as an architect in 1879, traveled in Europe from 1879 until 1880, emigrated to the United States in 1879 or 1880, worked in New York City, Chicago, Winnipeg, and various other western cities, settled in St. Paul in 1886 or 1887, married Helena Botzet/Helen B. Botzed in 1894 or 1895, and officed at the New York Life Building in 1907. In addition to designing residences and apartment buildings on Summit Avenue, he designed the Commerce Building in downtown St. Paul (1912) and was the architect for several St. Paul public school buildings. Herman Kretz and Helena Botzet Kretz were the parents of one daughter, Helen Kretz. In 1912, Kretz resided at 728 Summit Avenue. Hermann Kretz designed 579 Summit Avenue, The Colonial Apartments, built in 1895, Colonial Classial Revival in style, 234-238 Bates Avenue, Euclid View Apartments, built in 1894, Queen Anne/Romanesque/Romanesque Revival with Queen Anne details in style, 752 Goodrich Avenue, the E. A. Boggs House, built in 1884, Queen Anne in style, 674 Lincoln Avenue, the Peter Bendxon House, built in 1882, Classical Revival in style, 24 South St. Albans Street, the St. Albans Apartments, built in 1901, Italian Renaissance/Classical Revival apartment building in style, 672-676 Summit Avenue, The Waldorf Apartments, built in 1898, Classical Revival/Colonial Revival in style, 682 Summit Avenue, the Joseph Lockey House, built in 1893, Romanesque in style, 684 Summit Avenue, built in 1893, Richardsonian Romanesque in style, 768 Summit Avenue, the Hermann Kretz and Helen Kretz House, built in 1900, Queen Anne/Victorian in style, and 846 Summit Avenue, the Jacob Westheimer House, built in 1898, mildly Queen Anne in style.

John LaFarge (1835-1910,) the son of John Frederick de LaFarge, a French naval officer, and Louise Josephine Binsse (de St. Victor,) attended college at Mount St. Mary's and Fordham University, was the student of Thomas Couture (1815-1879) and William Morris Hunt, married Margaret Mason Perry, was a painter and muralist who, in 1906, executed four great lunettes representing the history of religion for the Minnesota State Capitol. Lafarge also designed the decoration of Trinity Church in Boston and painted the mural for the chancel of the Church of the Assumption in New York City. Lafarge was the greatest innovator in the history of modern stained glass when, in 1879, he discovered and patented the techniques for making opalescent glass in the kiln fired stained glass fusion of small bits of glass in order to create stained glass images which previously had to be painted with metal oxides. Lafarge won the Cross of the Legion of Honour from France, was a member of the principal artistic societies of America, and was the president of the Society of Mural Painters.

Richard Laffin is a St. Paul registered residential architect, is a member of the board of directors of the American Institute of Architects-St. Paul Chapter, worked on the Minnesota Vietnam Veterans Memorial, and is a parishioner at St. Clements Episcopal Church, a Heritage Preservation award winner, where he has worked on numerous projects.

Louis A. Lamoreaux was born in Lansing, Minnesota, moved to Minneapolis in 1868, graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1887, worked for Cass Gilbert in St. Paul until becoming a partner of James McLeod in Minneapolis from 1897 to 1899, joined Long & Long, and became a full partner about 1900. Lamoreaux died of pneumonia in Minneapolis following surgery.

Thomas D. Lane, architect and builder, designed 1415 Summit Avenue, the Charles B. Gedney House, built in 1918, Bungalow in style.

William Larsen, architect, designed 1365 Summit Avenue, the William Filben House, built in 1927, Tudor Villa in style.

George Laurent, architect, designed 787 West Osceola Avenue, the John A. Swain House, built in 1888, Victorian in style.

C. A. Lee Co., architects, designed 1926 Summit Avenue, the Carolyn Dohs House, built in 1925, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Jacob (Jack) J. Liebenberg (1893-1985) was born to Jewish immigrant parents in Milwaukee and was educated (cum laude) at the University of Minnesota, in the first graduating class from its School of Architecture in 1916. In 1916, he was granted a Master of Science in Architecture from Harvard, where he won the Prix de Rome, though World War I prevented him from collecting his award in Italy. After service in the U.S. Army Air Corps, he returned to Minneapolis and entered the firm of D.C. Bennett. In 1921, Liebenberg joined former classmate Seeman Kaplan in partnership and remained in the firm until his retirement in 1980. For several years up to 1971, the partnership also included Joel Glotter. Liebenberg died in Edina, Minnesota. Liebenberg and Kaplan, architects, designed 1923 Summit Avenue, the E. A. Jackson House, built in 1926, Tudor Villa in style. Liebenberg, Kaplan, & Martin, architects, designed 2388 West Lake of the Isles Parkway, Built in 1922.

Ben Lindahl, architect, designed 1902 Summit Avenue, the P. J. McGuire House, built in 1928, Twenties Villa in style.

William M. Lindau, architect, designed 1393 Summit Avenue, the J. M. Gaffney House, built in 1923, Twenties Villa in style.

Gus Lindgren, architect, designed 1153 Summit Avenue, the D. J. Hertz House, built in 1925, Twenties Villa in style.

Lindstrom-Anderson, architects, designed 2056 Summit Avenue, the Nathan Coddon House, built in 1924, Spanish Colonial in style.

Peter J. Linhoff (1877-1954) was born in Shakopee, Minnesota, moved to St. Paul in about 1903 and practiced there until 1940. During his architectural practice, Linhoff designed many fine residences in the Crocus Hill area of St. Paul. Linhoff was in practice alone with the exception of a brief partnership with Louis Lockwood in 1908. Linhoff died in St. Paul. Peter J. Linhoff, architect, designed 859 West Linwood Avenue, the Henry Schade House, built in 1912, Colonial Revival in style, 719 West Linwood Avenue, the Dr. Francis Savage, Jr., and Rachel Savage House, built in 1915, Georgian Revival in style, 964 Portland Avenue, the Anna Busch House, built in 1908, Craftsman in style, 683 Goodrich Avenue, the H. P. Bend House, built in 1904, Georgian Revival in style, 693 Goodrich Avenue, the Robert Waddell Residence, built in 1915, 568 Grand Avenue, built in 1908, Tudor Revival in style, 706 West Lincoln Avenue, the Dr. Henry T. Nippert House, built in 1907, Classical Revival in style, 710 West Lincoln Avenue, the W. H. Egan House, built in 1891, Classical Revival in style, 916 West Lincoln Avenue, the H. N. Malley House, built in 1888, Georgian Revival in style, 361 Summit Avenue, the Donald S. Culver House, built in 1912, Elizabethan/Tudor Revival in style, 942 Summit Avenue, built in 1908, Georgian Revival/Colonial Revival in style, 977 Summit Avenue, the Louis Silverstein House, built in 1910, Federal Revival/Spanish Colonial Revival in style, 1027 Summit Avenue, the Hopewell Clarke House, built in 1913, Georgian Revival/Mildly Prairie Style in style, 1978 Summit Avenue, the George T. Withy House, built in 1913, Tudor Villa in style, 1858 Summit Avenue, the Ben Weed House, built in 1912, Georgian Revival in style, 1732 Summit Avenue, the R. H. Gerig House, built in 1909, Craftsman Bungalow/Simplified Rectilinear in style, 1576 Summit Avenue, the Hugo Hurschman House/Macalester College International Center; Built in 1914, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa/Maison Francaise in style, 1559 Summit Avenue, the Celia Friedman House; Built in 1920, Early Modern Rectilinear in style, 1516 Summit Avenue, the Walter F. Lindeke House, built in 1908, Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, 1428 Summit Avenue, the L. F. Cronhardt House, built in 1919, Early Modern Georgian Revival in style, 1425 Summit Avenue, the Dr. F. M. Owens House, built in 1913, Georgian Revival in style, 1400 Summit Avenue, the George Bookstover House, built in 1913, Tudor Villa in style, 1180 Summit Avenue, the George F. van Slyke and Emmalynn van Slyke House, built 1909, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style, 1157 Summit Avenue, the Dr. D. C. Walde House, built in 1924, Tudor Villa in style, 1142 Summit Avenue, the Charles A. Roach House, built in 1912, Colonial/Georgian Revival in style, and 1106 Summit Avenue, the Minnie F. Lennon House, built in 1911, Tudor Villa in style.

Linhoff-Ziegler, architects, designed 1335 Summit Avenue, the Vernon O'Connor/Walter Butler House, Built in 1920, Georgian Revival in style.

J. W. Lindstrom, architect, designed 1760 Summit Avenue, the Philip Weiss/Mrs. Mae Weiss Fox House, built in 1922, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Lindstrom-Anderson, architects, designed 1750 Summit Avenue, the L. D. Coddon House, built in 1924, Twenties Villa in style.

E. Darwin (Electus D.) Litchfield was the son of William Litchfield and the grandson of Electus B. Litchfield and was an architect. Yorkship Village, New Jersey, which became Fairview, New Jersey, was designed by Electus Darwin Litchfield, who was influenced by the "garden city" developments that were popular in England in the late Nineteenth Century. The village was a World War I-era planned community of American Federal style homes built for shipyard workers by the federal government and is still one of Camden's last viable neighborhoods. The federal government created Fairview in 1917 to house workers of the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, which churned out ships for World War I. Originally called Yorkship Village, it was carved from farmland along Newton Creek near the shipyard. But, like 54 other such wartime neighborhoods nationwide, it was designed to be more than a barrackslike compound. E. Darwin Litchfield gave the community a central village square from which stretch narrow winding residential streets and broad green commercial boulevards like spokes on a wheel, lined the streets with trees and row houses, duplexes, and detached homes made of red brick and porches and small front and back yards.

Louis F. Lockwood (1866- ,) the son of Francis Day Lockwood and Morthlock Sturges Lockwood/Louisa Sturges Lockwood, was born in London, England, studied briefly at King's College, London, was educated at the South Kensington schools, London, England, graduated from King's College, Cambridge, in 1884, studied in an architect's office in London, England, from 1884 until 1888, served a two-year apprenticeship with an architect in London, moved to Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in 1887, came to the United States in 1889, settled in Portland, Oregon, practiced as an architect in the Pacific Northwest for several years, then moved to St. Paul in 1888 or 1892, married Elizabeth Taylor in 1906, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the Empire Club, resided at the Moore Building in 1906, resided at 530 Ashland Avenue in 1907, and officed at the National German American Bank Building in 1906 and 1907. Lockwood gained a reputation as a residential architect, designed dozens of homes in the Cathedral Hill and Merriam Park neighborhoods, and completed a handful of commercial commissions. In addition to designing the Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Company building, the Nicols, Dean & Gregg building, the Lindeke, Warner & Sons building, and the St. Paul First National Bank building, Louis Lockwood, architect, designed 768 West Osceola Avenue, the J. B. Johnson House/Frank E. Hitchcox House, built in 1888, Colonial Revival/Tudor Revival in style, 752 West Osceola Avenue, the F. A. Nienhauser House, built in 1899, Georgian Revival in style, 956 Portland Avenue, the A. C. Thomson House, built in 1901, Colonial Revival in style, 46 Crocus Place, the Dr. H. P. Ritchie House, built in 1885, Tudor Revival in style, 99 Crocus Place, the L. T. Jones House, built in 1906, Colonial Revival in style, 677 Fairmount Avenue, the R. C. Helbert House, built in 1892, Colonial Revival in style, 737 Fairmount Avenue, the L. C. Bacon House; Built in 1892, Georgian Revival in style, 760 Fairmount Avenue, the M. C. Woodruff House, built in 1888, Queen Anne in style, 784 Fairmount Avenue, the J. E. Ricketts House, built in 1896, Georgian Revival in style, 808 Fairmount Avenue, the Shea/Skaret House, built in 1910, Georgian Revival in style, 812 Fairmount Avenue, the L. N. Dion House, built in 1905, Colonial Revival in style, 832 Fairmount Avenue, built in 1910, Queen Anne in style, 641 Goodrich Avenue, built in 1885, Queen Anne in style, 642 Goodrich Avenue, the J. E. Markham House, built in 1899, Georgian Revival in style, 645 Goodrich Avenue, the Kirk Driscoll House, built in 1882, Georgian Revival in style, 691 Goodrich Avenue, the Mrs. E. S. Greer House, built in 1907, Georgian Revival in style, 702 Goodrich Avenue, the M. J. O'Neil House, built in 1885, Colonial Revival in style, 719 Goodrich Avenue, the Frank Van Duyne House, built in 1902, Georgian Revival in style, 737 Goodrich Avenue, the R. R. Edwards House, built in 1899, Queen Anne in style, 797 Goodrich Avenue, the Allan Black House, built in 1897, Georgian Revival in style, 825 Goodrich Avenue, the C. A. Bettigen House/John Weyerhaeuser House, built in 1888, Colonial Revival in style, 872 Goodrich Avenue, the T. J. McCarty House, built in 1894, Georgian Revival in style, 885 Goodrich Avenue, the Mrs. R. B. Galusha House, built in 1893, Georgian Revival in style, 607 Grand Avenue, the William Langford and Elizabeth Langford House, built in 1901, Colonial Revival in style, 627 Grand Avenue, The Ivy League Condominiums/Former Yale Apartments, built in 1919, Colonial Revival in style, 657 Grand Avenue, the Kirkland Apartments, built in 1905, Colonial Revival in style, 615-619 West Lincoln Avenue, the G. N. Hillman House, built in 1889, Queen Anne in style, 758 West Lincoln Avenue, the H. B. Fuller House, built in 1901, Classical Revival in style, 815 Lincoln Avenue, the H. J. Richardson House, built in 1911, Classical Revival in style, 829 West Lincoln Avenue, the O. L. Perfect House, built in 1897, Classical Revival in style, 917 West Lincoln Avenue, the Mrs. John Bell House, built in 1905, Classical Revival in style, 951 West Lincoln Avenue, the C. P. Nienhauser House, built in 1888, Colonial Revival in style, 961 West Lincoln Avenue, the Mrs. G. H. Williams House, built in 1906, Georgian Revival in style, 1036 West Lincoln Avenue, the Merryman/Hughes House, built in 1880, Classical Revival in style, 768 West Osceola Avenue, the Frank E. Hitchcox House, built in 1902, Colonial Revival/Tudor Revival in style, 62 South St. Albans Street, the Olympia Apartments, built in 1903, Classical Revival/Colonial Revival in style, 726 Summit Avenue, 726 Summit Avenue, built in 1903, Queen Anne/Victorian in style, 786 Summit Avenue, the Ella A. Sanders House/Mrs. J. H. Saunders House, built in 1909, Georgian Revival/Colonial Revival in style, 842 Summit Avenue, the Charles Straus House, built in 1898, Queen Anne/Tudor Revival/Victorian in style, 965 Summit Avenue, the George H. Prince House, built in 1901, Georgian Revival in style, 966 Summit Avenue, the A. Slimmer House, built in 1902, Georgian Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, 1009 Summit Avenue, the William Bannon House, built in 1901, Queen Anne/Tudor Revival/Victorian in style, 1034-1038 Summit Avenue, the William W. O'Brien House, built in 1900, Jacobethan/Tudor Revival in style, 1726 Summit Avenue, the P. W. Connell/Mrs. Francis J. Connell House, built in 1906, Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, 1515 Summit Avenue, the Arthur W. Wallace House, built in 1906, Classical Revival/Colonial Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, 1446 Summit Avenue, the Charles F. Diether House, built in 1906, Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, 1411 Summit Avenue, the John A. Swenson House, built in 1900, Simplified Rectilinear in style, 1410 Summit Avenue, the William David Stewart House, built in 1907, Tudor Villa in style, 1382 Summit Avenue, the Clarence H. Slocum House, built in 1899, Colonial Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, 1381 Summit Avenue, the Mrs. B. Knuppe House, built in 1899, Simplified Rectilinear in style, 1364 Summit Avenue, the F. J. Errett House, built in 1899, Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, 1135 Summit Avenue, the Thomas D. McLaughlin House, built in 1905, Colonial Revival/Prairie Style/Eclectic Rectilinear in style, 1118 Summit Avenue, the Dr. Knox Bacon House, built in 1902, Colonial Revival/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, and 109-119 Isabel Street East, The Isabel/Isabel Flats, built in 1910.

Franklin B. Long was born in Afton, New York, left New York in 1859, was a carpenter and builder in Chicago and Woodstock, Illinois, was a draftsman for J. C. Cochrane, architect, in 1867, became a partner in the Ackerman architectural firm in Chicago, then moved to Minneapolis about 1868. He was in private practice until 1874, when he briefly associated with Robert Alden and then joined Charles F. Haglin in partnership in 1875. After the firm dissolved in 1876, Franklin Long worked for the Milwaukee RailRoad from 1877 to 1881, returned to private architectural practice in 1881 to 1884, and was a partner of Frederick Kees from 1884 to 1897. Long & Kees designed and built many of the largest buildings in Minneapolis in the 1880's and 1890's, including the old Public Library (1884,) the Masonic Temple (1888,) the Lumber Exchange building (1888-1890,) the Flour Exchange building (1893-1897,) the Kasota Block (1884,) and many warehouses, churches, and private residences. After Kees left the partnership in 1897, Long joined his son, Louis Long, and Lowell Lamoreaux in a partnership that lasted until Frederick Long's death.

Louis L. Long was born in Minneapolis, was educated in the Minneapolis public schools, received a degree by examination at the University of Minnesota in 1894, entered his father's firm around 1895, and became a partner in 1898. He practiced until his death on a train near El Centro, California, while returning from a vacation trip. Louis Long, architect, designed 2424 Lake Place, the Leslie House, built in 1914, Prairie School in style. Louis Long was from a long line of Minneapolis architects and was the son of F. B. Long of the firm Long & Kees, which designed the Minneapolis City Hall. Long, Lamoreaux, & Long consisted of Franklin Bidwell Long (1842-1912,) Lowell A. Lamoreaux (1861-1922,) and Louis L. Long (1870-1925) and ultimately became Cerny Associates.

Edwin Hugh Lundie (1886-1972) was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the son of Samuel Lundie and Emma Lenore Hitchcock Lundie, attended grade school in Cedar Rapids from 1892 to 1899 and continued his education in Salem, South Dakota. In 1904, Lundie came to St. Paul, where he was a stock clerk for Farwell, Ozmun Kirk, was a draftsman for Louis Lockwood, and entered the firm of Gilbert & Holyoke as an unpaid apprentice. After Gilbert moved to New York in 1906, Lundie remained in Thomas Holyoke's employ until 1911, when he joined the office staff of Emmanuel Masqueray as a draftsman. While working for Masqueray, Lundie also attended his employer's atelier (1911-1914) and was active in the Gargoyle Club, a local training and social organization of architects. Following Masqueray's death in 1917, Lundie formed a partnership with Fred Slifer (1885-1948) and Frank Abrahamson (1883-1972), two other draftsmen in the firm, to close out the unfinished commissions then in the office. By 1919, these commissions had been completed and the partnership was amicably dissolved. Lundie opened his own office and from 1919 until his death, Lundie maintained an office in Cass Gilbert's Endicott Building in St. Paul and specialized in prestigious residences for many of the city's wealthy citizens. Lundie also designed the Cochran Park on Summit Avenue. Edwin Lundie married Grace Halroyd Nash Lundie (1891- ) in 1917 and the couple had one child, Ellen Lundie (1920- ). Lundie died in Fargo, North Dakota. Edwin Lundie was the restoration architect for 432 Summit Avenue, the James C. Burbank House, built in 1862-1863, Italian Villa/Italianate villa/Tuscan/American Bracketed in style.

Lundstrom & Anderson, architects and builders, designed 1165 Summit Avenue, the Fred M. Fogg House, built in 1927, Colonial Revival/Georgian Revival in style.

__?__ MacCarthy and __?__ Doherty, architects, designed 376 Bates Avenue, the John Pfister House, built in 1887, Queen Anne in style.

MacDonald and Mack, restoration architects, redesigned 2625 Newton Avenue South, the Dr. Oscar Owre House/Elwood H. Newhart Residence, built in 1911-1912, Prairie School in style.

John MacDonald, architect and builder, designed 513 Summit Avenue, the W. W. Bishop House, built in 1891, Queen Anne in style, and 513 Summit Avenue: W. W. Bishop House, built in 1891, Queen Anne in style.

James A. MacLeod, architect, designed 485 Summit Avenue, the James A. MacLeod House, built in 1907, Villa/Tudor Revival in style.

Gottlieb Magney (1884- ) and Wilbur H. Tusler (1891-1985) formed a partnership in 1917 which produced one of Minneapolis's most famous buildings, the Foshay Tower (1929,) which was the City's tallest building until 1972. They also designed the Minneapolis Post Office (1931-1933,) several Minneapolis hospitals, and the S.T. McKnight Company building at 615 Third Street North (1925) in the Minneapolis Warehouse District.

H. M. Malloy, architect, designed 770 Fairmount Avenue, the A. W. Trenholm House, built in 1900, Georgian Revival in style.

Frederick Mann (1868-1959) was born in New York, moved to Minneapolis, graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1892 with a degree in civil engineering, earned a bachelors degree in architecture from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1894 and a master's degree in architecture in 1895, was an instructor at the University of Pennsylvania from 1896 to 1901, founded the architecture school at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, served as Professor of Architecture at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, from 1902 to 1910, was the head of the Department of Architecture at the University of Illinois from 1910 until 1913, founded the University of Minnesota School of Architecture in 1913, was a member of the Minneapolis Planning Commission from 1927 to 1936, was a fellow of the American Institute of Architects, was a member of the American Civil Engineering Association, was a member of the National Economic League, was a member of the Minneapolis Engineers Club, was a founder of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, was a founder of the Small House Bureau, received the first award for achievement offered by the Minnesota society of the American Institute of Architects, received the first two medals offered by the Beaux Arts Architects, received an American Institute of Architects gold medal in a 1920's national competition for the best dwelling in the $75,000 class, was the chief designer for the architecture firm of McEnary & Krafft between 1914 and 1925, and designed the University Methodist Church in Austin, Texas (1907,) the University YMCA in Austin, Texas (1910,) the University YMCA in Minneapolis (1922,) the University of Minnesota Memorial Stadium (1924,) the St. Louis Public Library, the St. Louis Masonic Temple, the Church of St. John the Evangelist in Philadelphia, the Kappa Kappa Gamma Sorority at 329 10th Avenue Southeast (1915,) the Delta Tau Delta Fraternity at 1717 University Avenue Southeast (1921,) the Alpha Rho Chi Fraternity at 315 19th Avenue Southeast (1926,) the Arthur D. Hirschfelder House at 2364 West Lake of the Isles Parkway (1916,) the Dr. Louis A Nippert House at 2280 West Lake of the Isles Parkway (1922,) the C.F. Haglin House at 1120 Mount Curve Avenue (1923,) the Dr. Charles A. Reed House at 1418 Mount Curve Avenue (1923,) the George W. Parker House at 4247 Linden Hills Boulevard (1924,) and the J. K. Shaw House at 4861 East Lake Harriet Parkway (1926.)

Benjamin Harry Marshall (1874-1944), the son of a wealthy miller, graduated from an elite South Side Chicago prep school, the Harvard School in Kenwood, and entered architecture as a clerk in the firm of Marble (Oliver W. Marble) & Wilson (Horatio R. Wilson (1857-1917)). When Marble died, Marshall became Wilson's partner. In 1902, following an extended European trip, Marshall established his own practice. Marshall differed from many of his now more famous avant garde contemporaries in that he did not attempt to break with the past but instead attempted to draw the past into the present. He wanted to create buildings that were not just striking on their own, but which worked in harmony with the buildings that surrounded them. He designed the Mayslake Peabody Mansion in Dupage County, Illinois, and the Drake Hotel in Chicago. Charles Eli Fox (1870-1926) attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was associated with the firms of Holabird & Roche, 1891-1905, and then Marshall and Fox, 1905-24. He became a member of the American Institute of Architects in 1915 and was a member of the Illinois Society of Architects. He designed the Blackstone Hotel, the Drake Hotel, the Edgewater Beach Hotel, the Sheridan Trust and Savings Bank Building, and the Lake Shore Trust and Savings Bank Building in Chicago, the Schaff Building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Building in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In the 1930's, Lewis B. Walton, Marshall's chief architect, took over the firm. Successor firms were Walton & Kegley (1935-1950) and Walton & Walton (1950-1969). Benjamin H. Marshall and Charles E. Fox, architects, designed 421 Summit Avenue, the E.T. Buxton House/Edward T. Buxton House, built in 1912, NeoClassical/Beaux Arts/Italianate/Renaissance Revival in style.

Robert C. Martin, architect, designed 1831 Summit Avenue, the William W. Kennedy House, built in 1928, Spanish Colonial in style.

A. Mashek, architect, designed 869 West Osceola Avenue, built in 1895, Georgian Revival in style.

Emmanuel Masqueray (1861-1917) was born in France and trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1879 to 1884. He immigrated to New York in 1887. His professional achievements there led to his appointment as chief of design for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition held in St. Louis in 1904. Masqueray was encouraged by St. Paul Archbishop John Ireland to settle in St. Paul and he did so in 1905. He also designed the Basilica of Mary in Minneapolis. His first church in the Twin Cities was the St. Louis, King of France, Church, on Tenth and Cedar, St. Paul. In total, he designed about two dozen parish churches for Catholic and Protestant congregations in the Upper Midwest, as well as three more cathedrals (in Sioux City, Iowa, Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Wichita, Kansas.) He was a bachelor. He is buried in Calvary Cemetery. He also erected various cathedrals and the Long Island College Hospital in Brooklyn. He was a member of the Players' Club and the Architectural League of New York as well as a charter member of the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects. Emmanuel Masqueray, architect, designed 427 Portland Avenue, built in 1915, Georgian in style, 225 Summit Avenue, the Cathedral of the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis, built between 1906 and 1915, Renaissance/Italian Mannerist/Baroque in style, and 1524 Summit Avenue, the St. Paul's Church on the Hill (Episcopal)/El Santo Nino Spanish Episcopal Mission, church built in 1913 and additional buildings built in 1922 and 1952, English Gothic Revival church in style.

Ralph Mather, architect, designed 1855 Summit Avenue, the Ben M. Hirschman House, built in 1916, Classical Revival/Mission/Classical Rectilinear in style, and 1770 Summit Avenue, the George S. MacLeod House, built in 1915, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Mather & Fleischbein, architects, designed 2265 Summit Avenue, the George W. Robinson House, built in 1922, Georgian Revival in style, 2233 Summit Avenue, the E. J. Kingston House, built in 1923, Early Modern Georgian Revival in style, 2225 Summit Avenue, the J. W. Gover House, built in 1923, Tudor Villa in style, and 1959 Summit Avenue, the George K. Gann House, built in 1924, Tudor Villa in style.

McGinnnis & Walsh of Boston, architects, designed 2115 Summit Avenue, the University of St. Thomas/Aquinas Hall, constructed in 1931, Gothic Revival in style.

John McGuire, architect, designed 759 Fairmount Avenue, the F. W. Bagley House, built in 1890, Colonial Revival in style.

Malcolm McKay, architect and builder, designed 1373 Summit Avenue, the James B. Gribben/Thomas E. Yerxa House, built in 1890, Colonial Revival/Georgian Rectilinear in style.

Charles Follen McKim (b. Pennsylvania, 1847, d. St. James, New York, 1909) studied for a year at the Harvard Lawrence Scientific School. During the summer of 1867, he worked in the office of Russell Sturgis, New York. He then spent three years at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, with periods of travel in France and England. Spurning current Parisian architectural fashions, McKim learned the value of comprehensive planning, the power of the integrated details, and the importance of symbolism. He returned to the United States in 1870 and entered the office of Henry Hobson Richardson in New York, where he began to obtain his own commissions. McKim sought clear geometries and order in his architecture. In his earlier Shingle style houses, he adopted many elements derived from the close study of American colonial architecture both in material and detail, from Japanese architecture, and from the slate-covered medieval buildings in rural France. With his partners in McKim, Mead, & White, he eventually adopted classical ideas of planning and symbolism to meet the needs of both residential and civic architecture. McKim's ardent idealism and adherence to universal principles were shaped by the example of his father, a leading activist and fundraiser for the abolitionist cause. McKim designed 2400 Third Avenue South, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, built between 1911 and 1914; originally Neoclassic/Beaux Arts in style, with addition Contemporary in style.

W. T. McLaughlin, architect, designed 682 Fairmount Avenue, the Moreland/Dawson House; Built in 1893, Shingle in style.

James A. MacLeod, original architect, designed 485 Summit Avenue, the James A. MacLeod House, built in 1907, Villa/Tudor Revival in style.

McAnulty Company, architects, designed 1042 Summit Avenue, the John McAnulty House, built in 1920; Bungalow in style, 1046 Summit Avenue, the Platt B. Walker House, built in 1920; Tudor Villa in style, 2150 Summit Avenue, the McAnulty Company House of the University of St. Thomas, built in 1918, Bungalow in style, and 1186 Summit Avenue, built in 1916; Dutch Colonial in style..

McMonigal Architects, LLC are located at 1224 Marshall Street NE.

William Rutherford Mead (b, Vermont, 1846, d. Paris, France, 1928) began the study of architecture in New York in 1868 and continued his studies in Florence, Italy. Upon his return to New York, he became professionally associated with Charles F. McKim. In 1913, the Academy of Arts and Letters awarded him its gold medal, an honor conferred for the first time upon an architect. Mead was the realist of the firm, serving as in-house engineer. White was the firebrand, eager to break precedent, to use new materials, to experiment with building form.

Eric Mendelsohn (1887-1953) was born in Allenstein, East Prussia, to a Jewish family. After graduating from architectural schools in Berlin and Munich, he served in the First World War. In 1919, he established an architectural practice in Berlin, where he became part of the Novembergruppe. He travelled to Holland and to the United States in 1924, and visited Russia in 1925. From 1933, he was based in Britain, where he designed the de la Warr Pavilion in Bexhill (1933-1935) and, in 1941, he moved to America, working in San Francisco. He also worked in Israel. His work used modernist materials, such as reinforced concrete and glass, but avoided the rectilinear qualities of the International Style, in favor of curves and fluid lines. His most famous work, the Schocken Department Store, in Stuttgart (1926,) had a horizontal emphasis created by its façade of strip windows and alternation of concrete and glass. He is regarded as a primary exponent of Expressionism in architecture. Mendelsohn was one of the formulators of the basic principles of modern architecture in Germany after World War I. He was one of the most widely imitated and prolific modernists. He designed his first American commission, in 1946, in St. Louis, Missouri. Mendelsohn designed a series of synagogues exploring his views about the intersection of church designs/typologies and the Jewish faith. Eric Mendelsohn, original architect, designed 1300 Summit Avenue, the Mount Zion Temple, built in 1951 and altered in 1967, International/ Contemporary in stylewith Bentz/Thompson/Rietow, renovation master architect.

Two of the Henry A. Merrill and Mabel E. Merrill sons became architects, John O. Merrill (1896-1975) and Edward A. Merrill, with John O. Merrill being one of the founders of architectural firm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (Louis Skidmore (1897-1962,) Nathaniel Owings (1903-1984,) and John O. Merrill.) Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings formed a partnership in Chicago in 1936, in 1937, Skidmore opened an office in New York, and in 1939, the partnership added a third member, John O. Merrill. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill is a leading architectural firm, with designs including the 109 story Sears Tower in Chicago, the U. S. Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado, the 100 story John Hancock Tower in Chicago, and the Bank of America World Headquarters building in San Francisco.

Joseph G. Metzler, AIA, CID, is a Principal with SALA Architects, Inc., grew up in a home of custom carpenters, received a Bachelors of Architecture degree from the University of Minnesota in 1980, joined Mulfinger & Susanka Architects in 1990, became a partner in Mulfinger & Susanka Architects in 1995, was a member of the Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission from 1995 to 2001, is a registered architect in Minnesota and Wisconsin, and is NCARB certified.

Joseph Michaels, architect, designed 360 Summit Avenue, the Former Cutler House Carriage Barn, built in 1915 with a 1969 conversion by Walter Fricke of an 1875 carriage barn.

Denslow W. Millard was a partner with Charles E. Joy in the architectural firm of Millard & Joy, located at the Lumber Exchange Building in 1891. Denslow W. Millard, architect, designed 847 West Lincoln Avenue, the Lott/Johnston House, built in 1890, Queen Anne in style and 422 Laurel Avenue. D. W. Millard & Son also was the architect for the building at 212 East Seventh Street in St. Paul, for the former Alpha Hall at Arizona State University, built in 1901, and for the Hotel St. Michael in Prescott, Arizona, built in 1900. Martha Millard (1842-1909) was the wife of D. W. Millard, was born near Lake Keuka, New York, married in Michigan, and died near Phoenix, Arizona. Millard & Joy, architects, designed 467 Holly Avenue, the C. H. Clark House, built in 1906, Colonial Revival in style. D. W. Millard designed 478 Holly Avenue, the C. C. DeCoster House, built in 1889, Queen Anne in style. Millard & Joy, architects, designed 601 Goodrich Avenue, the E. A. Cammack House, built in 1891, Queen Anne in style.

Louis Millet, of Chicago, designed windows for the St. Paul Cathedral chapels of the Blessed Virgin, St. Peter, and St. Joseph between 1917 and 1920. Millet also designed the windows for the Owatonna, Minnesota, National Farmer's Bank, designed by Louis Sullivan and George Elmslie.

A. W. Millunchick, architect, designed 975 West Lincoln Avenue, the A. W. Millunchick House, built in 1923, Prairie School in style.

Charles Town Mould (1854-1917) was born in Utica, New York, graduated from Cornell University in 1877, moved to St. Paul, until 1892, then moved to Pottsville, Pennsylvania, where he designed several notable buildings (the Hummel building, the Sheafer office building, the Arthur Sheafer home, and Edward Luther's residence) and where he died after intestinal surgery. Charles T. Mould was an architect located at the Mannheimer Building according to the 1885 city directory and was a partner with Robert McNicol in Mould & McNicol, located at the Drake Block, according to the 1891 city directory. Charles T. Mould was an architect who was located at the Mannheimer Building and resided at 162 Virginia Avenue in 1885. Charles T. Mould designed 472 Laurel Avenue, the Kolff/Dabrey House, built in 1880, a Stick in style structure. Mould & McNicol, architects, designed 523 Portland Avenue, the Howard/Ordway House, built in 1913, Queen Anne in style, 712 West Osceola Avenue, the Lettau/Michaud House, built in 1888 and altered in the 1930's, Queen Anne/Victorian in style, and 669 Summit Avenue, the Dr. J. C. Schadle House; built in 1894, Queen Anne in style. Charles T. Mould designed 529 Portland Avenue, the O. L. Taylor House, built in 1901, Queen Anne in style. Mould & McNicol, architects, designed 523 Portland Avenue, the Howard/Ordway House, built in 1913, Queen Anne in style, 877 Goodrich Avenue, the M. B. Gerry House, built in 1874, 475 Grand Hill, the A. G. Rice House, built in 1886, Shingle in style, 38 Kenwood Parkway, the George C. Powers House, built in 1905, Queen Anne in style, 712 West Osceola Avenue, the Lettau/Michaud House, built in 1888 and altered in the 1930's, Victorian in style, 265 Summit Avenue, the John S. Robertson House/A. R. Dalrymple House, built in 1885, Queen Anne in style, and 302 Summit Avenue, the Joseph L. Forepaugh House, built in 1889, Queen Anne/Victorian in style.

Paul Mueller, architect, designed 456 Summit Avenue, the Colonial Apartments/456 Summit Apartments, built 1966.

William Murphy & Son, architects, designed 1396 Summit Avenue, the F. Hildred House, built in 1924, Georgian Revival in style.

Carl Nelson, architect, designed 1987 Summit Avenue, the S. R. Reuler House, built in 1916, Tudor Villa in style.

Emil Nelson, architect, designed 2140 Summit Avenue, the Mrs. O'Gorman House of the University of St. Thomas, built in 1938, Tudor Bungalow in style.

Charles Neuhausen, architect, designed 208 Bates Avenue, built in 1880, Victorian in style.

Samuel A. Nicholson, architect and builder, designed 1826 Summit Avenue, the Hermann G. Graaf House, built in 1912, Tudor Villa/Modified Bungalow in style.

John H. Nickel, architect, designed 671 Fairmount Avenue, the Herbert Davis House, built in 1883, Georgian Revival in style, 883 Fairmount Avenue, built in 1890, Georgian Revival in style, 889 Fairmount Avenue, the J. B. Johnston House, built in 1902, Colonial Revival in style, 720 Goodrich Avenue, the A. G. Galbraith House, built in 1895, Georgian Revival in style, and 761 West Lincoln Avenue, the G. D. Taylor House, built in 1904, Georgian Revival in style.

J. C. Niemeyer, architect, designed 709 West Linwood Avenue, the Glenn R. Walding House, built in 1916, Mildly Prairie School in style. James C. Niemeyer (1890-1957) was born in St. Paul and attended St. Paul parochial schools and the College of St. Thomas before entering the Royal Academy of Rome. He returned to St. Paul and briefly entered architectural practice before serving in World War I with the Ordnance Department as a designing engineer. After the war, Niemeyer came back to St. Paul and resumed his practice, also working as a commercial artist for some years. From 1929 to 1930, he was St. Paul City Architect. Niemeyer's practice included the design of churches, residences, apartment buildings, warehouses, and stores. The 1915 city directory indicates that James C. Niemeyer had his architectural office at the Dispatch Building and that he resided at 1894 Selby Avenue. He died in St. Paul.

H. C. Nordlander/F. C. Norlander, architect, designed 834 Summit Avenue, the Edward N. Saunders House, built in 1903, Classical Revival/Colonial Revival in style, and 880 Summit Avenue, the Fred C. Norlander House, built in 1923; Bungalow in style. Fred C. Norlander (1860- ,) the son of Carl Kant ( -1872) and Inger Olsdotter ( -1875,) was born in Lyby Parish, Skane, Sweden, attended the Skane, Sweden, local schools, moved to Malmo, Sweden, in 1877, apprenticed as a carpenter between 1879 and 1883, married Johanna Helena Hallengren (1863- ,) the daughter of N. C. Hallengren and Ingrid Petersen Hallenen, in 1883, became a master mechanic in 1883, was employed by the Kookum Machine Works, emigrated to America in 1887, moved to St. Paul in 1887, was employed by carpenter and contractor Tim Reardon, became an independent contractor in 1891, was a member of the Swedish Mission tabernacle, was a Mason, was a Shriner, was a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks, was a member of the United Ancient Oder of Druids, was a member of the Swedish Brothers, and was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club. Fred C. Norlander was the builder of record for the Hibbing, Minnesota, public library building in 1908.

Edwin F. Noth (1890- ,) who was born in Davenport, Iowa, was an architect employed by Toltz, King & Day at the Pioneer Building after the completion of World War I military service.

Lawrence Gilman Noyes graduated from Yale University in 1916 and from Columbia University with a bachelor's degree in architecture in 1922.

Oberg and Jansen, architects, designed 314 Ryan Avenue/Former 314 Franklin Street South, the Maria Gross House, built in 1906, Victorian in style.

Olson & Erickson, architects, designed 851-853 Goodrich Avenue, the J. M. Gruber House, built in 1915, Queen Anne in style, and 818 Summit Avenue, the Frank W. Hurty House, built in 1916, Jacobethan/Tudor Revival in style.

Didrich/Diedrik/Dietrich Omeyer/O'Meyer and Martin P. Thori officed at 29 Chamber of Commerce Building at Sixth and Robert. Didrich Omeyer (1850-1907) moved to St. Paul in 1883, apprenticed under Radcliffe and Gauger until 1887, and then entered into a partnership with Martin Thori, another Norwegian-American. Martin P. Thori (1864-1905) moved to Minneapolis, was employed as a carpenter, became a contractor, and joined with Omeyer in a partnership that produced more than 800 buildings in 17 years. Neither partner was an academically trained architect. Omeyer & Thori designed the two Queen Anne style houses at 856 Fairmount Avenue, for William Garland, and at 846 Fairmount Avenue, for Field Garland. Both houses were built by Carl P. Wildung, of 323 Von Minden Street. Omeyer & Thori also designed the Old Main at Augustana Academy, Lawler and Second Streets, Canton, South Dakota, which is on the National Register of Historic Places. Deitrich A. Omeyer and Martin P. Thori also were the architects for the Ada Village Hall, Norman County, Minnesota, the Park Region Luther College/Hillcrest Lutheran Academy, 715 W. Vernon Ave., Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and the Bank of Long Prairie/Michael's Cafe, 262 Central Ave., Long Prairie, Minnesota, which are also on the National Register of Historic Places. O'Meyer & Thori, architects, designed 775-777 Fairmount Avenue, the Thomas H. Swem House, built in 1909, Colonial Revival in style, 846 Fairmount Avenue, the Field V. Garland House, built in 1892, Eastlake in style, 854-856 Fairmount Avenue, the William Garland House, built in 1890, Eastlake in style, 801-803 Goodrich Avenue, the Oliver Crosby House, built in 1886, 808 Goodrich Avenue, the Charles O. Rice House, built in 1907, Queen Anne in style, and 824 West Lincoln Avenue, the L. A. Fullgraff House, built in 1888, Classical Revival in style.

George W. Orff and Fremont D. Orff, architects, designed 226-234 South Exchange Street, the Panama Flats/Stoddard Block/Exchange Street Apartments, built in 1886, Queen Anne style rowhouse.

Henry W. Orth (1866-1946) was born in Norway, came to the U.S. at an unknown date and was educated at a business college (location unknown,) became a partner of Frank W. Kinney in Austin, Minnesota, in 1895, and, in 1902, and joined Charles Buechner in partnership in St. Paul. The firm specialized in designing courthouses and theaters throughout the Midwest and was one of the most successful architectural practices of its day in the area. Orth died in St. Paul. Among the buildings the firm designed are: Cleveland High School (St. Paul), 1909; the Empress Theatre (St. Paul,) 1910; the Grand Theatre (Grand Forks, North Dakota,) 1919; Labor Temple (St. Paul,) 1922; Lagoon Theatre (Minneapolis,) 1915; several buildings for Luther Seminary (St. Paul,) 1921 and 1923; Masonic Temple (St. Paul;) the Shubert Theatre and Office Building (St. Paul,), 1909 and 1910; Henry Orth residence (St. Paul,) 1915; Palace Theatre (St. Paul,) 1916; St. Alexius Hospital (Bismarck, North Dakota,) 1914; Shriners' Hospital for Crippled Children (Minneapolis,) 1922; the Traill County, North Dakota, Court House, early 1900's; and the State Theatre (Sioux Falls, South Dakota,) 1925. Thirteen courthouses designed by this firm were named to the National Register of Historic Places.

__?__ Palmer, architect, designed 1509 Summit Avenue, the M. M. Seward House #2, built in 1922, Early Modern Rectilinear in style, and 1501 Summit Avenue, the M. M. Seward House #1, built in 1922, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

J. Harleston Parker (1873-1930) was born in Boston, graduated from Harvard University in 1893, and studied architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and later at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he spent four years, taking his degree in 1899. As the head of the firm of Parker, Thomas & Rice, he designed many important buildings. He established the Harleston Parker Gold Medal in memory of his father. He was chairman of the Boston Art Commission. Parker, Thomas & Rice, architects, designed 294 Summit Avenue, the George F. Lindsay House, built in 1919, Colonial Revival/Georgian Revival in style.

Robert Swain Peabody (1845-1917) was born in Boston, received an A.B. degree (1866) and a master's degree (1870) in architecture from Harvard University and, in 1868, graduated from the Atelier Daumet at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris, where one of his classmates was the architect Charles F. McKim. His father, the Reverend Ephraim Peabody (1807-1856), was the minister of King's Chapel and his mother, Mary Jane Derby Peabody (1807- ), was from one of the wealthy families of Salem, Massachusetts. Peabody began practicing architecture in Boston in 1870, first with the office of Bryant & Gilman, then moving to Ware & Van Brunt, was a lecturer on Architectural Design at the Harvard School of Architecture during the academic year 1911-12, was awarded a Fellowship, American Institute of Architects, in 1889, and several terms as a director of the American Institute of Architects and was elected its president for 1900-1901. He married Annie P. Putnam (1847- ) in 1871, and the couple had three children, Ellen Peabody (1872- ), Arthur John Peabody (1875- ), and Catherine Putnam Peabody (1877- ). Peabody was the president of the Boston Society of Architects for several years, was an early supporter of the Colonial Revival style and had an affection for English styles and the Picturesque Movement, and died in Marblehead, Massachusetts. Peabody, Stearns & Furber, original architects, designed 240 Summit Avenue, the James Jerome Hill House, built between 1888 and 1891, Richardsonian Romanesque in style.

C. A. Pear, architect, designed 1912 Summit Avenue, the Warren Seely House, built in 1911, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Jens Pederson, architect, designed 730 West Lincoln Avenue, the A. S. Guiterman House, built in 1907, Classical Revival in style, 1865 Summit Avenue, the Jens Pedersen House, built in 1922, Early Modern Rectilinear in style, and 1213 Summit Avenue, the Margaret Rann House, built in 1922, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

N. G. Persson, architect, designed 1890 Summit Avenue, the W. J. Gilberson/A. L. Gilbertson House, built in 1926, Colonial Revival/Georgian Revival in style.

Perry-Tryle Co., architects, designed 2183 Summit Avenue, the Perry-Tryle Co. House, Built in 1925.

Carl Peterson was the architect, with F. A. Clarke, for 476 Laurel Avenue, built in 1912, Colonial Revival in style.

F. O. Peterson, architect, designed 2259 Summit Avenue, the Dr. E. V. Goltz House, built in 1922, Georgian Revival in style, and 1874 Summit Avenue, the G. A. Aston/Ashton House, built in 1928, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style.

John Peterson, architect, 595 Grand Avenue, the Milton Lightner and Drake Lightner House, built in 1884, Tudor Revival in style.

Peterson-Lang, architects and builders, designed 1779 Summit Avenue, the Rose (Mrs. Thomas M.) Furniss House, built in 1925, Elizabethan Revival/Tudor Villa in style.

Lars H. Peterssen graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics from Carleton College and a Masters in Architecture from the University of Minnesota, is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the School of Architecture at the University of Minnesota, teaches computing courses and architectural design, is a consultant to architecture firms on computer-related issues, and is a firm principal, with Deborah Everson, at Domain Architecture & Design, located at the Uptown location once occupied by Condom Kingdom.

Andrew Porth, renovation architect, redesigned 2706 West Lake of the Isles Parkway, built in 1911.

William Gray Purcell (1880-1965) was born in Wilmette, Illinois, was raised by his maternal grandparents, William Cunningham and Catherine Garns Gray, after his parents, Charles and Anna Purcell, moved in with the Grays shortly after their marriage, graduated from Oak Park and River Forest High School in 1899, and graduated from Cornell University in 1903 with a degree in architecture. He worked for Ezra E. Roberts and Louis Sullivan in Chicago in 1903, then worked for John Galen Howard in San Francisco, then apprenticed with A. Warren Gould in Seattle, and then worked for the Seattle firm of Charles H. Bebb and Leonard L. Mendel in 1905. After a trip to Europe and Asia, Purcell and George Feick, Jr., established their partnership in Minneapolis in 1907. Purcell married Edna Summy, a Wellesley graduate whose father owned a music publishing business in Chicago, in 1908. Edna and William Purcell adopted two young boys, James Purcell in 1911, and Douglas Purcell ( -1931) in 1913. George Grant Elmslie joined the firm in 1909. In 1911, the firm designed the Merchants Bank Of Winona, its first major commission. In 1913, George Feick, Jr., left the firm. In 1920, Purcell went into semi-retirement because of failing health and moved to Portland, Oregon, became the director of the Architects's Small House Service Bureau, and was an editorial assistant for Northwest Architect magazine. After a long period of conflict, William Purcell and Edna Purcell divorced in 1935 and William Purcell married Cecily O'Brien ( -1960), an English woman who also suffered from ill health, and the couple resided first at Banning, California, and then Westwinds, California. George Grant Elmslie (1871-1952) was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and emigrated to Chicago in 1884. He apprenticed in the office of William LeBaron Jenney in Chicago, then worked in the office of Joseph Lyman Silsbee in 1887, and then worked for Adler & Sullivan in 1889. Frank Lloyd Wright was connected with Silsbee and with Adler & Sullivan during the same period. After declining an offer from Frank Lloyd Wright to take over his Oak Park studio in 1909, Elmslie joined the firm of William Gray Purcell and George Feick, Jr., in Minneapolis. Elmslie became a member of the American Institute of Architects in 1914 and a fellow in 1947. William Gray Purcell, architect, designed 2409 East Lake of the Isles Parkway, the Catherine Gray House, built in 1907 or 1908, Prairie School in style. Purcell and Elmslie, architects, designed 2328 Lake Place, the Edna S. Purcell House/Purcell-Cutts House, built in 1913, Prairie School in style,2625 Newton Avenue South, the Dr. Oscar Owre House/Elwood H. Newhart Residence, built in 1911-1912, Prairie School in style, and 2316 Oliver Avenue South, the E. C. Tillotson House, built in 1912, Prairie School in style. William Gray Purcell, George Feick, Jr., and George G. Elmslie, architects, designed 2022 Summit Avenue, the John Leuthold/Dr. Ward L. Beebe House, built in 1912, English Arts and Crafts/Wrightian scheme and detailing/Prairie School in style.

B. J. Raak, architect and builder, designed 1206 Summit Avenue, the Orrin E. Keller House, built in 1926, Mission/Classical Revival/Early Modified Georgian Revival in style.

Abraham M. Radcliffe (1827–1886) was a long-established, self-taught, Twin Cities architect. Cass Gilbert apprenticed with Radcliffe in 1876. One of Radcliffe's best-known extant buildings is the Dakota County Courthouse in Hastings, Minnesota. Abraham M. Radcliffe designed 545 Summit Avenue, the Walter J. S. Traill/Homer P. Clark House, built in 1882, Altered Victorian in style, 245 Summit Avenue, the Gordon-Finch House/Charles Paul House, built in 1882, Altered mildy Italianate in style, and 534 Summit Avenue, the Walter J. S. Traill House/Dr. E. C. Mitchell House/Homer P. Clark House, built in 1882, Elizabethan/Altered Victorian in style.

Edwin Radcliffe, architect, designed 767 East Sixth Street, the Keller Row Home, built in 1889, Victorian in style.

Charles A. Reed (1858-1911) and Allen H. Stem (1856-1931) both came to St. Paul after beginning their careers further East. Through a connection with the New York Central Railroad, they received the commission for the Grand Central Station in New York City. They were also responsible for the designs of various depots, for the former West Publishing Company building, the St. Paul Civic Auditorium, the Hotel St. Paul, the St. Paul Athletic Club, and the Reed and Stem double residence, all in St. Paul; Wulling Hall, University of Minnesota (Minneapolis); and the White Bear Lake Yacht Club (1913,) White Bear Lake, Minnesota. Reed and Stem designed 668 North Greenbrier Street, the William Hamm and Marie Scheffer Hamm House, built in 1892; Neoclassical in style, 715 Margaret Street, the J. F. Franzen House, built in 1889, 727 Fairmount Avenue, the B. H. Schriber House, built in 1895, Georgian Revival in style, 592 Grand Avenue, Queen Anne in style, 5 Heather Place, the B. L. Goodkind House, built in 1910, Tudor Revival/Cotswold Cottage in style, and 7 Heather Place, the W. L. Goodkind House, built in 1910, Tudor Revival/Cotswold Cottage in style. Reed and Stem were the architects for the 1903 stone porch addition for 295 Summit Avenue, the Albert H. Lindeke and Louise Lindeke House, built in 1885, Queen Anne in style.

Charles A. Reed (1858-1911) and Allen H. Stem (1856-1931) both came to St. Paul after beginning their careers further east. Through a connection with the New York Central Railroad, they received the commission for the Grand Central Station in New York City. They were also responsible for the designs of various depots, for the former West Publishing Company building, Civic Auditorium, Hotel St. Paul, St. Paul Athletic Club, and the Reed and Stem double residence, all in St. Paul; Wulling Hall, University of Minnesota (Minneapolis,) and the White Bear Lake Yacht Club (1913,) White Bear Lake, Minnesota. Reed and Stem designed 530 Grand Hill, the Bigelow/Stevens House, built in 1885, Gothic Revival in style, 340 Summit Avenue, the Thomas B. Scott and Clare Scott House/George Thompson House, built in 1894, Beaux Arts/Italianate/Renaissance Revival in style, and 420 Summit Avenue, the University Club, built between 1912 and 1913, Tudor Revival in style. Reed and Stem were the addition architects for 485 Summit Avenue, the James A. MacLeod House, built in 1907, Villa/Tudor Revival in style. Reed designed 653 Goodrich Avenue, the S. C. Stickney House, built in 1892, Georgian Revival in style.

Raoul Reed, architect, designed 660-662 Summit Avenue, built in 1925, Spanish Colonial Revival/Early Modern Rectilinear in style, and 666 Summit Avenue, built in 1880, Spanish Colonial Revival/Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Gary A. Reetz, AIA, is a graduate of Iowa State University and was Vice President of HGA (Hammel, Green and Abrahamson) Museum Architects in Minneapolis in 2006 and attended the 2006 meeting of the American Association of Museums.

Richard Reieche for Ellerbe Brothers, architect, the University of St. Thomas, Albertus Magnus Hall/John R. Roach Center, Gothic Revival in style, constructed as a science classroom building in 1946-1948.

Reed Robinson, architect, designed 999 Summit Avenue, built in 2006.

John Rohde, architect, designed 533 Summit Avenue, the John Rohde/Bainbridge H. Evans House, built in 1902; Renaissance Revival/Beaux Arts in style.

__?__ Romer, architect, designed 761 Goodrich Avenue, the C. E. Secor House, built in 1884, Queen Anne in style.

Olin H. Round (1867-1927) joined Franklin Ellerbe as a partner in 1911 and remained in the firm, renamed Ellerbe & Round, until 1914. Round was educated at the Art Institute of Chicago. He set up an architectural practice in 1909 after working as chief draftsman for Mark Fitzpatrick of St. Paul for a period of years. After joining Ellerbe in partnership, the firm gained national distinction by designing the original building for the Mayo Clinic (1912-1913.) After their partnership dissolved, Round was briefly, 1914-1915, in business with Service A. Wager and then set up a private office in St. Paul and died in St. Paul. Olin Round and Franklin Ellerbe, architects, designed 590 Summit Avenue, the Greve Oppenheim and Lillian Oppenheim House, built in 1913, Prairie School in style, 2170 Summit Avenue, the H. S. Mills House at the University of St. Thomas, built in 1922, Two-story Colonial Revival/Georgian Revival variant in style, and 1493 Summit Avenue, the George D. Taylor House, built in 1909, Period Revival/Tudor Villa in style. Round & Wager, architects, designed 26 Kenwood Parkway, the Philip McQuillan/Phillip McQuillan House, built in 1883, Prairie School in style.

RSP Architects are located at 1224 Marshall Street NE., Minneapolis

C. F. Rule Construction, builder and architect, designed 1774 Summit Avenue, the Sam Friedman House, built in 1922, Tudor Villa in style.

O. H. Rundquist, architect, designed 2052 Summit Avenue, the Bernard Druck House, built in 1912, Bungalow in style, and 1916 Summit Avenue, the William Dunn/Dr. Tilendaier House, built in 1926, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

Edwin Rydeen, architect, designed 1285 Summit Avenue, the Edwin Rydeen House, built in 1924, Georgian Revival in style.

St. Paul Building Co., architect and builder, designed 1126 Summit Avenue, the Laurence C. Jefferson House, built in 1905, Tudor Revival/Tudor Villa in style.

The St. Paul City Architect's Office designed 1700 Summit Avenue, the Ramsey Junior High School, original building built in 1926 and gymnasium addition built in 1978, Collegiate Gothic/Art Deco in style.

L. W. Santa, architect, designed 1795 Summit Avenue, the Mary Donnelly and Francis Donnelly House, built in 1951, Contemporary in style.

L. G. Scherer Company, of Los Angeles, California, architect, designed 1905 Summit Avenue, the William J. Huch House, built in 1928, Spanish Colonial/Spanish Colonial Revival in style.

Eugene Schmidt, architect, designed 1737 Summit Avenue, the Moses Shapira/S. L. Shapiro House, built in 1913; Simplified Rectilinear in style.

John R. Schmit, architect, designed 1713 Summit Avenue, the F. B. Strunz House, built in 1908, Tudor Villa in style.

B. Schmuckler, architect, designed 1623 Summit Avenue, the D. Simon House, built in 1914.

Harry Schroeder was associated with the architectural firm of Buetow Associates and was the architect for the additions to 990 Summit Avenue, the Henry Glassbrook Allen and Ruth Allen House, in 1966.

Conrad O. Searle, architect, designed 1190 Summit Avenue, the Conrad O. Searle House, built 1909.

H. M. Seby, architect and builder, designed 716 West Lincoln Avenue, Dr. C. L. Carman House, Built in 1895, and 1705 Summit Avenue, the Louis A. Weidenborner House, built in 1910, Mildly Colonial Revival/Slightly Prairie Style/Simplified Rectilinear in style.

Charles Sumner Sedgwick (1856- ) was born in Castile, New York, the son of Samuel Sedgwick and Emily Ely Sedgwick, was born in Binghamton/Castille, New York, was educated in Oberlin and Poughkeepsie, New York, was employed by Isaac G. Perry, a well-known New York architect from 1872 to 1884, married Minnie Elizabeth Davison (1857- ) in 1878, came to Minneapolis in 1884, opened an architectural office and designed the Young Men's Christian Association Building, the State University Library Building, the Dayton Building, the Boutell Building, the Westminster Presbyterian Church, the Andrew Presbyterian Church, the Park Avenue Congregational Church, the Second Congregational Church of Waterbury, Connecticut, and contributed to the Home magazine of Indianapolis, the Northwestern Agriculturist of Minneapolis, and Actualides of Lima, Peru. Charles S. Sedgwick was an architect who officed at the Lumber Exchange Building and rsided at 2441 Portland Avenue according to the 1909 city directory. Charles Sumner Sedgwick ( -1922) died in Hennepin County. Sedgwick designed 1818 LaSalle Avenue South, the Chateau LaSalle, built in 1888, Richardsonian Romanesque in style, the George Baird house (ca. 1885,) the Andrew Presbyterian Church (1890,) the McKnight Newell house (1888,) the Westminster Presbyterian Church (1896-1898,) and the Commercial Building at 20 Fourth Street North (1902) in the Minneapolis Warehouse District. Charles Sumner Sedgwick and Minnie Elizabeth Davison Sedgwick had five children, LaRue Ely Sedgwick (1881-1884,) Marien Sedgwick (1886- ,) Alice Sedgwick (1879- ,) Mary Sedgwick (1890- ,) and Charles Sedgwick (1893- .)

E. Sekall, architect, designed 1473 Summit Avenue, the F. A. Upham House #2, built in 1904, Queen Anne Rectilinear in style.

Monroe Sheier/Sheire (1834-1887,) architect, the son of George H. Shear and Mary Streeter Shear, was born in Lexington, New York, was self-educated, apprenticed in architectural offices in Detroit, Michigan, moved to Minnesota in 1860, settled in St. Paul, entered into a partnership with Charles Leonard ( -1874) in 1862, extended the partnership to include Romaine Sheire in 1866, and designed 265 South Exchange Street, the Alexander Ramsey House, built in the period 1868-1872, Second Empire/Italianate in style, with a mansard roof and an exterior of native limestone, the 1867 Plymouth Congregational Church in Faribault, Rice County, Minnesota, and 215 Isabel Street West, the Yoerg House, built in 1875, Second Empire/Italianate in style. Monroe Sheire married twice and died in White Bear Lake, Minnesota, leaving two children, Henry Romaine Sheire and Lina Sheire (1858- .) Romaine Sheire, the brother of Monroe Sheire and a partner in M. Sheire & Brother, and the son of George H. Shear and Mary Streeter Shear and the grandson of Peter Lyht Shear and Catharine Mead Shear, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfather Jeremiah Mead, a Private in the Albany County, New York, Militia, during the Revolutionary War. Romaine Sheire (1833- ) was born in Lexington, New York, served in the First Michigan Infantry during the American Civil War, and settled in St. Paul. Monroe Sheire and Romaine Sheire were contractors, built the St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company/Volkszeitung building, built the First Congregational Church in Faribault, Minnesota, in 1867, and were members of the First Baptist Church of St. Paul, a church that evolved out of Harriet Bishop's Sunday School classes.

Siems, Helmers, Schaffner & Colburn were the architects for the Cloquet, Carlton County, Minnesota, City Hall (Spafford Building,) built around World War I. Siems-Helmers, Inc. were the contractors in 1930 for the substructure of the main bridge of the Huey P. Long Bridge, located in New Orleans, for which it received $3,083,185.00. In 1933-1937, Siems-Helmers, Inc. was the contractor of Dam #8 on the Mississippi River, just below Genoa, Wisconsin, that included five 80-foot rollers and ten 35-foot Tainter gates in the dam to provide the lock with an 11-foot lift.

Joseph Lyman Silsbee, a native of Salem, Massachusetts, was a significant American architect who worked in Syracuse, Buffalo, and Chicago, and who was the first employer of Frank Lloyd Wright. Joseph Lyman Silsbee graduated from Exeter and from Harvard and studied architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1870, then practiced architecture and was appointed professor of architecture at the new College of Fine Arts at Syracuse University, opened an office in Buffalo with Buffalonian James H. Marling (1857-1895) in 1882, then formed a partnership with Edward A. Kent in Chicago in 1886, designed seven buildings that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and designed the "moving sidewalk" and the West Virginia Building for the Chicago World's Fair of 1893.

David T. Silver, an architect, resided at 298 Winifred Street East.

Robert Sinclair, architect, designed 585 Grand Avenue, the William E. Suckow House, built in 1910, Colonial Revival in style.

F. Sjorstrand, architect, designed 886 Fairmount Avenue, the Willner House, built in 1911, Tudor Revival in style, 1543 Summit Avenue, the C. F. Phillips House, built in 1913, Tudor Villa in style, 1440 Summit Avenue, the Frances (Mrs. B. H.) Dickerman House, built in 1914, Tudor Villa in style, and 1179 Summit Avenue, the John McDevett House, built in 1915, Simplified Rectilinear in style.

Frederick Soper, architect, designed 2427 East Lake of the Isles Parkway, Built in 1911.

Roy A. Spandle, architect, designed 1964 Summit Avenue, the Charles Miller House, built in 1955, Contemporary Georgian Revival in style.

D. B. Spear, architect, designed 659 Summit Avenue, the M. H. B. Gates House, built in 1889, Queen Anne/Victorian in style.

James Speckman (1918- ) was a window designer for Donaldson's Golden Rule department store and an architectural delineator for Norman Johnson in 1945 while he received a degree in design and engineering from the University of Minnesota Extension Division and then became a full time architect.

John Goddard Stearns (1843-1917), the son of William Stearns (1824- ) and Mary Jane Mullican Stearns (1825- ), was an engineer and a graduate of Harvard University's Lawrence Scientific School in 1863, was a partner of Robert Swain Peabody for 45 years, was named a Fellow, American Institute of Architects, in 1894, and died in Duxbury, Massachusetts. The Duluth Union Railroad Depot was built in 1892 by the firm of Peabody, Stearns & Furber.

Edward Stebbins (1854-1934) was born in Boston, moved to Troy, New York, in 1868 and to Saratoga, New York, in 1870, where he worked with architect E.D. Harris and helped to supervise the construction of the Grand Union Hotel, attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology until about 1876, worked briefly with McKim, Mead & White, came to Minneapolis in 1877, was a partner of George R. Mann, a former classmate at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from 1878 until 1979, then established a private practice until 1913, entered into a partnership with Robert Haxby, and added Cyrus Bissell to the partnership in 1920, which continued under the name Haxby, Bissell, Belair & Green after 1934. Stebbins was the official architect of the Minneapolis Board of Education for more than 10 years, designed North High School, West High School (1906-1907), and Clara Barton, Robert Fulton, Thomas Lowry, and Bryant Elementary Schools, designed the Nicollet County, Minnesota, Court House, in St. Peter, Minnesota (1880-1881) with Edward Bassford, designed the Hutchinson, Minnesota, Public Library (1904,) designed 761 Washington Avenue North (1890,) 425 Washington Avenue North (1892,) the Brown & Haywood Glass Warehouse at 128 Third Street North (1890;) designed the Gethsemane Episcopal Church, Minneapolis (1883;) and designed the S. E. Davis residence, 2104 Kenwood Parkway, Minneapolis (1892.)

Nicholas Steinmetz, architect, designed 1846 Summit Avenue, the V. J. Hawkins House, built in 1914, Simplified Rectilinear in style.

Allen Hartzell Stem (1856-1931,) the son of John H. Stem and Sarah Armstrong Stem, was born in Van Wert, Ohio, was educated in public schools of Van Wert, Ohio, was educated at the Indianapolis Art School, and practiced in Indianapolis, Indiana, from 1876 to 1884 with his father, J. H. Stem, married Lucy R. Kackley in 1886, moved to Minnesota in 1884, settled in St. Paul, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, was a member of the White Bear Yacht Club, resided at The Angus in 1907, and officed at the Endicott Building in 1907. Allen Stem entered the architectural office of J. H. Stem in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1876, was a partner with his father from 1880 until 1884, formed a partnership with C. A. Reed as Reed & Stem in St. Paul in 1892, opened an office in New York in 1901, and designed the Courthouse at Helena, Montana, the Willard Hotel in St. Paul, the George Thompson residence in St. Paul, the Mannheimer Building in St. Paul, made a specialty in 1901 of railroad work, erected Northern Pacific RailRoad stations at Bismarck, North Dakota, Livingston, Montana, Butte, Montana, Helena, Montana, Missoula, Montana, erected Great Northern RailRoad stations at Seattle, Washington, and Everett, Washington, erected the New York Central RailRoad terminal station in New York City, erected the railroad station at Troy, New York, erected stations and power houses on the electric zone in New York City, designed the Metropolitan Opera House of St. Paul, and designed the New Auditorium in St. Paul. J. H. Stem's firm also included as partners in 1883 Edgar J. Hogdson and Charles A. Wallingford. He moved to St. Paul in 1884 and joined Edgar J. Hodgson, Jr., in a partnership in St. Paul from 1886 to 1890, a practice which lasted until Stem formed his partnership with Charles A. Reed in 1891. After Reed's death, Stem continued his practice with Roy H. Haslund until his retirement in 1920. Stem died in St. Paul. Charles A. Reed (1858-1911) graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and thereafter came to St. Paul in 1881. Reed designed the Stockyard Exchange Building in South St. Paul, built by the Union Stockyards Company, in 1887, before his partnership with Allen Stem. The adjacent stockyards became the largest stockyards in the United States. In 1980, the Stockyard Exchange Building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and remains the only South St. Paul structure with that status. Reed & Stern gained national prominence primarily through their design of more than 100 railroad stations in the United States. They worked with Warren & Wetmore on Grand Central Station in New York City and designed the Union Station (1911) in Tacoma, Washington. Reed was the chief executive for the collaboration between Reed & Stem and Warren & Wetmore on the New York Grand Central Station project. The project was not completed until after Reed's death, which dissolved the partnership collaboration and a resulting controversey between Allen Stem, Warren & Wetmore, and the New York Central Railroad was ultimately resolved in the New York Court of Appeal case Stem v. Warren, 227 N.Y. 538 (1920). Seattle's King Street Station was designed for the Great Northern Railway and the Northern Pacific RailRoad in 1906 and was designed by Reed & Stem. Reed & Stem designed the stations at Billings, Livingston (1902), Helena, Missoula, and Butte, Montana, the Norfolk Union Station (1886-1889) in Norfolk, Virginia, the former Troy Union Station (1900), Troy, New York, the Bismarck Northern Pacific Railway Depot, Bismarck, North Dakota, and the Michigan Central Station (1913) in Detroit. In Minnesota, their best-known work was the St. Paul Hotel, completed in 1910. The firm also planned the Auditorium and Athletic Club in St. Paul, Minnesota, the medical buildings at the University of Minnesota, and the Auditorium in Denver, Colorado. Reed & Stem also built stained glass windows, including the large stained glass windows adorning the entrance and grand staircase of the former Michigan City Library building on East Eighth Street in New York City, now the John G. Blank Center for the Arts. Reed & Stem later opened an office in New York City. Reed & Stem later became Fellheimer & Wagner and then the firm became Wank Adams Slavin Associates, or WASA, in 1961. Allen Stem resided at 707 Fairmount Avenue in 1895. Allen Stem designed 30 Crocus Place, the R. L. Wright House, built in 1900, Renaissance Revival in style and 40 Crocus Place, the Leo Goodkind House, Built in 1864, Tudor Revival/Cotswold Cottage in style, 40 Crocus Place, the Leo Goodkind House, Built in 1864, Tudor Revival/Cotswold Cottage in style, 651 Fairmount Avenue, the H. F. Hoyt House, built in 1896, Queen Anne in style, 993 Lincoln Avenue, the Martha Horne and William Horne House, built in 1894, Shingle style in style, 285 Summit Avenue, the Fredrick A. Fogg House, built in 1899, Renaissance Revival/Georgian/Colonial Revival in style, 251 Summit Avenue, (with Edgar J. Hodgson, Jr.) the Horace P. Rugg House, built in 1886, Romanesque Revival/Renaissance Revival/Victorian Romanesque/Richardsonian Romanesque in style, 929 Summit Avenue, the Dr. Alfred Wharton House, built in 1890, Queen Anne/Mildly Shingle in style, 1003 Summit Avenue, the J. H. Burwell House, built in 1904, Richardsonian Romanesque/Queen Anne Rectilinear in style, and 544 Saint Peter Street, the Palazzo/Colonade Hotel, built in the early 1890's, Italian Renaiassance in style. A. H. Stem was the alteration architect for 432 Summit Avenue, the James C. Burbank House, built in 1862-1863, Italian Villa/Italianate villa/Tuscan/American Bracketed in style, in the 1920's.

__?__ Stern, architect, designed 812 Goodrich Avenue, the D. D. Smith House, built in 1906, Queen Anne in style.

John Walter Stevens (1856-1937) was born in Wakefield, Massachusetts, followed hid father, an architect-builder, to St. Paul at the age of 23 in 1879 and began practicing architecture on his own, and was responsible for the design of many of St. Paul's outstanding buildings, such as the Germania Bank Building known now as the St. Paul Building (1888), the Wilder Public Baths (1914,) and the Noyes Brothers & Cutler Wholesale Drug Warehouse, known now as Park Square Court (1886,) all in St. Paul; Goodsell Observatory, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota (1887,) Pattee Hall, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (1889;) the St. Cloud, Minnesota, Reformatory (1889;) and the Moorhead, Minnesota, Normal School, known now as Minnesota State University-Moorhead. Stevens was not a gifted designer, but was an adept organizer and a shrewd judge of talent, hiring numerous draftsmen, including Harvey Ellis. J. W. Stevens was the architect for 458 Holly Avenue, the J. W. Stevens House, built in 1880, and Shingle in style. John Walter Stevens, an architect, and his wife, Julia Stevens, resided 458 Holly Avenue. J. Walter Stevens designed 524-526 Portland Avenue, the J. R. Hudson House, built in 1907, Queen Anne in style, 645 Fairmount Avenue, the R. L. Ware House, built in 1897, Georgian Revival in style, 890-892 Fairmount Avenue, the Sewell/Walsh House, built in 1894, 617-619 Goodrich Avenue, the H. M. Lufkin House, built in 1888, Queen Anne in style, 707 Goodrich Avenue, the H. A. Merrill House, built in 1883, Colonial Revival in style, 679 West Lincoln Avenue, built in 1900, Queen Anne in style, 335 Summit Avenue, the John H. Allen House, built in 1892, Romanesque Revival/Queen Anne in style, 700-702 Summit Avenue, built in 1919, 704-706 Summit Avenue, built in 1919, 776 Summit Avenue, built in 1901, Queen Anne/Victorian/Mildly Colonial in style, 821 Summit Avenue, the Charles L. Johnston House, built in 1910, mildly Colonial Revival/Gothic Revival/Prairie Style in style, 1994 Summit Avenue, the August M. P. Cowley House, built in 1913, English Manor House Revival/English Cottage/Twenties Villa in style, and 1445 Summit Avenue, the Harry L. Brown House, built in 1925, Georgian Rectilinear in style.

Emil Strassburger (1854- ) was born in Saxony, immigrated to San Antonio, Texas, moved to St. Paul, settled on the West Side, and designed 46-48 West Delos Street, the Grady Flats, built in 1889.

Henry C. Struchen (1871-1947) was the architect of record in 1910-1911 for the Triune Masonic Temple located at 1898 Iglehart Avenue, a building designated for heritage preservation in St. Paul. Struchen was a contractor specializing in concrete construction projects in St. Paul. From 1905 to 1934, Henry Struchen's name was synonymous with the building of St. Paul. Struchen built the Selby trolley tunnel and invented and patented screed bar holders, which were used when constructing floor slabs and which were put to good use building the Hamm Building in 1919. His best-known landmarks are probably the Saint Paul Hotel, built in 1909 using steel-frame and concrete construction, and the 96 foot dome of the Cathedral of Saint Paul. Struchen-built buildings that have been razed include the R. E. Cobb building, the Schuneman-Mannheimer building, the French Building, the Fort Snelling Speedway, the Ford Motor Company Gas Producer Plant in 1926, and the Soo Terminal. Struchen was active in freemasonry from 1906-1938. [See note for the Soo Line RailRoad.]

Carl F. Struck (1842- ) was born in Christiania/Oslo, Norway, was educated in Oslo, Norway, and Copenhagen, Denmark, emigrated to the United States in 1856, supervised the construction of various buildings in Brooklyn, Cleveland, and Chicago, settled in Minneapolis in 1881, was an architect, and was the alteration architect who redesigned 2500 Portland Avenue South, the Bardwell-Ferrant House, which was built in 1883, was altered in 1890, was originally simple Queen Anne in style, and was altered to be Moorish Fantasy in style. The majority of his important commissions were for Scandinavian fraternal buildings and churches. His Minneapolis designs included Dania Hall (1886,) the Pracna Building (1890,) and the Chicago House at 124 First Street North (1884) in the Minneapolis Warehouse District.

H. A. Sullwold, architect, designed 1695 Summit Avenue, the Chris Hanson, Jr., House, built in 1920, very restrained Georgian Revival in style. In 1923, St. Paul architect Herbert A. Sullwold also designed the Our Lady of Victory Chapel at the College of St. Catherine, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, which was modeled after the Church of St. Trophime at Arles, France.

__?__ Sunburg, architect, designed 780 Summit Avenue, 780 Summit Avenue, built in 1909, Georgian Revival/Colonial Revival in style.

J. S. Sweitzer, architect, designed 2004 Summit Avenue, the J. J. Corneveaux House #1, built in 1910, Tudor Revival/Cottage/Tudor Villa in style.

Bayard F. Taber (1889- ,) who was born in Kendallville, Indiana, moved to Minnesota in 1914, was an architectural draughtsman employed by E. H. Lundie after the completion of World War I military service.

Kenzo Tange was born in the small city of Imabari, Shikoku Island, Japan. He won the Pritzker Prize at the age of 74 in 1987. Although becoming an architect was beyond his wildest dreams as a boy, it was Le Corbusier's work that stirred his imagination so that in 1935, he became a student in the Architecture Department of Tokyo University. In 1946, he became an assistant professor at Tokyo University, and organized the Tange Laboratory. Tange was in charge of the reconstruction of Hiroshima. His Peace Park and Centre made the city symbolic of the human longing for peace. Tange has been a guest professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as well as a lecturer at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Washington University, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of California at Berkeley, and the Universities of Alabama and Toronto. His "Plan for Tokyo 1960" received enormous attention world-wide, for its new concepts of extending the growth of the city out over the bay, using bridges, man made islands, floating parking and megastructures. Other urban design and planning projects by Tange were begun in 1967 for the Fiera District of Bologna, Italy, and for a new town with residences for 60,000 in Catania, Italy. In Singapore, Tange completed the Overseas Union Bank, the GB Building, the Telecommunications Centre, and the Nanyang Technological Institute. Tange's only completed project in the United States was his expansion of the Minneapolis Art Institute. Completed in 1975, the expansion of the Minneapolis Art Institute, almost doubling the size of the original 120,000 square foot structure, was accomplished with large symmetrical wings.

Herman Tassman was the architect for 482 Laurel Avenue, built in 1880, Italianate in style.

B. J. Taylor, architect, designed 692 Summit Avenue, the Misses Gliney House, built in 1912, Georgian Revival/Simple Rectilinear in style.

James Knox Taylor (1857-1929) was the Supervising Architect of the U. S. Treasury Department between 1897 and 1912 and was primarily responsible for a return to classicism in designs for public buildings. He was educated in the public schools of St. Paul and studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1877-1879,) and then worked in New York City before joining Cass Gilbert in a partnership in 1885. The Gilbert and Taylor partnership (1885-1891) was highly successful, producing many residences and other buildings in St. Paul and elsewhere. After his service with the Federal government, Taylor was the director of the department of architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then practiced in Yonkers, New York, and retired to Tampa, Florida. Taylor and Gilbert designed 459 Holly Avenue, the E. H. Bailey House, built in 1895, Queen Anne in style, and, with Mathew/Matthew Craig, designed 284 South Exchange Street, the Knox-Austin-Rogers House, built in 1885, Queen Anne in style.

F. X. Tewes, architect, designed 2174 Summit Avenue, the S. Tierney House at the University of St. Thomas, built in 1921, Early Modern Rectilinear in style. Frank X. Tewes joined Clarence Wesley "Cap" Wigington in designing the Highland Park Water Tank in St. Paul, the Hamline Junior High School in St. Paul in 1924, and the Ames School in St. Paul in 1928.

H. F. Thamert, architect, designed 2195 Summit Avenue, the Joseph F. Rosenthal House, built in 1925, Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

George Thayer, architect, designed 649 Goodrich Avenue, the W. P. Harper House, built in 1892, Queen Anne in style.

Douglas H. Thomas, Jr., (1872-1915) graduated from Johns Hopkins University, studied architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, spent a year in Paris, and after travel returned to Baltimore. In Boston, he formed the firm of Parker & Thomas in 1900 with J. Harleston Parker, and later, with Arthur W. Rice (1868- ), it became Parker, Thomas & Rice. He became a member of the American Institute of Architects in 1899 and was made a Fellow in 1909.

William H. Thomas

A. S. Thome, architect, designed 1906 Summit Avenue, the A. N. Thome House, built in 1926, Spanish Colonial Revival in style.

Joseph Tierz, architect, designed 1583 Summit Avenue, the M. A. Tschida House, built in 1925, Early Modern Georgian Revival in style.

J. N. Tilton, architect, 501 Grand Hill, the C. W. Ames House, built in 1892, Shingle in style.

Max Toltz (1857- ) was born in Koeslin, Germany, was the son of Herman Toltz and Malvina Beilfuss Toltz, studied at the Royal Academy of Science and Engineering in Berlin, from which he received a degree in civil engineering in 1877, served in the German Army as a second lieutenant, worked as a civil engineer in Germany, in Switzerland, and in Canada upon leaving the German army, arrived in St. Paul in 1882, and worked as a draftsman for the St. Paul, Minneapolis, & Manitoba Railroad from 1881 until 1903. He advanced to chief engineer of the railroad, then left in 1904 and moved to Montreal to work for the Canadian Pacific RailRoad. In 1905, he returned to the Great Northern and to his former position. In 1908, Toltz formed his own company with Wesley Eugene King (1879-1959,) a civil engineer, and Beaver Wade Day (1884-1931,) an architect. Max Toltz married Amalia Krahmer Toltz, of New Ulm, Minnesota, and the couple had one child, Florence Toltz. The Toltz family lived at 433 Holly in 1912. Max Toltz died in St. Paul. The name of the architectual firm changed to Toltz, King, Duvall & Anderson in 1956, after the addition of Arndt Duvall, an environmental engineer, and Gerald Anderson, an architect. TKDA was the engineering firm for the Como Park Conservatory, the Robert Street Bridge, the St. Paul Union Depot, and the new Third Street Bridge. Toltz probably designed 352 Bates Avenue, the Max and Amilia Toltz House, built in 1902, Tudor Revival/Craftsman in style. [See note for the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba RailRoad.] [See note for the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note for the Canadian Pacific RailRoad.]

Charles Toy, architect, designed 813 Goodrich Avenue, the A. H. Hageland House, built in 1894, Georgian Revival in style.

Joseph Trenter, architect, designed 767 West Osceola Avenue, the C. L. Caldwell House; Built in 1889, Queen Anne in style.

R. H. Tyler, architect, designed 1494 Summit Avenue, the Joseph D. Tyler House, built in 1885.

Claude Allen Porter Turner (1869-1955,) the son of J. M. Turner and Elizabeth Darling Turner, was born in Lincoln, Rhode Island, was educated at the Providence, Rhode Island, High School, graduated from Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1890 with an engineering degree, worked for a number of bridge construction companies as a civil and structural engineer, was an inventor and designer of the Duluth, Minnesota, ferry bridge, was an assistant engineer employed by the Columbus Bridge Company in 1892, married Mary E. Burns in 1894, was an assistant engineer employed by the Pottsville Iron & Steel Company from 1896 until 1897, came to Minneapolis in 1897, was the designing engineer employed by the Gillette-Herzog Company of Minneapolis from 1897 until 1900, was a consulting engineer, was an engineer in the contracting department of the American Bridge Company in 1901 until 1903, began his own business in 1901 as a designer, engineer and contractor for concrete work, made a specialty of reinforced concrete bridges, buildings and manufacturing plants, was a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, was a member of the Association of Cement Users, was the president of the Northwestern Cement Products Association in 1906, resided at 2677 Lake of the Isles Boulevard in 1907, and officed at the Phoenix Building in 1907. Turner eventually opened offices in New York, Chicago and Winnipeg. Turner was a forerunner in the development of reinforced concrete and eventually patented over 30 processes for various forms of reinforcement and types of centering for reinforced concrete construction. In 1898, he used a slab system supported by girders spanning columns and, by 1903, concluded that the beam could be deleted. By 1913, the process was used in over 1,000 buildings throughout the world. Turner designed three buildings in the Minneapolis Warehouse District, the Wisconsin Central RailRoad Freight Station at 10 Hennepin Avenue (built in 1907 and razed in 1994,) the Green & DeLaittre Company at 500 Third Street North (1908,) and the Great Northern Warehouse at 716/730 Washington Avenue North (1919-1921.) Claude Allen Porter Turner (1869-1955) was born in Lincoln, Rhode Island, graduated as a structural engineer from the school of engineering at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, worked for the New York & New England RailRoad, the Edgmore (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) Bridge Company, the Columbus (Ohio) Bridge Company, the Pittsburgh Bridge Company, and the Pottsville, Pennsylvania, Iron & Steel Company, before coming to Minneapolis in 1897, and died in Columbus, Ohio. After working as an engineer with the Gillette Herzog Company and American Bridge Company until 1901, C. A. P. Turner formed his own firm. C. A. P. Turner received 31 patents during his career for reinforcement and reinforced concrete, including a 1908 patent for a patent for the flat-slab support system in reinforced concrete, the "mushroom cap" column system. Turner's design was revolutionary from a technical and materials standpoint because it recognized and exploited the essential monolithic character of concrete. Walter Hall Wheeler (1883-1974) held a patent for the invention of the "smooth ceilings" system, a method of ceiling support which used reinforced concrete and eliminated the need for the "mushroom cap" column invented by C. A. P. Turner. The 1926 Mendota Bridge, once the longest continuous concrete-arch bridge in the world, measuring 4,119 feet, replacing the old ferry that ran between Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and the Village of Mendota, Minnesota, since the mid-1800's, was designed by Walter H. Wheeler and C. A. P. Turner. The C. A. P. Turner Company was a civil engineering company engaged in concrete and steel construction of buildings, bridges, and manufacturing plants according to the 1917 city directory. [See note for the Wisconsin Central RailRoad.]

Emil W. Ulrici (1857- ) was associated with Millard, Ulrici & Eltzner. The German architect Emil W. Ulrici, who practiced in Milwaukee and St. Louis for 17 years before moving to Minnesota, built almost exclusively for wealthy German immigrants scattered throughout Saint Paul in the 1880's. Adolph and Anna Muench House, at 653 East Fifth Street, built in 1884, Queen Anne in style, is reputedly the finest of his surviving residential commissions. Ulrici also designed 59 Irvine Park, the Dr. Justus Ohage House, built in 1889, German Romanesque/Queen Anne in style, and 644-666 East Seventh Street, the O'Connor Block, a rare St. Paul iron-fronted building.

Voight-Fourre, architect, designed 1111 Summit Avenue, the St. George's Greek Orthodox Church, built in 1967, Byzantine Revival in style.

Adolph Wald and Albin Wald, architects and builders, designed 1420 Summit Avenue, the Raymond W. Berglund House, built in 1925, Colonial Revival/Early Modern Georgian Revival in style.

Carl Waldon was a Swedish immigrant who started out as a bricklayer, but later became a builder, developer, and architect. Waldron designed 650 Goodrich Avenue, built in 1896, Georgian Revival in style, the Vienna and Earl Apartment Buildings, 682-688 Holly Avenue, built in 1907, Classical Revival/Neo-Classical Revival in style, the Warren W. Hurd House, 794 Lincoln Avenue, built in 1891 (1906 according to Ramsey County property tax records,) Colonial Revival in style, and 934 Summit Avenue, built in 1906, Queen Anne/mildly Colonial Revival in style.

H. Edward Walker, architect, designed 1995 Summit Avenue, the Edward Kennan House, built in 1917, Simplified Rectilinear in style.

Charles A. Wallingford, architect, designed 683 West Osceola Avenue, the Beebe/Gotzian House, built in 1900, Queen Anne in style, 5 Crocus Place, the F. E. Ford House/Frederick Stewart Bryant House; Built in 1892, Queen Anne/Victorian in style, 9 Crocus Place, the W. H. S. Wright House, built in 1894, Colonial Revival in style, 15 Crocus Place, the K. D. Dunlap House, built in 1889, Colonial Revival in style, 733 West Lincoln Avenue, built in 1889, Richardsonian Romanesque in style, and 1652 Summit Avenue, the Macalester Park Presbyterian Church/Stella Louise Woods Children's Center, original church built in 1889 and the replacement church built in 1925, with a 1956 expansion, Queen Anne in style.

William Robert Ware (1832-1915) was a graduate of both Harvard College and Harvard's Lawrence Scientific School. He worked with Edward Clarke Cabot's firm before joining the New York office of Richard Morris Hunt in 1859. Ware returned to Boston in 1860 and entered into a partnership with Edward S. Philbrick, a civil engineer. Ware and Henry Van Brunt, also a Harvard graduate, formed their partnership in 1864. In 1865, Ware organized the country's first formal architectural course at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The partnership with Van Brunt continued until Ware's departure for New York in 1881 to found Columbia University's architectural school.

Whitney Warren was born in New York City, was a cousin of the Vanderbilts, enrolled for onr year at Columbia University, studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, began practice in New York City in 1894, and convinced one of his first clients, a lawyer named Charles D. Wetmore (1867-1941,) to become his partner. Whitney Warren is best known for his design of Grand Central Station in New York, a project done in conjunction with the St. Paul architectural firm of Reed & Stem. Warren and Wetmore also designed the office tower portion of the now-abandoned Detroit Michigan Central Station, which was constructed in 1913. In 1908, Whitney Warren presented his idea for a novel stamp design to Postmaster General George von L. Meyer, resulting in a green special delivery stamp. Warren & Wetmore also designed the Deepdale Golf and Country Club in Great Neck, New York, in 1926, for William K. Vanderbilt II. Whitney Warren, construction supervision architect, was responsible for 225 Summit Avenue, the Cathedral of the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis, built between 1906 and 1915, Renaissance/Italian Mannerist/Baroque in style, designed by Emmanuel Masqueray, original architect.

Moritz L. Weiser, architect, designed 398 Duke Street, the Melchior Funk and Wilhelmina Funk House, built in 1887, Italianate in style with Neoclassical details.

W. Wenisch, architect, designed 904 West Lincoln Avenue, the H. W. Gubebe House, built in 1887, Georgian Revival in style.

Morin Westmark, architect, designed 1953 Summit Avenue, the Louis A. Weidenborner House, built in 1919, Early Modern Georgian Revival in style.

John H. Wheeler was an architect who officed at the New York Building, and he and his wife, Florence B. Wheeler, resided at 1049 West Linwood Avenue, and 1459 Summit Avenue, the Richard Ambrose Walsh House, built in 1922, Greek Revival in style.

Otis Leonard Wheelock (1816-1886), of the Chicago architectural firm of Boyington and Wheelock, designed Freeport, Illinois' Brewster House Hotel, where Abraham Lincoln stayed when in town for the Lincoln-Douglas debate. Wheelock was born in New York and came to Chicago in 1839. Carpenter Chapel, in Chicago, was designed by Otis Wheelock and built in 1869 for the Chicago Theological Seminary. Wheelock also designed Jones Hall and Douglas Hall (both 1865) on the old campus of the University of Chicago. Wheelock's adopted son, Harry R. Wheelock, also was a member of the firm. W. W. Boyington was the other partner in the firm. Otis L. Wheelock, original architect, designed 432 Summit Avenue, the James C. Burbank House, built in 1862-1863, Italian Villa/Italianate villa/Tuscan/American Bracketed in style..

Stanford White (b. New York, 1853, d. New York, 1906) was the son of the Shakespearean scholar and essayist, Richard Grant White. He was a talented and versatile draftsman. But Stanford White had his dark side and it was darker than most. He led a double life under the very eyes of his adoring wife, Bessie, who chose not to see but could not fail to suffer from her husband's incessant debauchery. White was shot and killed by Harry Thaw, the jealous husband of former chorus girl Evelyn Nesbit, who had been White's mistress.

William Channing Whitney (1851-1945,) the son of Benjamin F. Whitney and Louisa Lawrence Whitney, was born in Harvard, Worcester County, Massachusetts, received his formal education at the Lawrence Academy in Groton, Connecticut, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and at the Massachusetts Agricultural College until 1871, worked in the architectural office of Emerson & Fehmer in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1872, moved to Minneapolis in 1877, was an architect, was a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, was a member of the board of directors of the Minneapolis Society Fine Arts, was a member of the Art Commission City of Minneapolis, was a member of the Minneapolis Club, was a member of the Lafayette Club, resided at 2514 Fourth Avenue South in 1907, and officed at 313 Nicollet Avenue in 1907. Whitney married Alma Carter Walker and the couple were the parents of two daughters, Marion Whitney (1881- ,) and Katharine Whitney (1888- .) From 1879 to 1885, Whitney was in partnership with James C. Plant and the architectural firm of Plant & Whitney designed numerous buildings and residences in Minneapolis, including the E. A. Merrill house (1884) and the W. J. Dyer Music Store (1884.) Beginning in 1885, Whitney practiced alone, designing homes for E. L. Carpenter (1906,) Cavour Langdon (1905,) William Dunwoody (1905,) Rufus Rand (1891,) Frank Heffelfinger (1902,) H. Alden Smith (1887,) and Thomas Irvine and Horace Hills Irvine, now the Governor's Mansion in St. Paul (1910-1911.) Whitney was a member of the American Institute of Architects and the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts. His office was a training center for many younger architects, including C. B. Chapman, Adam L. Dorr, and Serenus Colburn. William Channing Whitney was a member of the Minneapolis Art Commission, had his architect's office located at the Loan & Trust Building, and resided at 2514 Fourth Avenue South according to the 1909 city directory. Katharine Whitney married Francis Bullard Kingsbury and had four children. Whitney designed 2400 Stevens Avenue, the Preston King House/Minneapolis International Hostel, built in 1909, Georgian Revival in style, 2104 Stevens Avenue South, the John Crosby House/Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy Building, built in 1904, Georgian Revival in style, 2100 Stevens Avenue South, the Luther Farrington House, built in 1906, Georgian Revival in style, 2116 Second Avenue South, the John S. Bradstreet/Eugene A. Merrill House, built in 1984, French Renaissance/Chateauesque in style, and 1006 Summit Avenue, the Governor's Residence/Horace Hills Irvine House, built in 1910, English Tudor/Jacobean Revival/Tudor Revival in style. Whitney was a member of the American Institute of Architects, the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, and a strong proponent of city parks and beautification. His office was a training center for many younger architects, such as C. B. Chapman, Adam L. Dorr, and Serenus Colburn. His designs were never really innovative and tended to follow all of the currently popular style trends, which made him fashionable with upper-income families. Whitney lived for many years in a downtown Minneapolis hotel. Whitney also designed the Minnesota Building at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. The Carpenter Mansion, 314 Clifton Avenue, Minneapolis, was built in 1906 as the home of the founder of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra and replicated parts of the Samuel Culbertson Mansion in Louisville, Kentucky. Whitney has been credited with introducing the Georgian Revival architectural style to Minneapolis.

H. I. Wicks, of the architectural firm Green and Wicks of Buffalo, New York, was an exception in designing a St. Paul building, since only a handful of houses on Summit Avenue were designed by out-of-state architects. H. I. Wicks, architect, designed 808 Summit Avenue, the Horace E. Thompson House, built in 1903, Renaissance Revival in style.

Gustave Wiegner, architect, designed 2037 Summit Avenue, the Morris Fineberg House, built in 1928, Twenties Villa in style.

C. W. "Cap" Wigington, the first registered African-American architect, was the assistant to Charles A. Bassford. From 1915 to 1949, Wigington was an architect employed by the City of St. Paul. Clarence Wesley "Cap" Wigington (1883-1967) was born in Kansas, raised in Omaha, Nebraska, won three first prizes in charcoal, pencil, and pen and ink at an art competition during the Trans-Mississippi World's Fair in Omaha in 1899, left an Omaha art school to work for Thomas R. Kimball, then president of the American Institute of Architects, married Viola Williams, designed a small brick potato chip factory in Sheridan, Wyoming, in 1908 and then took over operations of that potato chip factory, returned to architecture and moved to St. Paul in 1913, worked as a draftsman and designer in the St. Paul city architect's office, drawing up plans for schools, golf clubhouses, fire stations, park buildings, airports and the fabled Winter Carnival ice castles of the 1930's and 1940's, was the nation's first black municipal architect, was among the 13 founders of the Sterling Club, a social club for railroad porters, bellboys, waiters, drivers and other black men, founded the Home Guards of Minnesota, a black military group established in 1918 when racial rules prohibited his entry into the Minnesota National Guard during World War I, began a private architectural practice in California after his retirement in 1949, and then moved to Kansas City, where he died. Frank X. Tewes joined Clarence Wesley "Cap" Wigington in designing the Highland Park Water Tank in St. Paul, the Hamline Junior High School in St. Paul in 1924, and the Ames School in St. Paul in 1928.

C. P. Wildung, architect, designed 783 Fairmount Avenue, the O. J. Reynolds House, built in 1894, Shingle in style.

J. B. Wiles, architect, designed 1988 Summit Avenue, the J. A. Childs House/Maryhill Convent and Renewal Center, built in 1914.

William H. Willcox (1832-1929) was born in Brooklyn, practiced as an architect and was a leading church designer in New York, Chicago, and Nebraska, designed the parish house for the Church of the Ascension, Chicago, in 1881, was a partner of Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., from 1885 to 1889, designed St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal Church, 754-758 East Fourth Street, St. Paul, in 1888, was a partner in 1890 in Seattle, Washington, with William E. Boone (1830-1921), established an architectural practice in Los Angeles, California, in 1890, designed the Kings County, California, courthouse in 1896, designed the First Baptist Church of Los Angeles in 1897, relocated to northern California in 1898 after unsuccessfully suing the church for his fee, maintained a practice in San Francisco from 1899 to 1904, designed the Washoe County, Nevada, library building in 1904, and died in Yountville, California. Lieutenant William H. Willcox, as a topographic officer and Aide De Camp on the staff of Brigadier General Abner Doubleday during the Civil War, prepared a map of the battle of Antietam/Sharpsburg, and, as an aide-de-camp and topographical officer on the staff of Major General John F. Reynolds, prepared a map of the battle of Gettysburg. William Willcox and Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., designed 587-601 Summit Avenue: Summit Terrace/the F. Scott Fitzgerald House, built in 1889; Richardsonian Romanesque in style. William H. Willcox designed 506 Summit Avenue, the Charles S. Bunker House, built in 1882, Colonial Revival in style, 754-758 East Fourth Street, the Former St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal Church/Condominiums, built in 1888, first altered in 1905, Victorian Gothic/Craftsman Gothic in style, 633 Fairmount Avenue, the Frank B. Kellogg House, built in 1891, Queen Anne in style, and 266 Summit Avenue, the Driscoll/Weyerhaeuser House, built between 1884 and 1885, Queen Anne/Richardsonian Romanesque in style. Willcox & Johnston, architects, designed 6 Crocus Hill/former 529 Goodrich Avenue, the T. L. Schurmeier House, built in 1903, Georgian Revival in style, 701 Fairmount Avenue, the G. H. Ralston House, built in 1892, Queen Anne in style, 703 Fairmount Avenue, the G. L. Beardslee House, built in 1889, Shingle in style, 813 Fairmount Avenue, the F. H. Loomis House, built in 1889, 613 Goodrich Avenue, the C. J. A. Morris House, built in 1890, Shingle in style, 751 Goodrich Avenue, the C. M. Power House, built in 1890, Georgian Revival in style, and 535 Grand Hill, the F. G. Ingersoll House, built in 1894, Queen Anne in style.

George Wirth (1851- ) was born in Bavaria, Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1869, initially resided in Utica, New York, then Chicago, then returned to Utica, New York, and lived and practiced in St. Paul from 1879 until 1889. During those years, he also practiced in Duluth, and for two years, 1885 and 1886, he was a partner with Oliver G. Traphagen (1854-1932.) George Wirth also was a partner of Balston Cooper Kenway. George Wirth was born in Bavaria and attended the Polytechnical Institute at Ratisbonne (Regensburg), Upper Palatinate District, Germany. In 1876, he attended Cornell University. George Wirth was one of the most significant architects to work in Duluth in the early 1880's, and was particularly noted for his design of the 1883 Duluth Grand Opera House. After the Wirth and Traphagen partnership split in 1886, George Wirth continued to live and practice in St. Paul for three more years, after which no further information of his whereabouts apparently has been found. George Wirth designed the Eastman Flats on Grove Street on Nicollet Island, Minneapolis, 541 Portland Avenue, the C. J. Berryhill House, built in 1896, Queen Anne in style, 475 Summit Avenue, the James Gamble House, built between 1880-1890, Queen Anne in style, 541 Portland Avenue, the C. J. Berryhill House, built in 1896, Queen Anne in style, 641 West Lincoln Avenue, the Davidson/Lyon House; Built in 1907, Queen Anne in style, 239 Summit Avenue, the Gen. William B. Bond House/Colonel William B. Bend House, built in 1882, Elizabethan/Victorian/Altered Tudor Revival in style, 400 Summit Avenue, the Maurice Auerbach and Matilda Rice Auerbach House/Ordway House, built in 1882/1883 and remodeled extensively in the 1920's; originally French Second Empire/Queen Anne/Altered Victorian in style, 475 Summit Avenue, the Gamble/Bacon House/James Gamble House, built between 1880-1890, Queen Anne in style, and 504-506 Summit Avenue, the Charles S. Bunker House, built in 1882, Georgian Revival/Colonial Revival in style.

Lund Wirth, architect, designed 1649 Summit Avenue, the Fred Anderson House, built in 1922, British American Renaissance in style.

Kindy C. Wright and Charles Hausler, architects, designed 1484 Summit Avenue, the Dr. S. N. Mogilner House, built in 1922, Early Modern Rectilinear in style, and 1397 Summit Avenue, the S. J. Melady House, built in 1922; Dutch Colonial in style.

Wyvill and Stewart, architects, designed 1818 Summit Avenue, the Bernard P. Rosenstein House, built in 1916 and altered later with porch addition, Ornate Prairie Style/Early Modern Rectilinear in style.

William Yungbauer was a Vienna-trained woodcarver who was brought to St. Paul in the early 1890's by James J. Hill to supervise the interior carving at the Hill mansion. Yungbauer remained after the construction of the Hill mansion, opened his own shop in St. Paul, and carved a number of pieces for the Louis Hill house. Yungbauer was an original member of the St. Paul Rotary Club in 1910 and was the president of the St. Paul Jaycees in 1932.

Martha Yunker, renovation architect, designed the renovation of 2697 East Lake of the Isles Parkway, built in 1900, Victorian in style.

John Yust, architect, designed the replacement foundation in 1999 for 365 Michigan Street, the Schneider-Bulera House, built in 1850, Vernacular Greek Revival in style.

Rudolph G. Zelzer, an architect employed by C. H. Johnston, resided at 194 Congress Street West. R. G. Zelzer and C. W. Wigington were the architects who designed the ventilation changes for the Dale Street Garage and Workshop in 1945 and the Greenhouse Smoke Stack and the Phalen Park Pavilion Back Bar and Lunch Counter in 1947. In 1947, R. G. Zelzer also designed the Winter Carnival Ice Palace. R. G. Zelzer also was a designer of some of the buildings no longer extant at the Faribault, Minnesota, State School and Hospital site with C. H. Johnston, Charles A. Hauser, and Haarstick, Lundgren & Associates.

Albert Zschocke (1859-1892,) architect, was born in Germany, immigrated to Wisconsin, moved to St. Paul, initially worked for George Wirth and William Willcox, established a solo practice in 1885, and designed 827 Mound Street, the Giesen-Hauser House/Gregory Ward and Nancy Ward Residence, built in 1891; Queen Anne in style, and 792 Fairmount Avenue, the S. C. Cook House, built in 1927, Queen Anne in style. Albert Zschocke also was the architect in 1886-1887 for St. Matthew's Church, 7 Robie Street West, a property designated for heritage preservation in St. Paul. Albert Zschocke ( -1917) died in Ramsey County.

Information from the University of Minnesota, Northwest Architectural Archives, was used in this webpage.

This webpage was last updated on June 29, 2011.