Thursday Night Hikes: St. Albans/Lower Crocus Hill Architecture Notes, Part 1

Thursday Night Hikes: St. Albans/Lower Crocus Hill Architecture Notes, Part 1


Observations on Architectural Styles, Part 1

St. Albans/Lower Crocus Hill

Assembled by

Lawrence A. Martin

Webpage Creation: November 20, 2002

General.

There is a 1916 map of Crocus Hill.

In General: The residential sections of Summit Hill include Grand Hill and Crocus Hill and hundreds of houses of historical and architectural interest to the city. Summit Hill was part of the nine mile stretch of land along the Mississippi River that Lieutenant Zebulon Pike acquired in 1805 for the construction of a fort. Little settlement occurred until 1854, when land was auctioned to the public and the area began to be settled by dairy and truck farmers who sold their produce in St. Paul. Grand Avenue was platted in 1871 by William S. Wright and John Wann, who were officials of the St. Paul Railway Company that was responsible for the operation of the first horse drawn streetcar line on Grand Avenue in 1872. By 1890, the Twin City Railway Company built an electric streetcar line on Grand Avenue and the streetcars led to an influx of moderate income residents to the area. The architects who designed buildings in Summit Hill and the original residents of the area represent a virtual "Who's Who" of influential architects and the city's most prominent social, political and business leaders. One of the older multiple unit dwellings is the brick rowhouse at 21-27 St. Albans Street, which was built in 1892-1893 and features stepped gables, bow windows and Romanesque details, such as rounded arched window and door openings. Extremely popular along Grand Avenue and the side streets which flank it were three story, three bay brick apartment blocks with open balconies. [See note for the St. Paul Street RailRoad.] [See note on the Twin City Rapid Transit Company.]

Specific Structures. The following presents available information on the housing styles of specific structures located along the hike:

1 Crocus Hill: John D. O'Brien House/Cass Gilbert House; Built in 1905 (1891 according to the National Register of Historic Places and 1880 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne/Tudor Revival in style; Cass Gilbert and James Knox Taylor, architects (E. P. Bassford, architect, and J. H. Donahue, builder, according to the National Register of Historic Places.) The structure is a two story, 3666 square foot, five bedroom, two bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John D. O'Brien and Mrs. Sarah Slater all resided on Crocus Hill. The 1902 and 1904 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. J. D. O'Brien resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that D. J. O'Brien and Mrs. J. D. O'Brien both resided at this address. Dillon J. O'Brien was a World War I veteran who resided at this address in 1919. The 1920 city directory indicates that John C. I. Corning, the secretary and treasurer of the Corning-Donohue Brick Company, resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Corning and their daughters all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that John C. I. Corning, the president of Corning-Donohue Inc., a brick and building materials firm, and his wife, Julia Corning, resided at this address. In 1934, John C. I. Corning, Judith O'Brien Corning, Judith Corning, and Elizabeth Corning all resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Clifford J. Corning, who attended the school from 1904 until 1906 and who was employed by the Corning-Donohue, Inc., resided at this address. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that John C. I. Corning, who attended the school from 1904 until 1906 and who is employed by Corning-Donohue, located at the Endicott Building, resided at this address. John C. I. Corning (1889- ) was the son of John Wheeler Leavitt Corning (1844-1921) and Mary Elizabeth Rogers Corning (1849-1919,) and the grandson of Edward Corning (1802-1861) and Catharine Matilda Austin Corning (1813-1853,) had four siblings, Leavitt Corning (1870- ,) Mary Benedict Corning (1872- ,) Charles Rogers Corning (1874- ,) and Emily Austin Corning (1880- ) and married Mary Judith O'Brien. Leavitt Corning was the son of Mary Elizabeth Rogers Corning (1849- ) and John Wheeler Leavitt Corning (1844-1921,) who moved to St. Paul before 1896, where John Corning was the treasurer and general superintendent of the Corning Clay Works, located along Phalen Creek. Leavitt Corning was educated in the St. Paul public schools, was the class president of the Class of 1889 at St. Paul Central High School, married Margaret McCallum Judson in 1870, was a member of the Junior Pioneer association of Ramsey County in 1925, and was the president-secretary of Corning, Inc. Leavitt Corning had a copyright for "The Razoo," Vol. 2, No. 3, in 1906. Leavitt Corning was a St. Paul city alderman from the Seventh Ward from 1908 until 1914 and was a delegate to Republican National Convention from Minnesota in 1916, serving on the credentials committee, and again was a delegate to Republican National Convention from Minnesota in 1920. Leavitt Corning also was a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives representing Ramsey County (District 40) from 1915 until 1921 and was the head of the Corning Advertising Agency. Leavitt Corning was best man in the wedding of Eleanor Collins Clemens, the daughter of Mr. And Mrs. Augustus D. Clemens III, and Norman Brooke Dix (1909-1992,) the son of Mr. and Mrs. William Frederick Dix, in San Antonio, Texas, in 1938. Leavitt Corning resided at The Angus Hotel, 165 Western Avenue North, in 1930. Leavitt Corning, Jr., was a petroleum engineer from Texas. Leavitt Corning, Jr., was the author of Leavitt Corning, Jr., Baronial Forts of the Big Bend , Austin, Texas, Trinity University Press, 1967, and was coauthor with Roy L. Swift, of Three Roads to Chihuahua, Austin, Texas, Eakin Press, 1988. Leavitt Corning, Jr., and Mary Blair Holmes were the parents of Margaret Corning in Bexar County, Texas, in 1934, of Mary Blair Corning in Bexar County, Texas, in 1936, and of Josie Holmes Corning in Bexar County, Texas, in 1940. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Leavitt Corning, Jr. (1905- ,) was born in St. Paul, attended the school from 1920 until 1924, graduated from Princeton University, was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Air Force during World War II, was a geologist employed by the Gulf Oil Corp. from 1932 until 1936, was a geologist employed by the Plymouth Oil Company from 1936 until 1942, was the director of sales and exploration employed by Jack Ammann Photogrammatic Engineers of San Antonio, and was a member of the board of directors of the San Antonio Community Chest, was the president of the San Antonio Travelers' Aid Society, was a member of the Town Council of Terrill Hills, Texas, was a member of the San Antonio Country Club, was a member of the Order of the Alamo, and was a member of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Leavitt Corning, Jr., married Mary Blair Holmes in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1932 and the couple had three children, Margaret Corning (1934- ,) Blair Corning (1937- ,) and Josie Corning (1940- .) In 1920, the Corning-Donohue Brick Company was located at the Ryan Building and its officers were Charles R. Corning, president, John H. Donohue, Jr., vice president, and John C. I. Corning, secretary and treasurer. The Corning burial plot at Oakland Cemetery includes the graves of J. W. Leavitt Corning (1844-1921,) Mary Elizabeth Corning (1849-1919,) William Steadman Corning (1877-1880,) Anna Fraser (1884-1890,) Leavitt Corning (1870-1935,) Margaret M. C. Corning (1885-1961,) and Charles Rogers Corning (1874-1943.) John Dillon O'Brien ( -1946) died in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Dillon John O'Brien ( -1952) died in Washington County and John Wheeler Leavitt Corning ( -1921,) Leavitt Corning ( -1935,) John C. Corning ( -1951), and James D. O'Brien (1898-1978) all died in Ramsey County. Sarah Lavina Slater ( -1944) died in Hennepin County. Judith Corning (1891-1988) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Slater, and died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Cameron H. Blodgett and Ruth E. Blodgett. Cameron Blodgett served as executive director of the Minnesota Press Council from 1977 to 1984. Cameron Blodgett was a son of St. Paul developer Henry P. Blodgett (1923-2006,) who helped plan, finance and manage the construction of the $45 million Ordway Music Theater/Ordway Center for the Performing Arts in the early 1980's and the $60 million, seven-story, Science Museum of Minnesota in the 1990's and who, as an employee of Sterns & Associates, managed a renovation project at the historic St. Paul Hotel. Henry Blodgett was a 1942 graduate of St. Paul Academy and served on its Board of Trustees from 1961 to 1981. The Minnesota Press Council was founded in 1971 by directors of the Minnesota Newspaper Association to mediate disputes between the public and the press, originally with 18,024 members, half of whom from the mass communications media and the other half from the public. The council consists of twelve media representatives and twelve individual citizens. Cameron Blodgett was succeeded by Thomas Patterson. In 1977, the name of the organization was changed to the Minnesota News Council and is the only such state organization in the country. [See note on Cass Gilbert.] [See note for John D. O'Brien for 230 Banfil Street.] [See note on Taylor for 365 Summit Avenue.] [See note for the Corning-Donohue, Inc. for 797 Goodrich Avenue.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

2 Crocus Hill (former 558 Goodrich Avenue:) Clarence Howard Johnston, Sr., House; Built in 1909; Queen Anne/Tudor Revival in style. The structure is a two story, 5891 square foot, eight bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Albert B. Savage resided at this address from 1885 to 1888 and that Clarence E. Johnston resided at this address from 1889 to 1936. The 1885 and 1887 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. Albert B. Savage and Charles A. Savage all resided at this address. The 1902 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Clarence H. Johnston resided at this address. The 1904 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Johnston resided at this address. In 1916, Clarence Howard Johnston was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Clarence H. Johnston,, their daughter, and Mrs. C. B. Thurston all resided at this address. World War I veteran Harrison H. Johnston resided at this address in 1919. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#16295) indicate that Harrison Requa Johnston (1896- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Second Lieutenant in the 337th Machine Gun Battalion of the 88th Division, who was born in St. Paul, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including the Center Section, Haute Alsace, was awarded one gold service chevron, was employed by Stacy & Braun Bonds after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his father, C. H. Johnston, at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that William H. Fobes, the treasurer of the North Western Fuel Company, resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mary A. Thurston (1837-1921,) the widowed mother of William H. Thurston, who was born in Ohio to parents born in the United States and who died of inanition-senility, resided at this address in 1921. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Johnston and Mr. and Mrs. Harrison R. Johnston all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Clarence H. Johnston, an architect, and his wife, Mary L. Johnston, resided at this address. In 1934, Clarence H. Johnston, Jr., Naneen Wilson Johnston, and Howard Thurston Johnston all resided at this address and were members of the Somerset Club and the St. Paul Athletic Club. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that William F. Burns (1924- ,) who attended the school from 1936 until 1940 and who married Patricia Joan Canan, resided at this address. There is a Mr. and Mrs. Harrison R. Johnston, Jr. Fund at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Cyrus Brooks Thurston, the son of Reuben Harris Thurston and Mary Morse Brooks Thurston and the grandson of Peter Thurston and Hannah Butler Wheeler Thurston, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great great grandfather Moses Thurston, a Private in the Massachusetts troops, during the Revolutionary War. William H. Thurston, the son of Cyrus Brooks Thurston and Mary A. Harrison Thurston, the grandson of Reuben Harris Thurston and Mary Morse Brooks Thurston and the great grandson of Peter Thurston and Hannah Butler Wheeler Thurston, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great great great grandfather Moses Thurston, a Private in the Massachusetts troops, during the Revolutionary War. Albert B. Savage ( -1889) was originally from Toronto, Ontario, Canada, married Sarah W. Adams (1839- ,) the daughter of John Quincy Adams and Ada Walker Adams, in 1865, resided in St. Paul, and died in California. Albert B. Savage was an attendee of the American Forestry Congress in 1883. Sarah Adams Savage, who was born in Massachusetts, was the widow of Albert B. Savage, was a descendant of Capt. Ebenezer Smith, and was a member of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Albert B. Savage and Sarah W. Adams Savage were the parents of four children, Charles Albert Savage (1866- ,) Frederick Adams Savage (1870- ,) Arthur Harold Savage (1872- ,) and Francis Joseph Savage (1875- .) Charles Albert Savage (1866- ) was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, moved to Minnesota as a child, resided in St. Paul, graduated from Johns Hopkins University in 1895 with a doctorate degree in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit, was an instructor of Latin at the University of Minnesota from 1899 until 1903, was a professor of Latin and Greek at the University of Minnesota after 1903, was the author of The Athenian family: a sociological and legal study, based chiefly on the works of Attic orators, published in Baltimore, Maryland, by the Lord Baltimore Press in 1907, and retired as an emeritus professor of Greek in the Classics Department in 1936. William H. Fobes (1870- ,) the son of Nathan Fobes and Elizabeth Keith Fobes, was born in Brooklyn, New York, was educated in public and private grammar schools in Brooklyn, New York, was educated at the Orange, New Jersey, High School, was employed by H. B. Claflin & Company, a wholesale dry goods merchant in New York from 1880 until 1890, moved to St. Paul in 1890, was a clerk employed by the North West Fuel Company in 1893, was the assistant treasurer of the North West Fuel Company in 1900, was the treasurer of the North West Fuel Company in 1913, participated in the North West Tennis Tournament in Deephaven, Minnesota, representing St. Paul, in 1901, married Gertrude Allen Kirk, the daughter of R. A. Kirk, a St. Paul hardware merchant, in 1905, was a member of the White Bear Yacht Club, was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1922, was a member of the St. Paul Amateur Athletic club, was a member of the Virginia Street Swedenborgian Church, resided at 307 Laurel Avenue in 1907, and officed at the Pioneer Press Building in 1907. Gertrude Allen Kirk Fobes was a teacher at the Sabbath School of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church in 1900. Cyrus Brooks Thurston ( -1915,) Cyrus Thurston Johnston ( -1920,) Clarence H. Johnston (1859-1936,) and Albert Savage ( -1951) all died in Ramsey County. Naneen Wilson Johnston (1889-1980) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Hennepin County. Charles Savage ( -1926,) William H. Thurston ( -1936,) and Charles Albert Savage ( -1954) all died in Hennepin County. C. Howard Johnston (1888-1959) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Thurston, and died in Ramsey County. The last sale of this property was in 2000 and the sale price was $690,000. The current owners of record of the property are Richard D. Belkin and Gabrielle M. Gerber. Richard D. Belkin is a graduate of the University of Arizona and Rush Medical College of Chicago, Illinois, did his internship at Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, did his residency at the University of Cincinnati Hospitals, Cincinnati, Ohio, and is a doctor with Minneapolis Radiology. [See note on Clarence H. Johnston.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

3 Crocus Hill (former 570 Goodrich Avenue:) Former J. Q. Adams House; Built in 1962 according to Ramsey County property tax records; Georgian Revival in style. The structure is a two story, 4918 square foot, five bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The original structure on this site, designed by Cass Gilbert, was built in 1888 and was subsequently razed. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that John Q. Adams resided at this address from 1884 to 1902. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John Q. Adams, Mrs. Charlotte Adams, and John W. Adams all resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John Q. Adams, their daughters, and John W. Adams all resided on Crocus Hill. The 1891 city directory indicates that John Q. Adams resided at this address and that John W. Adams boarded at this address. The 1892 and 1894 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. John Q. Adams and Mr. and Mrs. John W. Adams all resided at this address. The 1896, 1898 and 1900 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. John Q. Adams and Mrs. A. E. Walker all resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Ada Walker Adams (1831-1901,) who was born in the United States and died of a carcinoma, resided at this address in 1901. The 1902 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John Q. Adams resided at this address. The 1904 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Adams and John Q. Adams all resided at this address. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Thomas Harriss Larke resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Fobes resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that W. H. Fobes resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that William H. Forbes, Sr., his wife, Caroline Forbes, William H. Forbes, Jr., a student, and Robert Forbes all resided at this address. In 1934, Caroline Weed Fobes, William K. Fobes, Mary E. Fobes, and Gertrude Fobes all resided at this address. Caroline Fobes was the widow of William Fobes and was a member of the Womens Club of St. Paul in 1934. The pipe organ at the Virginia Street Swedenborgian Church was given in 1919 by William H. Fobes, a longtime volunteer organist, in memory of his mother, Elizabeth Fobes. William Henry Forbes (1815-1875) was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, came to Minnesota in 1837, was a partner of Norman W. Kittson, was engaged in the Indian trade for a number of years, was an employee of the American Fur Company, was an employee of the St. Paul Outfit, married Agnes Faribault (1829-1853,) the half-Dakota daughter of the daughter of Alexander Faribault and Mary Elizabeth Graham Faribault, in 1846, moved to St. Paul in 1847, was an incorporator of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1849, was a member of the Minnesota Territorial Council, representing Ramsey County (Districts 2 and 3) from 1849 until 1853, married A.B. Cory in 1854, subsequently married Louise Brunelle, was the St. Paul Postmaster from 1853 until 1857, served in the United States Army during the Sioux Uprising of 1862 and until 1866 as quartermaster, commissary, and brevet Major, was the County Auditor of Ramsey County, was the Indian Agent at the Devil's Lake Agency from 1871 until 1875, was Roman Catholic, resided at the corner of Fith Street and Robert Street, at the Devil's Lake Agency, and was buried in Calvary Cemetery in St. Paul. Thomas Harriss Larke (1864-1927,) the son of Thomas Larke (1836-1870,) a Second Lieutenant in the Second Minnesota Cavalry between 1863 and 1866 during the American Civil War, and Mary Ann Harriss Larke (1841-1919,) was born at Markesan, Green Lake County, Wisconsin, was educated in the public schools of Markesan, Wisconsin, was a telegraph operator employed by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul RailRoad from 1881 until 1882, was a telegraph operator and clerk employed by the Chicago & NorthWestern RailRoad from 1882 until 1885, was the secretary to the general manager of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley RailRoad from 1885 until 1887, was the secretary to the general manager of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic RailRoad from 1887 until 1890, was a commercial agent employed by the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic RailRoad from 1890 until 1898, married Elizabeth "Bessie" Watson (1872-1960,) the daughter of Edward Michael Watson (1840-1906) and Imogene Ladusky Oakes Watson (1852-1932,) in Marquette, Michigan, in 1891, was a passenger agent and an assistant general passenger agent employed by the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic RailRoad from 1898 until 1900, was the Northwestern passenger agent employed by the Dominion & White Star Lines after 1900, was an Episcopalian, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, officed at 9 East Sixth Street at 1907, and died in Oakland, California. Elizabeth Watson Larke was born in Marquette, Michigan, and died in Menlo Park, California. Thomas Harriss Larke, Sr., and Elizabeth Watson Larke were the parents of children, Donald Watson Larke (1893-1967,) Janet Larke (1895-1895,) Thomas Harriss Larke, Jr. (1897-1976,) Harvey Edward Larke (1898-1977,) William Kyrle Larke (1901-1968,) and Elizabeth Corinth Larke (1909-2001.) Thomas Harriss Larke, Jr., was born in Duluth, Minnesota, married Virginia Patrice Robbins (1905-1987,) the daughter of Samuel Edgar Underhill Robbins (1871-1945) and Janet "Jessie" Hardie Robbins (1872-1946,) in 1926 at Burlingame, California, was a member of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of ancestor Benjamin Beardsley, was a vice president of the Northern California Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution, was a Captain in the U. S. Army during World War I, was awarded a Freedom Foundation Award for his work as Director of Civil Defense of the Red Cross in San Francisco, California, during World War II, was an insurance broker, was a member of the Phoenix Society of San Francisco, California, was associated with the San Francisco Fire Department Museum, was an Episcopalian, and died at Fairfax, Marin County, California. William Henry Forbes (1815-1875) was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, initially apprenticed in the hardware trade, then accepted a clerkship with the American Fur Company, moved to Minnesota in 1837, clerked for Henry Hastings Sibley at Mendota, Minnesota, until 1847, moved to St. Paul to run the "St. Paul Outfit" for the American Fur Company, was a member of the Territorial Council from 1849 until 1853, representing Ramsey County (Districts 2 and 3,) was President of the Minnesota Territorial Council in 1852, became the St. Paul Postmaster from 1853 until 1856, became a partner in the fur trade with Norman Kittson in 1853 when the American Fur Company discontinued operations in St. Paul, was on General Henry Hastings Sibley's staff in the military operation against the Dakota in 1862, acted as the Provost Marshal for the military trials of Dakota at Mankato, Minnesota, then was commissioned as a Commissary of Subsistence by President Lincoln, accompanied General Sibley's expedition against the Dakota into Dakota Territory in 1863, was Chief Commissary in Northern Missouri from 1864 until 1866, returned to St. Paul in 1866, and was appointed the Indian Agent at Fort Totten/Devil's Lake, Dakota Territory, where he died. William Henry Forbes married Agnes Faribault in 1846 and subsequently married Amanda B. Cory of Cooperstown, New York, in 1854. John Quincy Adams was the husband of Ada Walker Adams (1842-1901,) the daughter of Artemus B. Walker and Adeline Willey Walker and the granddaughter of Billings Walker and Hannah Proctor Walker, who was born in Perry, New York, married John Q. Adams in 1865, moved to Minnesota in 1877, and was the first state regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution. John Quincy Adams, the son of Lucius Smith Adams and Eliza Prentice Adams, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfathers Ebenezer Smith, Captain of the Massachusetts Line, Simon Adams, Captain of the Massachusetts Militia, and Theodore Parmalee, Lieutenant in Sheldon's Battalion of the Connecticut Light Horse. John Walker Adams, the son of John Quincy Adams and Ada Walker Adams and the grandson of Lucius Smith Adams and Eliza Prentice Adams, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great great grandfathers Timothy Rider, a private in the Massachusetts Troops, Ebenezer Smith, a Captain of the Massachusetts Line, Simon Adams, a Captain of the Massachusetts Militia, Gideon Walker, a Second Lieutenant in the Massachusetts Matrosses, Leonard Proctor, a Lieutenant in the Massachusetts Troops, Zechariah Hungerford, a private in the Connecticut Troops, and Theodore Parmalee, a Lieutenant in Sheldon's Battalion of the Connecticut Light Horse. John Quincy Adams (1837- ) was born in Canaan, Connecticut, the son of Dr. Lucius Adams and Eliza Prentice Adams, was educated in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, was initially employed as an amanuensis by novelist G. P. R. James, moved to Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in 1839, was educated at Williams Academy, was employed by the Housatonic Bank in 1842, was then was made the teller of the Pittsfield Bank, traveled in Europe in 1858, was employed by the C. S. Gzowski and Sir David Macpherson iron works in Toronto, Canada, in 1859, engaged in banking in New York City from 1865 until 1873, married Ada Walker, the daughter of Artemus B. Walker and Adeline Willey Walker, in New York in 1865, moved to Minnesota in 1873, was employed as a representative of David Dows & Company, was the president of the Northern Pacific Elevator Company in Minneapolis from 1887 to 1891, and later was engaged in the grain commission business. John Quincy Adams and Ada Walker Adams had two children, John Walker Adams (1866- ) and Charlotte Bell Adams (Mrs. Samuel C.) Stickney (1868- ,) who was adopted. John Walker Adams married Priscilla Fentham Horn and the couple had one child, John Walker Adams. Samuel C. Stickney and Charlotte Adams Stickney had two children, Alpheus John Stickney and Lawrence Charles Stickney (1891- .) Ada Walker (Mrs. John Quincy) Adams (1842-1901) was born in Perry, New York, married John Quincy Adams in 1865, moved to Minnesota in 1877, was involved in the organization of patriotic societies, and was the first state regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution for Minnesota. John Walker Adams (1866- ) was a son of John Q. Adams, was born in New York, and married Priscilla Horn, the daughter of Henry J. Horn, in 1888. Charlotte Bell Adams, an adopted daughter of John Q. Adams, married Samuel C. Stickney, a son of A. B. Stickney, in 1888. In 1936, Mrs. William H. Fobes was a member of the Assembly of St. Paul, a society organization which conducted an annual ball. Other Assembly members in 1936 were Mrs. Edwin White, Mrs. A. H. Cathcart, Mrs. William Hamm, Jr., Mrs. Samuel M. Shepard, Mrs. Leo E. Owens, Mrs. B. W. Scandrett, Mrs. Shreve M. Archer, Mrs. Egil Boeckmann, Miss Mary Saunders Bulkley, Mrs. Springer H. Brooks, Mrs. Edward C. Brown, Mrs. Edward Brooks, Mrs. Donald S. Culver, Mrs. Thomas L. Daniels, Mrs. Watson P. Davison, Mrs. Frederic E. B. Foley, Mrs. Edward T. Foley, Mrs. William G. Graves, Mrs. Chauncey M. Griggs, Mrs. Milton W. Griggs, Mrs. Theodore W. Griggs, Mrs. George S. Hardenbergh, Mrs. Jule M. Hannaford, Jr., Mrs. Louis W. Hill, Mrs. Horace H. Irvine, Mrs. Frank B. Kellogg, Mrs. Roger S. Kennedy, Jr., Mrs. Horace Klein, Mrs. Richard C. Lilly, Mrs. Frank W. Lightner, Mrs. Samuel Mairs, Mrs. Alexander A. McDonell, Mrs. John G. Ordway, Mrs. Frank J. Ottis, Mrs. Vincent R. O'Brien, Mrs. John N. Peyton, Mrs. Philip Ray, Mrs. Harold J. Richardson, Mrs. Ernest T. F. Richards, Mrs. Edward N. Saunders, Jr., Mrs. David C. Shepard, Mrs. Samuel Epes Turner, Mrs. John P. Uham, Mrs. Frederick E. Weyerhaeuser, Mrs. Frederick K. Weyerhaeuser, Mrs. Rudolph M. Weyerhaeuser, and Mrs. Harry B. Zimmerman. Mrs. William H. Fobes resided at White Bear Lake, Minnesota, at some time. Gertrude Kirk Fobes ( -1920,) John Quincy Adams ( -1922,) William Huntington Fobes, Sr., ( -1932,) and John Walker Adams, Jr., (1889-1973) all died in Ramsey County. Caroline W. Fobes (1871-1958) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Curtis, and died in Ramsey County. William Huntington Fobes, Jr., (1910-1992) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Kirk, and died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is U. S. Bank. [See note for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul RailRoad.] [See note for the Chicago & NorthWestern RailRoad.] [See note for the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic RailRoad.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.]

4 Crocus Hill (584 Goodrich Avenue:) Rice-Merriam House; Queen Anne in style; Built in 1915 (1886 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) William Channing Whitney, architect; Dowling & Ruse, builders. The structure is a two story, 9961 square foot, six bedroom, five bathroom, three half-bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This huge dramatically situated brick house is one of the most imaginative, eclectic and imposing of all the houses in the Crocus Hill and Grand Hill area, according to one commentator. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The original owner of this house was Edmund Rice, Jr., who was a real estate agent in 1887. Although Rice reportedly did not live in this house, and lived on Summit Avenue, Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Edmund Rice, Jr., resided at this address from 1887 to 1889. The 1891 city directory indicates that George R. Finch, with Finch, Van Slyke & Company, a wholesale dry goods company, resided at this address. The 1892 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. George R. Finch resided at this address. The 1894 and 1896 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Egan and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1898 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Merriam, their daughter, and Mrs. M. A. Cooke all resided at this address. The 1902 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. M. J. Flarsheim resided at this address. The 1904 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. M. J. Flarsheim and Benjamin Bear all resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Ben Baer, his daughter, Ira B. Baer, Fernand Baer, Jerome Baer, and Edwin Baer all resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Ben Baer, the president of the American National Bank and the Northern Savings Bank, resided at this address and that Edwin B. Baer, a student, Ferd B. Baer, Ira B. Baer, an assistant cashier employed by the American National Bank, and Jerome B. Baer, all boarded at this address. In 1920, the United States Adjutant-General's Office U. S. Army Register, Volume VIII, indicates that Ira Ben Baer (1888- ,) a Captain in the Field Artillery Section, resided at this address. In 1920, the United States Adjutant-General's Office U. S. Army Register, Volume VIII, indicates that Jerome Ben Baer (1892- ,) a First Lieutenant in the Infantry Section, resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Edwin Baer, Jerome Baer, F. B. Baer, Ira B. Baer, and Ben Baer all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Charles W. Stott, the president of the Stott Briquet Company, located at the Merchants Bank Building, and his wife, Cornelia Stott, resided at this address. In 1934, Charles W. Stott, Cornelia Saunders Stott, Cornelia Stott, and Caroline Stott all resided at this address. Edmund Rice (1819-1889) was born in Waitsfield, Vermont, was the brother of U.S. Senator Henry Mower Rice, moved to Kalamazoo, Michigan, in 1838, was admitted to the bar, and began practicing law in 1842, fought in the Mexican-American War with the First Michigan Volunteers in 1847, moved to St. Paul in 1849, began working as a clerk at the Minnesota Territorial Supreme Court, joined the law firm of Hollinshead & Becker. In 1851, Edmund Rice was elected to the Minnesota Territorial House of Representatives and in 1856, he was elected commissioner of Ramsey County. From 1857 to 1863, Edmund Rice served as president of the Minnesota & Pacific RailRoad Company, served as president of the St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad, and served as president of the St. Paul & Chicago Railway Company from 1863 until 1877. Rice made several trips to Europe in the interest of these companies and was denominated the father of the railway system of Minnesota. Edmund Rice served two terms in the Minnesota Senate (1865-1867 and 1875-1877,) and then served in the Minnesota House of Representatives for one year in 1877. Rice was the Democratic candidate for Minnesota Governor in 1879, served twice as mayor of St. Paul (1881-1883 and 1885-1887,) and served in the United States House of Representatives (1887-1889,) but was defeated for reelection by Samuel Snider. Edmund Rice and his wife, Anna Maria Acker Rice (1829- ,) born in New York, were married in 1848 and the couple had four children, Ellen Rice (1849- ,) who was born either in New York or in Minnesota, Sedgwick Rice (1860-1925,) who was born in Minnesota, Maria Rice (1865- ,) who was born in Minnesota, and Virginia Rice (1869-1944,) who was born in Minnesota. Ellen Rice (1826-1904) was born in Waitsfield, Vermont, moved to Mendota, Minnesota, in 1849, married William Hollinshead, a St. Paul lawyer, in 1851, resided in St. Paul, and died in St. Paul. In 1879, Ellen R. Hollinshead, the widow of William Hollinshead, resided at 42 Dayton Avenue and that Henry R. Hollinshead, a civil engineer, and Miss Nellie Hollinshead, a music teacher, both boarded at 42 Dayton Avenue. William Hollinshead (1820-1860) was born in Philadelphia, was admitted to the practice of law in New Jersey in 1841, was an attorney practicing in Philadelphia, came to St. Paul in 1850, was appointed the reporter of the Minnesota Supreme Court in 1851, replaced Ellis Whitall in the law firm partnership with Edmund Rice and George Becker in 1851, married Ellen Rice in 1851, gave an address in 1853 at the dedication of the Baldwin School (subsequently Macalester College) in St. Paul, was an unsuccessful Whig candidate for the U. S. House of Representatives in 1854, continued to practice law after the partnership dissolved in 1855 until his death in St. Paul, and compiled the Public Statutes of the State of Minnesota, 1849-1858 in 1859 with Moses Sherburne. In 1879, Edmund Rice Hollinshead (1855-1883,) a lawyer who officed at 2 East Third Street, resided at 56 1/2 West Third Street. Edmund Rice Hollinshead was born in St. Paul, the son of William Hollinshead and Ellen Rice Hollinshead, was educated at the Shattuck School in Faribault, Minnesota, graduated in 1876, was admitted to the practice of law in Minnesota in 1877, was admitted to the practice of law before the Supreme Court in 1881, moved South to deal with throat disease, and died in San Antonio, Texas. Maria Rice married William Dawson, Jr. Maria Acker Rice's brother, William Henry Acker (1833-1863,) was born in Clyde, New York, moved to Minnesota in 1854, studied law and was a bookkeeper in a bank, was State Adjutant General from 1860 to 1861, was Captain of Company C of the First Minnesota Volunteer Regiment, was wounded at First Battle at Bull Run (First Manassas, Virginia,) became Captain of Company C of the 16th U. S. Infantry, and died from a sharpshooter wound at the battle of Shiloh/Pittsburgh Landing, Tennessee, on April 6, 1862. Rice died in White Bear Lake, Minnesota. The second railroad locomotive to operate in Minnesota, in 1862, was named after Edmund Rice. The first locomotive to operate in Minnesota, a 25 ton capacity wood burner, was named after Colonel William Crooks. Both engines were owned by the Minnesota & Pacific RailRoad Company. The Minnesota & Pacific RailRoad Company was incorporated in 1857 by act of the Minnesota Territorial Legislature to construct a line originating in Stillwater, Minnesota, on the St. Croix River, via St. Paul and St. Anthony, Minnesota, to Big Stone Lake, Minnesota, and was funded from the proceeds of a $5 million public bond. By 1862, with the addition of New York investments, the Minnesota & Pacific RailRoad completed ten miles of track, from the lower levee at St. Paul to St. Anthony Falls, Minnesota. The railroad later reorganized as the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad Company, passed to the control of the St. Paul, Minneapolis, & Manitoba Railroad Company, and eventually became part of James J. Hill's Great Northern Railway Company. Samuel Prather Snider/Sneider (1845- ,) the son of John Snider and Catherine Prather Snider, was born in Mount Gilead, Morrow County, Ohio, graduated from the Mount Gilead, Ohio, High School, attended Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, served in the 65th Ohio Regiment during the American Civil War, was wounded at the battle of Stone River, was wounded and was taken prisoner at the battle of Chickamauga, was commissioned as an officer in the U. S. Army, then engaged in commercial pursuits in New York, came to Minnesota in 1875, settled in Minneapolis, was employed in farming, iron ore mining, and real estate, was the president of the Gogebic Realty & Iron Company, organized and built the Midland RailRoad, was a Republican, was a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives representing Hennepin County (District 30) from 1885 until 1889, after a contested 1884 election, was the president of the Amazon Iron Mining Company in 1888, was the U.S. Representative for the Fourth Congressional District from 1889 to 1891, was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection to the United States House of Representatives in 1890, was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1892, died in Minneapolis, and was buried in Lakewood Cemetery. Major Sedgwick Rice, U. S. Army, Third/Fourth Cavalry, was stationed in San Fernando, Philippine Islands, in 1900 as part of U. S. military and naval forces there and resided in St. Paul with his wife, Gertrude Gaylord Rice (1868- ,) born in Kansas, a daughter, Suzana Rice (1898- ,) born in Arizona, mother Anna W. Rice (1830- ,) a sister, Virginia Rice (1868- ,) a maid, Alltea Erichson (1886- ,) born in Sweden, and a cook, Balego Bales (1883- ,) born in Japan. William Dawson (1825-1901) was born in County Cavan, Ireland, immigrated to America in 1846, moved to St. Paul in 1861, was an Episcopalian, was the mayor of St. Paul from 1878 to 1881, was a banker, and died in St. Paul. William Dawson, Jr. (1885-1972,) the son of William Dawson and Maria (Rice) Dawson, was born in St. Paul, was U. S. Vice and Deputy Consul General in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 1908, was U. S. Vice & Deputy Consul General in Barcelona, Spain, from 1908 until 1910, was U. S. Vice & Deputy Consul General in Frankfort, Germany, from 1910 until 1913, was U. S. Consul in Rosario, Argentina, from 1913 until 1917, was U. S. Consul in Montevideo, Uruguay, from 1917 until 1919, was U. S. Consul in Danzig, Poland, from 1919 until 1921, was U. S. Consul in Munich, Germany, from 1921 until 1922, was U. S. Consul General in Mexico City, Mexico, from 1928 until 1930, was U.S. Minister to Ecuador from 1930 until 1935, was U.S. Minister to Colombia from 1934 until 1937, was U. S. Minister to Uruguay from 1937 until 1939, was U. S. Ambassador to Panama from 1939 until 1941, was U. S. Ambassador to Uruguay from 1941 until 1946, was an Episcopalian, and was a member of Chi Psi. William Dawson, Jr., married Agnes Balloch Bready in 1926. William Hollinshead (1820-1860) was born in Philedelphia, Pennsylvania, moved to St. Paul in 1850, was a lawyer admitted to practice in New Jersey in 1841, and became a business partner of Edmund Rice and George L. Becker. Ellen Rice Hollinshead (1826-1904) was born in Waitsfield, Vermont, moved first to Mendota, Minnesota, then moved to St. Paul, married William Hollinshead, and died in St. Paul. William Rush Merriam (1849-1931,) a descendant of John Adams, a nephew by marriage of Winfield Scott Hancock, and the son of John Lafayette Merriam and Helen Wilder Merriam, was born in Wadham's Mills, Essex County, New York, was educated at a Racine, Wisconsin, preparatory academy and at Racine College, graduating in 1871, was a clerk at the First National Bank of St. Paul from 1871 to 1873, was the cashier for the Merchants National Bank from 1873 to 1880, was a vice president of the Merchants National Bank from 1880 to 1882, and president of the Merchants National Bank from 1882 to 1890, was a member of Minnesota House of Representatives in 1883 and in 1887, was the treasurer of the St. Paul Board of Education from 1887 to 1888, was the vice president, and later the president, of the State Agricultural Association (Minnesota State Fair) from 1886 to 1888, was the Speaker of the Minnesota House of Representatives in 1887, was the Governor of Minnesota from 1889 to 1893, was a delegate to the Republican National Convention from Minnesota in 1896, was the Director of U.S. Census from 1899 to 1903, retired to Florida, and died in Fort Sewall, Florida. William Rush Merriam married Laura Hancock in 1872 and the couple had four children, John Hancock Merriam (1874-1962,) Laura Beatrice Merriam (Mrs. James Freeman) Curtis (Mrs. John Messick) Gross (1893-1973,) Mabel DeLano Merriam (Mrs. John Tyler) Wheelwright (1876-1962,) and William Hancock Merriam (1879-1970.) Laura Hancock Merriam was a niece of General Winfield Scott Hancock. In 1888, the Republican Party rejected the incumbent, Republican Governor Andrew McGill, and endorsed William R. Merriam. In 1890, in a three-way contest for Governor, Merriam won with 36.6 percent of the vote. Merriam was appointed Director of the Census by President William McKinley in 1899, after he supported McKinley in the 1896 election and after Minnesota Senator Cushman Davis blocked all other attempts of McKinley to appoint Merriam to a Cabinet position. After his Census Bureau service, Merriam returned to private business, made his home in Washington, D.C., and was soon president of three corporations. During the following 25 years, Merriam was regularly called upon as an informal adviser to the next five Census Bureau directors. Governor Merriam successfully promoted the use of the Australian ballot for secret voting in elections. Governor Merriam also was indirectly responsible for the abolition of capital punishment in Minnesota, with the execution of William (Bill) Rose (1864-1891) of Shetek/Curie, Minnesota, in Redwood Falls, Minnesota, in 1891. Bill Rose was not a well liked man in Redwood Falls, Minnesota, was considered cruel, and appeared capable of murder. When Moses Lufkin, his neighbor, was killed, Bill Rose was accused, was convicted in 1889 after two prior trials ended in hung juries, and was sentenced to death by hanging on the same day as another convict. Both convicts tried to get their convictions commuted, but Bill Rose's sentence was left standing while the other man's sentence was commuted by Governor Merriam, apparently because Bill Rose and Governor William R. Merriam had known one another previously at Lake Kampeska, South Dakota, when Merriam was on a hunting trip, and there was bad blood between them over a past argument. On the first attempt by the county sheriff to hang him, the rope broke and Bill Rose fell to the ground. On the second attempt, the rope held, but it took 20 minutes for Bill Rose to be strangled to death on the gallows. Because of the controversy over Bill Rose's conviction and the horrific manner of his hanging, this was the one of last death penalties carried out by a county government in Minnesota. Bill Rose and Moses Lufkin had previously quarreled because Rose had been courting Lufkin's 20 year old daughter, Grace Lufkin, but the courtship had been broken off. Grace Lufkin committed suicide with a razor, slashing her own throat, shortly before Bill Rose was executed. Bill Rose was buried in a family plot in Murray County, Minnesota. William R. Merriam, the son of John L. Merriam and Mahala K. De Lano Merriam, the grandson of William S. Merriam and Rebecca Ismon Merriam, and great grandson of William B. Merriam and Rebecca Cook Merriam, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great great grandfather William Merriam, a Bedford Massachusetts Minuteman in the Concord, Massachusetts, fighting during the Revolutionary War. John L. Merriam (1828-1895) was the Speaker of the Minnesota House of Representatives in 1870-1871 and was the brother-in-law of Amherst H. Wilder. John L. Merriam built a magnificent Richardson Romanesque mansion, designed by Mould and McNicol, architects, behind the current State capitol building, which once was the site of the St. Paul Science Museum, but was demolished in 1964 to make way for the Administration Building parking ramp. Colonel John L. Merriam (1825-1895,) the son of William S. Merriam (1792-1854) and Jane Ismon Merriam (1798-1866), was born in Essex, New York, was educated at Westport Academy and Essex Academy in New York, married Mahala K. Delano ( -1857) in 1848, and the couple had one son, William R. Merriam, married Helen M. Wilder, and the couple had six children, came to Minnesota in 1860, was a banker, settled in St. Paul, where he engaged with J. C. Burbank and Captain Russell Blakeley in the staging and express business, helped to organize the First National Bank and the Merchants' National Bank of St. Paul, was president of the Merchants' National Bank, was a member of the House of Representatives representing Ramsey County (District 1) from 1870 until 1871, was the speaker of the House of Representatives, and died in St. Paul. Helen M. Wilder Merriam was the sister of Amherst Wilder. John L. Merriam was an incorporator of the First National Bank of St. Paul and of the Merchants National Bank, was an incorporator and vice president of the Minnesota Valley RailRoad/St. Paul & Sioux City RailRoad, was a vice president of the Worthington & Sioux Falls RailRoad, was a director of the St. Paul, Stillwater & Taylor's Falls RailRoad, was the president of a construction company contracted to build a portion of the Northern Pacific RailRoad, and was a stockholder of the St. Paul Foundry & Manufacturing Company. He also was a real estate developer who began purchasing land between St. Paul and Minneapolis in 1882 and developed the Merriam Park section of St. Paul. Previously, he owned Nicollet Island in Minneapolis, near St. Anthony Falls, in 1865, with William Eastman and, in 1869, in an effort to develop the southern part of the island as an industrial center, unsuccessfully attempted to tunnel under the island, causing a hole to break in the falls. The tunnel break was eventually plugged, but no further attempts were made to bring waterpower directly to Nicollet Island. John L. Merriam was a Whig who became a Republican, was a delegate to the 1876 Republican National Convention, and retired in 1875. John Hancock Merriam first married Rose Douglas Wallach (1905-1947) in Washington, District of Columbia, in 1905, then married Grace McElfresh (1881-1972,) died in La Jolla, San Diego County, California, and is buried at Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, San Diego, San Diego County, California. William Hancock Merriam was born in Saint Paul and died in Riverside County, California. George R. Finch (1839-1910) was born in Delaware, Ohio, moved to St. Paul in 1863, engaged in the wholesale dry goods business, and died in St. Paul. Edwin Baer, a partner at the law firm of Oppenheimer, Wolff & Donnelly, was the president of the Science Museum of Minnesota, and served on the board of Neighborhood House and on the board of Mount Zion Temple. The St. Paul Foundry & Manufacturing Company was organized in 1863 by C. N. Parker and M. W. Topping. The company's main products were repair parts for the Great Northern RailRoad and the Northern Pacific RailRoad. It became the Maxson Corporation, which manufactured construction steel. Caroline Stott Day (1915-2004) was one of the daughters (with Cornelia Stott Darrah and Mary Elizabeth Stott Richter) of Charles W. Stott and Cornelia Stott, graduated from the Summit School, married Robert H. Day, Sr., in 1935, raised and exhibited champion English Springer and Clumber Spaniels for over 30 years, was a certified Judge for the American Kennel Club, had a son, Robert H. Day, Jr., died in Yerington, Nevada, and was buried at Oakland Cemetery. Cornelia Saunders Stott was a member of the Minnesota branch of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America by virtue of her ancestor, James Converse. The American Historical Company, Inc., prepared a genealogical record for Cornelia Saunders Stott entitled Stott, Saunders, Converse and Allied Families, published privately in New York in 1944 or 1947. The National Society of The Colonial Dames of America, founded in 1891, an unincorporated association of 44 Corporate Societies with over 15,000 members, is dedicated to furthering an appreciation of our national heritage through historic preservation, patriotic service, and educational projects. The Society headquarters is located at Dumbarton House in Washington, D.C. The Minnesota branch of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America was formed in 1896 and was the fourth non-colonial state society to be organized. The Stott Briquet Company was the assignee for the 1935 patent #2016553, a control with interceptor for stokers, invented by Harold S. Morton and for the 1937 patent #2089704, a stoker actuating motor, invented by Harold S. Morton. George R. Finch (1839-1910) was born in Delaware, Ohio, moved to St. Paul in 1863, engaged in the wholesale dry goods business, was the president of the Minnesota State Fair Association in 1878, was elected to a life membership of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1882, became the senior member of Finch, Van Slyke, Young & Company in 1888, and died in St. Paul. Finch, Van Slyke, Young & Company became Finch, Van Slyke, Young & McConville. In 1885, George R. Finch and his friends in the Chinato Snowshoeing Club started the "St. Paul Ice Palace and Winter Carnival Association," thus starting the St. Paul Winter Carnival. Ira B. Baer was a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and was the secretary of the Northwest University of Pennsylvania Alumni Club, and was employed by the American National Bank. Jerome Ben Baer (1892-1941) married Blanche Dorothy Herman (1897-1979,) the daughter of Daniel H. Herman (1857-1935) and Nellie H. Langsdorf Herman (1863-1927) and the granddaughter of Moritz Langsdorf (1819-1896) and Hannah Hessel Langsdorf (1830-1900,) in 1924. George Raley Finch ( -1910,) Ben Baer ( -1921,) Edmund Rice ( -1928,) Morris J. Flarsheim ( -1933,) Charles W. Stott ( -1934,) Jerome B. Baer ( -1941,) and James M. Egan ( -1952) all died in Ramsey County. George R. Finch ( -1922) and Benjamin Baer ( -1945) both died in Hennepin County. Edwin B. Baer (1897-1962) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Florscheim, and died in Ramsey County. Jerome Leon Baer (1907-1989) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Shapiro, and died in Ramsey County. Fernand B. Baer (1892-1957) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Flarsheim, and died in Ramsey County. Ira B. Baer (1888-1962) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Florsheim, and died in Ramsey County. Cornelia Saunders Stott (1874-1967) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Proal, and died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are trustees Arthur W. Kaemmer and Martha H. Kaemmer. In 2003, Dr. Art Kaemmer and Martha Kaemmer were contributors to the Randy Kelly for St. Paul Mayor campaign and resided at this address. Arthur W. Kaemmer, M.D., is a retired pediatrician and community volunteer who winters in Captiva, Florida, received his medical degree from the Marquette School of Medicine in Milwaukee, completed his residency in pediatrics at the Maine Medical Center in Portland, Maine, has served on the boards of the Minnesota Chorale, the Merriam Park Community Center, his alma mater, Carleton College, VocalEssence, the American Museum of Fly Fishing, and The Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, and is the chairman of HRK Foundation and the National Medical Fellowships, Inc. Martha H. Kaemmer is a vice-president of the Minnesota Historical Society, was a 1966 graduate of Carlton College, is a member of Carlton College board of trustees, is a managing partner of the HRK Group, and is the owner of Cooks of Crocus Hill. [See note on George R. Finch for 475 Summit Avenue East.] [See note on Whitney for 2116 Second Avenue South.] [See note on Otto Bremer and the American National Bank for 738 East Fourth Street.] [See note on the First National Bank of St. Paul for 331 Maple Street.] [See note on the First National Bank of St. Paul for 331 Maple Street.] [See the note for the St. Paul & Sioux City RailRoad.] [See note on the St. Paul Foundry Company for 1074 West Linwood Avenue.] [See note for William Hollinshead for 194 McBoal Street.]

5 Crocus Hill (former 538 Goodrich Avenue:) Built in 1955. The structure is a 2708 square foot, three bedroom, three bathroom, frame rambler, with a detached garage. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Russell R. Dorr and Louise B. Dorr, husband and wife, resided at this address in 1890. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Russell R. Doer resided at this address from 1888 to 1898. The 1891 city directory indicates that Howard K. Gilman, assistant general manager for N. W. Thomson-Houston Electric Company, boarded at the Hotel Ryan. The 1892 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Howard F. Gilman, Mrs. M. J. Land, and E. R. Gilman all resided at this address. The 1894 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. R. R. Dorr resided at this address. The 1896 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Russell R. Dorr, Mrs. R. D. Handy, Miss L. N. Handy, A. E. Roberts, H. W. Wack, and Miss Annie Wilson all resided at this address. The 1898 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Russell R. Dorr, Mr. and Mrs. A. M. Wickwire, Dr. and Mrs. J. M. Welch, Mrs. Susan K. Wilson, and Miss Annie Wilson all resided at this address. The 1904 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Haslam resided at this address. The 1917 Catalogue of the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, published by James T. Brown of New York, indicated that Harold George Sommers, Class of 1919, University of Minnesota, resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. George Sommers resided at this address. World War I veterans Louis Scheffer and Harold G. Sommers (1896- ), a Sergeant, both resided at this address in 1919. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#27393) indicate that Louis Scheffer (1892- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private First Class in the Headquarters Company of the Third Pioneer Infantry, who was born in St. Paul, had blue eyes, light brown hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 8" tall, was a salesman at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including the Meuse-Argonne Offensive from September 26, 1918, until November 11, 1918, was a salesman employed by Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Mrs. Alma Scheffer, at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. George Sommers resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that George Sommers, the vice president of G. Sommers & Company, a wholesale general merchandise company, and his wife, Myrrha Sommers, resided at this address. In 1934, George Sommers and Myrrha Scheffer Sommers resided at this address. The Sommers were members of the Somerset Club, the Town and Country Country Club, and the St. Paul Athletic Club in 1934. Russell R. Dorr (1847- ) was born in Ghent, New York, moved to Vermont in 1856, was educated at Union College, Class of 1870, was a shipping clerk employed by the Sutherland Falls Marble Company, Rutland, Vermont, in 1870, moved to Burlington, Iowa, in 1871, was a partner in Acres, Blackmar & Company, a printer and publisher, and was the treasurer of the Hawkeye Company, moved to St. Paul in 1880, was the president and general manager of the Banker's Life Association, which became the Minnesota Mutual Insurance Company, and was a director of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce. Harold Sommers (1896-1970) was the son of George Sommers (1867-1946) and Myrrha Scheffer Sommers (1869-1948,) married Marjorie Hurd (1896-1986) and the couple had four children. Louis Bryan Dorr (1889-1890) was the son of Russell R. Dorr and Louise B. Dorr and died of bronchitis. Arthur Manley Wickwire, the son of Manley Horatio Wickwire and Pauline Abigail Bartholomew Wickwire, the grandson of Andrew Bartholomew and Abigail Savage Bartholomew and Alvin Benjamin Wickwire and Sally Miranda Humiston Wickwire, and the great grandson of Asabel Savage and Abigail Deming Savage and James Wickwire and Sarah Barnes Wickwire, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfathers Elisha Savage, a Second Lieutenant in Selden's Connecticut Regiment, and James Wickwire, a Private in Webb's Connecticut Continental Regiment, and of great great grandfather Enos Barnes, a Sergeant in the Connecticut Continental Line, during the Revolutionary War. Arthur Manley Wickwire, a lawyer in St. Paul, was an 1890 graduate of Williams College, was an 1893 graduate of the University of Minnesota Law School, was the author of Genealogy of the Wickware Family published by Curtiss-Way Company in New York, New York,in 1909, was a member of the Minnesota State Board of Law Examiners, and was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society. Arthur Manley Wickwire married Louis Edna Dutcher (1865- ) of Brooklyn, New York, in 1896 and the couple had two children, Arthur Manley Wickwire (1897- ) and Charles Dutcher Wickwire (1899-1901.) Arthur M. Wickwire (1867- ,) the son of Manley H. Wickwire and Pauline A. Bartholomew Wickwire, was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, was educated in South Berkshire Institute at Great Barrington, Massachusetts, graduated from Great Barrington, Massachusetts, High School in 1885, graduated from Williams College in 1890, graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1893, was admitted to the bar in Minnesota, was a lawyer, practiced law for one year in Duluth, Minnesota, moved to St. Paul in 1894 and was a partner with George B. Edgerton in Edgerton & Wickwire, then formed the law partnership of Childs, Edgerton & Wickwire with Henry W. Childs, Minnesota Attorney General, and George B. Edgerton, moved to New York in 1905, joined the partnership of Guggenheimer, Marshall & Untermyer with Randolph Guggenheimer, Louis Marshall and Samuel Untermyer in 1909, was a Republican, was a member of the Minnesota Board of Law Examiners, was a Congregationalist, and was a member of the New York County Lawyers' Association, of the New York State Bar Association, of the Long Island Historical Society, of the New London County Historical Society, of the Sons of the American Revolution, of the Society of Colonial Wars, of the New England Society of Brooklyn, of the Minnesota Society of New York, the Brooklyn Union League Club, and the Hardware Club of New York, and of the Minnesota Historical Society, resided at 117 Gates Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, in 1907, and officed at 30 Broad Street, New York City, New York, in 1907. George Sommers (1823-1899) was born in Hamburg, Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1836, settled in St. Paul in 1886, was a mail order merchant, and died in St. Paul. The Thomson-Houston Electric Company was formed in 1883 when Charles A. Coffin and a group of Lynn, Massachusetts, investors bought out Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston's American Electric Company. In 1889, Thomson-Houston bought out the Brush Company, thereby resolving an arc lamp and dynamo patent dispute. The company employed Henry Marison Byllesby, the founder of Northern States Power Company and Xcel Energy, in 1891 and sent him to St. Paul to run a subsidiary. The company grew into an enterprise of $10 million in sales and 4000 employee by 1892, when it merged with the Edison General Electric Company to form the General Electric Company. Louise Dorr (1882-1973) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Hennepin County. Howard Gilman (1894-1964) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Tillotson, and died in Hennepin County. Ray Dewitt Handy (1877-1959) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Seamans, and died in Hennepin County. John Henry Haslam ( -1936) died in Fillmore County, Minnesota. Harold G. Sommers (1896-1970) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Scheffer, and died in Ramsey County. Harold G. Sommers, Jr., (1930-1966) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hurd, and died in Dakota County, Minnesota. George Sommers ( -1946) died in Ramsey County. Myrrha Scheffer Sommers ( -1948) died in Ramsey County. In 1946, Harold G. Sommers, Jr., a student pilot at the time and living in Lake Elmo, Minnesota, purchased for $600 a BT-15 aircraft, manufactured by Vultee Aircraft, of Downey, California, military serial number 42-41689 and manufacturer's serial number 9536, from LaVern Pfeifer of Stillwater, Minnesota. The unarmed basic training aircraft, one of over 11,000 Valiants built during World War II, was released as excess inventory by the War Assets Administration by C. Christian, after service in the U. S. Army Air Corps for 18 months as a trainer, air ferry, and air materiel transport, for $200. In 1947, Sommers sold the plane to to Thomas H. North of North Aviation Company in White Bear Lake, Minnesota, who sold it to C. V. Meline of Isanti, Minnesota, in 1948, who sold it to Brant Aero at Holman Field, St. Paul, in 1950. In 1952, the plane, civilian number 69987, was sold to John Giles of Madison, Wisconsin, who sold it to Glenway Enhert of West Bend, Wisconsin, in 1952, who sold it to Edward Pachnik and Chester Pachnik of Chicago, Illinois, in 1954, and then sold to Mike Rawson of Minneapolis in 1992. The officers of G. Sommers & Company, in addition to George Sommers, were Benjamin Sommers, president, who resided at 628 Fairmount Avenue, Charles L. Sommers, secretary, who resided at 9 Crocus Hill, and Henry S. Sommers, treasurer, who resided at 794 Linwood Place. Henry Wellington Wack (1867/1869-1954) was born in Baltimore, Maryland, moved to Minnesota in 1889, was admitted to the practice of law in the State of New York, was a lawyer, was an author, was a writer for the St. Paul Globe & Dispatch for six years, moved to New York City, founded Field and Stream with John P. Burkhard in 1895, founded the Northwestern Field & Stream with Charles Hallock in 1896, contributed poetry to a poetry competition held in connection with the 250th anniversary celebration of the founding of the city of Newark, New Jersey, in 1916, and was the author of several books on travel, including The Story of the Congo Free State: social, political, and economic aspects of the Belgian system of government in Central Africa in 1905, and In Thamesland: Being the Gossiping Record of Rambles Through England from the Source of the Thames to the Sea in 1906, and books of essays, including Foundations of Our Liberty and The Romance of Victor Hugo and Juliette Drouet, published in New York by G. P. Putnams/The Knickerbocker Press in 1905. The current owner of record of the property is Lynda J. Bisanz. [See note on the G. Sommers & Company for 9 South St. Albans Street] [See the note for Russell Dorr for 486 Portland Avenue.]

6 Crocus Hill (former 529 Goodrich Avenue:) T. L. Schurmeier House; Built in 1903 (1936 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Georgian Revival in style; Willcox & Johnston, architects. The structure is a two story, 6421 square foot, eight bedroom, six bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Theodore L. Schurmeier resided at this address from 1888 to 1925. The 1891 city directory indicates that Theodore L. Schurmeier, a partner in Lindekes, Warner & Schurmeier, resided at 616 Oakland Avenue. The 1892 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. T. L. Schurmeier resided at this address. The 1894 and 1896 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. Theo L. Schurmeier resided at this address. The 1898 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Theo L. Schurmeier and Mrs. Charles Weide all resided at this address. The 1900 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Theo L. Schurmeier and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1902 and 1904 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. Theo L. Schurmeier resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mrs. T. L. Schurmeier and her daughters all resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. T. L. Schurmeier and their daughter all resided at this address. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that William E. Lang resided at this address from 1936 to 1977. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that William H. Lang (1900- ,) who was born in St. Paul, who attended the school from 1917 until 1918, who was a 1922 graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who was a Private in the Student Army Training Corps at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during World War I, and who was employed by the Theodore Hamm Brewing Company, resided at this address. The 1964 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that William H. Lang, a member of the Class of 1918, resided at this address. Charles A. B. Weide (1833- ) was born in Germany, emigrated to the United States with his family in 1834, resided in Egypt, Illinois, then resided in Cincinnati, Ohio, then resided in Madison, Indiana, then resided in Indianapolis, Indiana, moved to St. Paul in 1853, married Louise Schurmeier, the daughter of Caspar Schurmeier, in 1860, was engaged in the mercantile business, and then was involved in real estate from 1871 until 1876, left St. Paul in 1876 to recover from an illness, returned to St. Paul in 1882, and resumed the real estate business. Mrs. Charles A. B. Weide was a member of the initial board of directors of the St. Paul Young Womans Christian Association in 1872. William H. Lang married Theodora Hamm in St. Paul in 1925 and the couple had three children, William H. Lang, Jr. (1926- ,) A. Scheffer Lang (1927- ,) and Barbara Lang (1930- .) Theodore Leopold Schurmeier (1852-1914,) the son of Caspar H. Schurmeier, a wagon and carriage manufacturer, and Caroline Schurmeier, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, moved to St. Paul in 1858, was educated at Baldwin University, Berea, Ohio, was employed by James J. Hill from 1870 to 1875, then was a bookkeeper and a teller employed by the First National Bank of St. Paul until 1878, was a dry goods merchant as part of Lindekes, Warner & Schurmeier, became a life member of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1902, was president of the Minnesota. State Immigration Association, was a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota, and died of heart trouble in Richmond, Virginia. Theo L. Schurmeier married Caroline Gotzian, the daughter of Conrad Gotzian, and the couple had two children. In 1886, Theo L. Schurmeier was the vice president of the Minnesota & Winnipeg Rowing Association. G. T. Schurmeier founded Mathes, Good & Schurmeier during the American Civil War and it became St. Paul's largest merchant tailoring firm. G.T. Schurmeier's son, Theodore L. Schurmeier, took over the firm in the 1880's. With Albert H. Lindeke, Reuben Warner, and William Lindeke, in the 1870's and 1880's, Theodore L. Schurmeier formed the retail and wholesale dry goods firm, Lindekes, Warner, & Schurmeier. Lindekes, Warner & Schurmeier was one of the northwest's largest manufacturers and distributors of wholesale and retail dry goods and soon became known for their fine furs. Following the retirement of Theodore L. Schurmeier, the remaining partners reorganized as Lindekes & Warner, who remained one of the Midwest's largest wholesale furriers into the 1920's. In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a committee to accept donations for the relief victims of catastrophes that occurred in Martinique and St. Vincent and Theodore Schurmeier, with Kenneth Clark, represented St. Paul. Theodore Schurmeier was a member of the board of Regents of the University of Minnesota in 1902. William E. Lang ( -1945) died in Winona County, Minnesota. The last sale of this property was in 1992 and the sale price was $575,000. The current owners of record of the property are Bonnie R. Daguila and James A. Daguila. [See note Willcox for 813 Fairmount Avenue.] [See note on Johnston for 476 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the First National Bank of St. Paul for 331 Maple Street.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

7-9 Crocus Hill: John L. Erdahl House; Built in 1907 (1905 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Georgian Revival in style; C. H. Johnston, architect. The structure is a two story, 4838 square foot, eight bedroom, five bathroom, stucco house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1901 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Stone resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Henry E. Smith resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Sommers resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Charles L. Sommers, the secretary of G. Sommers & Company, and his wife, Rosa D. Sommers, resided at this address. In 1934, Charles Leissring Sommers, Rosa Davidson Sommers, Mary Sommers, Davidson Sommers, Charles S. Sommers, Elinor Sommers, Julia Sommers, and Frank Sommers all resided at this address. Charles L. Sommers was a graduate of the University of Minnesota. The Sommers family were members of the Minikahda Country Club, the St. Paul Athletic Club, the Somerset Club, and the University Club in 1934. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Davidson Sommers (1905- ,) who attended the school from 1915 until 1922, graduated from Harvard University in 1926, graduated from the Harvard University Law School in 1930, married Alice Decker in New York in 1938, and was employed as an assistant corporation counsel by the City of New York and that Frank M. Sommers (1915- ,) who attended the school from 1926 until 1933, who graduated from Harvard University in 1937, who wrote as a hobby, and who was employed by G. Sommers & Company, resided at this address. Charles L. Sommers (1870-1964) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stern, was an 1890 graduate of the University of Minnesota, was named an outstanding alumnus by the University of Minnesota in 1951, was a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota from 1910 to 1922, and died in Ramsey County. Charles L. Sommers was active in the Boy Scouts of America, serving on the initial executive board of Ramsey County Troop #1, incorporated in 1910, and the Charles L. Sommers High Adventure Canoe Base, in Ely, Minnesota, was named for him. George Sommers (1823-1899) was born in Altoona, Denmark, and died in St. Paul, and Amalie Stern Sommers (1840-1922) was born in Markbreit, Germany, and died in St. Paul. The siblings of Charles Leisering Sommers were Benjamin Sommers (1859-1943,) Clara Sommers (Henry Edward) Randall (1861-1949,) Frederica Sommers (Mrs. William Lord, Sr.) West (1864-1949,) George Sommers (1867-1946,) Frank Sommers (1876-1876,) and Henry Sommers, Sr. (1877-1964.) Rosa Davidson Sommers ( -1947) died in Ramsey County. Charles Leisering Sommers, Sr., (1870-1964,) the son of George Sommers and Amalie Stern Sommers, married Rosa Davidson (1873-1947,) and the couple had seven children, __?__ Sommers, __?__ Sommers Spalding, __?__ Sommers Adibes, __?__ Sommers, Elinor Sommers (Mrs. Herman) Otto, Charles Leisering Sommers, Jr. (1910-1936,) and Frank Morris Sommers (1915-1940.) Davidson Sommers (1905-2000) graduated from the St. Paul Academy in 1922 and was named a distiguished alumnus of the school in 1987. Davidson Sommers (1905- ) graduated from Harvard College magna cum laude in 1926, and was named to Phi Beta Kappa, received his L.L.B, cum laude, from Harvard Law School in 1930, entered private practice in New York City in a law firm where his cousin, Robert Benjamin, was a partner, then worked under Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia as an Assistant Corporation Counsel on the unification of the city's public transportation systems, then was a partner at the law firm of Parker & Duryee, then worked under Assistant Secretary of War John McCloy during World War II, advising the Joint Chiefs of Staff on international policy issues, serving at the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and earned the Legion of Merit Award with Oak Leaf Cluster for his studies on issues surrounding the formation of the United Nations and the postwar occupation of Japan and Korea, joined the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development, which later became the World Bank, in 1946, eventually rising to the position of General Counsel, and then moved to the Equitable Life Assurance Society in New York in 1960, serving as Senior Vice President and General Counsel, then Chairman of the Board in 1969. Davidson Sommers retired from the Equitable Life Assurance Society in 1982. Davidson Sommers helped establish and served as president of the Eugene and Agnes E. Meyer Foundation, a charity founded in 1951 by Eugene Meyer, then the owner and publisher of the Washington Post. Henry Edward Smith ( -1921) died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is Elinor S. Otto. Elinor Sommers (Mrs. Herman) Otto (1913- ) is a member of Unity Unitarian Church and is the author of The Story of Unity Church, 1872-1972 and of The Sommers family: a history, with table of descendants , published in St. Paul in 1982. The house was for sale in 2004 for $1,087,000. Constance Otis, a resident of 7 Crocus Hill, contributed to the Barack Obama for President campaign in 2007-2008. [See Note for Charles L. Sommers at 9 South St. Albans Street] [See note on Johnston for 476 Summit Avenue.] [See note for the Minikahda Club for 702 Fairmount Avenue.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

8 Crocus Hill (582 Goodrich Avenue:) Arnold Schwyzer Residence; Built in 1904; Art Moderne in style. The structure is a two story, 6179 square foot, six bedroom, five bathroom, stucco house, with both a tuck-under one car garage and a detached two car garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Dr. Arnold Schwyzer resided at this address from 1905 to 1967. The 1918 and 1923 city directories indicate that Dr. and Mrs. Arnold Schwyzer resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Arnold Schwyzer, a physician who officed at 123 West Seventh Street, and his wife, Marguerite Schwyzer, resided at this address. In 1934, Dr. Arnold Schwyzer, Marguerite Miller Schwyzer, Marguerite Schwyzer, Arnold Schwyzer, Jr., and Hans Schwyzer all resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Arnold G. Schwyzer (1913- ,) who attended the school from 1921 until 1928, who graduated from Harvard University in 1933, and who attended Johns Hopkins University Medical School, and Hanns Schwyzer (1912- ,) who was born in St. Paul, who attended the school from 1923 until 1930, who graduated from Harvard University in 1934, who attended the University of Minnesota Medical School, and who was a First Lieutenant in the Medical Reserves at the 294th General Hospital, both resided at this address. Arnold Schwyzer was a medical doctor in Ramsey County who, in 1896, removed the first tracheal foreign body and, in 1899, removed the first bladder stone using scopes bought in Germany that were aided by illumination from a head mirror. Both procedures by Dr. Schwyzer are thought to be firsts in the United States. In 1919, Arnold Schwyzer, M. D., was clinical professor of pathology at the Hamline University Medical Department. In 1926, Dr. Arnold Schwyzer presented a paper entitled "Operative Relief Of Laryngostenosis" to the Western Surgical Association. In 1930, Arnold Schwyzer was the author of the article "Carcinoma Of Stomach Without Recurrence Twenty-Four Years After Operation" in the Annals of Surgery. Dr. Schwyzer (1864-1944) and his wife had three children, Arnold G. Schwyzer, Jr., Marguerite Schwyzer, and Hanns Schwyzer. The Schwyzer family were members of the Minikahda Country Club in 1934. In 2003, the Audubon Center of the North Woods in Pine County received a $6,000 grant in 2001 to restore the lodge roof of the Arnold Schwyzer Summer House and a $4,000 grant in 2003 to restore the Arnold Schwyzer Summer House chimney. The Arnold Schwyzer Summer House and Farmstead was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. The Audubon Center of the North Woods, on Grindstone Lake, near Sandstone, Minnesota, is the site of the Schwyzer Lodge. The land and original buildings of the Audubon Center were a bequest from Dr. Marguerite Schwyzer, Arnold Schwyzer's daughter, to the National Audubon Society in 1968. The land was then transferred to the Audubon Center of the North Woods, which serves as an environmental learning center. Hamline University, founded in 1854 in Red Wing, Minnesota, is Minnesota’s oldest university and was named in honor of Leonidas Lent Hamline, a bishop of the Methodist Church and a donor. Hamline University moved to St. Paul in 1880. The Hamline University Medical Department was established in 1890, when the St. Paul Medical College was assumed by the university and was expanded in 1895, when Hamline University took over the Minneapolis College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Hamline University medical school, located in Minneapolis, had a separate faculty that controlled the school's curriculum and recommended candidates for medical degrees to the board of trustees. After 13 years of affiliation with Hamline University and after conferring almost 300 medical degrees, the Hamline University Medical Department merged in 1908 with the medical school at the University of Minnesota, which had been established in 1888. Arnold Schwyzer ( -1944) died in Ramsey County. Marguerite M. Schwyzer ( -1953) died in Hennepin County. The current owners of record of the property are James R. Councilman and Mary H. Councilman. [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

10 Crocus Hill: Charles W. Briggs House; Built in 1911; Georgian Revival in style. The structure is a two story, 5427 square foot, eight bedroom, three bathroom, half-bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1918 and 1923 city directories indicate that Dr. and Mrs. C. E. Riggs resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mabel E. P. Riggs (1858-1926,) the wife of C. Eugene Riggs, who was born in Ohio to parents born in the United States and who died of chronic myocardial insufficiency, resided at this address in 1926. The 1930 city directory indicates that the property was vacant. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Norman E. Biorn (1915- ,) who was born in St. Paul, who attended the school from 1926 until 1933, who graduated from Princeton University in 1937, who graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1940, who practiced law in St. Paul from 1940 until 1942, who was a special agent employed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1942 until 1945, who was a partner in Sanborn, Jackson & Biorn, with offices at the Endicott Building, who was a member of the St. Paul Athletic Club, of the University Club, and of the Princeton Alumni Association of the Northwest, and who pursued golf as a hobby, resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that William H. Fobes (1910- ,) who attended the school from 1921 until 1923, resided at this address. Charles Eugene Riggs (1853-1930,) the son of Charles Riggs and Anne Northcroft Riggs, was born in Williams County, Ohio, graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio, with a bachelor's degree in 1877 and with a master's degree in 1880, graduated with a medical degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Baltimore, Maryland in 1880, was a resident physician at the Woman's Hospital at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1881, moved to St. Paul in 1881 and practiced medicine, was a special student in the hospitals and asylums of New York, New York, Edinburg, Scotland, Paris, France, and London, England, married Mabel Elizabeth Pratt in 1884, was a member of the editing and publishing committee of the St. Paul Medical Journal, was chairman of the American Medical Association Section on Nervous and Mental Diseases in 1917, was a member of the American Neurological Association, was the author of Reminiscences Of A Neurologist in 1928, was a professor of nervous and mental diseases in the Medical College of the University of Minnesota after 1894, was a consulting neurologist at the Ashbury Hospital, Minneapolis, was a consulting neurologist at St Joseph's Hospital, was a consulting neurologist at the City and County Hospital, was a consulting neurologist at St Luke's Hospital, was the chief of clinic neurologists at the St. Paul Free Dispensary, was a Freemason, was a member of the Knights Templar, was a 32d degree Scottish Rite Mason, was a member of the Mystic Shrine, was a member of the American Neurological Association, was a member of the American Medico-Psychological Association, was a member of the American Medical Association, was a member of the Minnesota State Medical Society, was a member of the Minnesota Academy of Medicine, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was an honorary member of the North Dakota State Medical Society, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, was a member of the Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club of New York, resided at 595 Dayton Avenue in 1907, and officed at the Endicott Arcade in 1907. C. Eugene Riggs was a medical doctor, was the first specialist in nervous and mental diseases in the Northwest, was a founder of the Minnesota Medical Association, and was the first section head at the new University of Minnesota Medical School. C. Eugene Riggs edited Twelve Lectures on the Structure of the Central Nervous System, for Physicians and Students by Dr. Ludwig Edinger of Franklorton-the-Mann, Philadelphia and London, F. A. Davis, Publisher, 1890. In 1914, C. Eugene Riggs authored "Syphlitic Infections of the Central Nervous System" in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, in 1917, authored "The Korsakoff Syndrome (Toxaemic Cerebropathy) in Pregnancy" in the American Journal of Insanity, in 1921, authored Minnesota medicine in the making: Personal reminiscences, published by the Minnesota State Medical Association, and, in 1928, authored The reminiscences of a neurologist. The C. Eugene Riggs Scholarship Fund at Carlton College was established in 1972 by C. Eugene Riggs to assist students with demonstrated need. Charles William Briggs was an attorney who wrote a pamphlet entitled "A Return to Candor in Politics" (St. Paul, 1960) as well as Tax treatment of timber cutting under Section 117(k) the Internal Revenue Code and Tax treatment of timber under Section 631 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. Charles W. Briggs was a graduate of West Point, rode with General "Black Jack" Pershing on the Mexican border, and was a constitutional lawyer. Warren Briggs, a graduate of West Point, an Air Force pilot who flew the Berlin Airlift under Gen. Curtis LeMay, the last president of Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company, and finally Pensacola, Florida's Chief Weed Inspector, was the son of Charles W. Briggs. Norman E. Biorn married Elizabeth Ann Boyd in 1940 and the couple had three children, Elizabeth Boyd Biorn (1942- ,) Mary Ellen Biorn (1945- ,) and Katherine Ann Biorn (1948- .) Mabel Pratt Riggs ( -1926) and C. Eugene Riggs ( -1930) both died in Ramsey County. Charles W. Briggs (1887-1978) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Weaver, and died in Ramsey County. The property was last sold for $625,000 and that sale occurred in 1999. The current owners of record of the property are Elizabeth J. Andrews and Jeffery M. Rank. [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

11 Crocus Hill: Clarence H. Johnston, Jr. House; Built in 1911 (1912 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Tudor Revival/Arts & Craft in style; C. H. Johnston, Jr., architect; N. P. Frandsen & Company, contractor. According to Courtney Brazel, the lot was a wedding gift from C. H. Johnston, Sr., to C. H. Johnston, Jr., and his bride, Naneen Johnston, and faces the house that was given to Harrison Johnston in 1923. The structure is a two story, 2913 square foot, four bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, stucco house, with a detached garage. The tile and the marble used in the baths of the house are identical to the tile and marble used in the State Office Building. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. Howard Johnston, Jr., resided at this address. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#15286) indicate that Clarence Howard Johnston, Jr. (1888- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private in Field Artillery Central Officers Training School, who was born in St. Paul, had gray eyes, brown hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 10 3/4" tall, was an architect at induction, was an architect employed by Clarence H. Johnston, Jr., after the completion of service, and was married, resided with his wife at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Johnston, Jr., resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Clarence H. Johnston, Jr., an architect with the Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., architectural firm, and his wife, Naneen Johnston, resided at this address. Naneen Johnston resided at this address until 1977. In 1984, Donna Strusinski and Bill Strusinski both resided at this address. Nels Frandsen (1880-1964) was born in Minnesota and died in Hennepin County. The Field Artillery Central Officers Training School operated at Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Kentucky, between June, 1918, and February, 1919. The Field Artillery Central Officers Training School graduated 8,737, with 5,214 commissioned as Second Lieutenants in the Field Artillery of the U. S. Army and with the balance commissioned as Second Lieutenants in the Field Artillery Reserve Corps. Instructors and officers at the school included Luther Youngdahl of Minneapolis, a future Minnesota Governor. The current owners of record of the property are the trustees of Donna L. Strusinski and William G. Strusinski. William Strusinski is a lobbyist who represents Alliance Pipeline, the Fire Marshals Association of Minnesota, Friends of Minnesota Public Television, the Minnesota Area Relief Association Coalition, the Minnesota Chapter of the International Association of Arson Investigators, the Minnesota Electrical Association, the Minnesota Indian Gaming Association, the Minnesota Service Cooperatives, the Minnesota State Fire Chiefs Association, the Minnesota State Fire Department Association, the Minnesota Street Rod Association, the Securities Industry Association, and the Sheet Metal, Air Conditioning & Roof Contractor Association. Donna Strusinski ( -2005) was a lawyer who officed on Rice Street, was a member of District 2 of the Minnesota State Bar Association, and died of brain cancer. William Strusinski, a government relations consultant with Capitol Hill Associates Inc., contributed to the Barack Obama for President campaign in 2007-2008. [See note on Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., and his family for 476 Summit Avenue.]

12 Crocus Hill: Built in 1912 (1923 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Colonial Revival in style. The structure is a two story, 2748 square foot, five bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, aluminum/vinyl-sided house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1930 city directory indicates that Harrison R. Johnston, an associate manager employed by Farnum, Winter & Company, and his wife, Elizabeth M. Johnston, resided at this address. In 1934, Harrison R. Johnston, Elizabeth Main Johnston, Harrison Johnston, and Juliette Johnston all resided at this address and were members of the Somerset Club and the St. Paul Athletic Club. Elizabeth Johnston was a graduate of Smith College. H. R. Johnston was the Minnesota Golf Associations Amateur Champion, representing the White Bear Yacht Club, from 1921 to 1927 and was the Minnesota Golf Associations Senior Amateur Champion, representing the Somerset Country Club, in 1946 and 1949. In 1929, Harrison R. Johnston of Minnesota won the U. S. Amateur at the Pebble Beach Golf Links, its first major golf tournament. Farnum, Winter & Company was a Wall Street brokerage firm that failed in 1932. The property was last sold in 1991 with a sale price of $289,000. The current owners of record of the property are Patricia Sweney Hart and A. Scheffer Lang.

13 Crocus Hill (585 Goodrich Avenue:) Built in 1922. The structure is a two story, 5490 square foot, seven bedroom, sixth bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Edgar B. Ober resided at this address from 1923 to 1968. Edgar Buchanan Ober ( -1937) died in Washington County, Minnesota. The last sale of this property was in 1998 and the sale price was $630,000. The current owners of record of the property are the trustees of Michelle R. Bradley and Thomas A. Bradley. Thomas A. Bradley, the C.F.O. for the former St. Paul Companies, Inc., was a contributor to the George W. Bush for President campaign in 2004. Thomas Bradley, president of Zurich Direct Underwriting, Zurich Financial Services, contributed to the Chris Dodd for President campaign and to the John McCain for President campaign in 2007-2008. [See note on Edgar B. Ober for 400 Summit Avenue.]

14 Crocus Hill: Built in 1957. The structure is a two story, 2992 square foot, three bedroom, two bathroom, two half-bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The current owners of record of the property are Donald M. Sell and Estelle Quinn Sell. Donald M. Sell is an attorney who is licensed to practice before the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.

15 Crocus Hill (593 Goodrich Avenue:) Built in 1922; Tudor Revival in style; Holyoke, Jemne & Davis, architects. The structure is a two story, 4983 square foot, seven bedroom, four bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Arthur H. Savage resided at this address from 1923 to 1968. The 1930 city directory indicates that Arthur H. Savage, proprietor of the A. H. Savage Company, electrical supplies dealers, and his wife, Louise C. Savage, resided at this address. In 1934, Louise Cochran Savage, the widow of Arthur H. Savage, Thomas Savage, and Elizabeth Savage, all resided at this address. The Savage family were members of the Women's City Club of St. Paul in 1934. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Thomas C. Savage (1913- ,) who attended the school from 1926 until 1930 and who graduated from Yale University in 1936, resided at this address. At the 36th annual regatta of the National Association of Amateur Oarsmen on the Connecticut River at Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1908, Arthur H. Savage, William Cochran, Carlton P. Schaub, and James C. Otis of the Minnesota Boat Club competed in the intermediate four-oared shells. Arthur H. Savage had the nicknames of "Nubbins" and "Swatty." Arthur Harold Savage (1872- ) married Louise Cochran in 1910. There was an Arthur H. Savage Boys' Club in downtown St. Paul. "Woman in Green Velvet," painted by Abbott Handerson Thayer, lent by the Phillips Academy, Addison Gallery of American Art, was a gift of Mrs. Arthur H. Savage, and was on exhibit at the University of Virginia Library. The statue at nearby Cochran Park, "Indian Hunter and His Dog," a 1926 bronze, was a gift of Mrs. Arthur Savage. Louise Cochran Savage was the youngest daughter of Thomas Cochran. Louise Cochran Savage was a member of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the State of Minnesota. Arthur H. Savage ( -1933) died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are the trustees of George P. Young and Biloine W. Young. Biloine Young, president of the John Whitmer Historical Association, an organization comprised of members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, a liberal branch of the Restoration [Mormon] movement and now known as the Community of Christ, named for John Whitmer (1802-1878), who was an associate of Joseph Smith, the founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints, and who was expelled from the Mormon Church in 1838. recently resided at this address. Biloine (Billie) Whiting Young (1928- ) has written for such diverse publications as the Saturday Review of Literature, Modern Language Journal, Phi Delta Kappan, and Cosmopolitan Magazine. While editor of the Lamoni Chronicle (Iowa), she won numerous awards including one for editor of the best weekly newspaper in the United States edited by a woman. She is the author of A Dream for Gilberto: An Immigrant Family's Struggle to Become American, with Billie Jean Young, and was a 1996 Minnesota Book Award Nominee. She also was the author, with David Lanegran, of How the Trolleys Came--And Went and of Grand Avenue: the Renaissance of an Urban Street, with Billie Young and Nancy Ankeny, of Minnesota Women in Politics: Stories of the Journey, with Mary Wilson, of The Medicine Man Who Went to School, of How Carla Saw the Shalako God, and of Jennie Redbird Finds Her Friends, and the author of Mexican Odyssey: Our Search for the People's Art and On the Trail of the Cutlerite Settlers. Biloine W. Young holds degrees in English and Journalism from the University of Kansas (Lawrence) and a graduate degree from the University of Illinois (Urbana) in Communications and Latin American History. In Cali, Colombia, Young founded the Centro Cultural Colombo-Americano, an institution to disseminate the English language and culture of the United States to Colombia adults. Young's late husband was Dr. George P. Young ( -1991), a former superintendent of the St. Paul Public Schools. George P. Young graduated from the Butler, Pennsylvania, public schools, and from the University of Kansas, the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Illinois, was a math teacher at Schenley High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, spent seven years in Guatemala and Columbia, where he was a teacher, guidance counselor, and school superintendent, co-founded two schools in Columbia (an institute for Columbian adults that became official United States Information Service Bi-National Center and the American Business Academy for women seeking secretarial training in English,) and was the Superintendent for Independent School District No. 625 (St. Paul.) Young received awards for Outstanding Service in Advancing Social Justice and Building Better Human Relations and for Outstanding Leadership to Students. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Seneca Milo Dorr (1900-1901,) who died of pneumonia, resided at the former nearby 19 Crocus Hill in 1901. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Gertrude Ella Smith (1863-1923,) the widowed mother of Ralph L. Smith, who was born in Ohio to parents born in the United States and who died of aortic regurgitation, resided at the nearby former 19 Crocus Hill in 1923. William R. Dorr was the father of Seneca Milo Dorr. In 1901, William R. Dorr was the president of the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce. [See note on Holyoke for 500 Summit Avenue.] [See note for Magnus Jemne for the west end of Summit Avenue.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

5 Crocus Place: F. E. Ford House/Frederick Stewart Bryant House; Built in 1892 (1890 according to the National Register of Historic Places and 1894 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne/Victorian/Richardsonian Romanesque in style; Charles A. Wallingford, architect. The structure is a two story, 3358 square foot, six bedroom, three bathroom, frame/stone house with a limestone foundation, with a detached garage. Because of its tower and facade, the mansion resembles and compliments the nearby Frank B. Kellogg House, at 633 Fairmount Avenue. The house was built for $9,000. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The original owner of the house was Frederick Stewart Bryant (1859-1933,) who was the president of the St. Paul Apartment House Company. The 1898 and 1900 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Ford and R. J. Elliott all resided at this address. The 1902 and 1904 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Ford, Miss Maud Elliott, and R. J. Elliott all resided at this address. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Margaret E. (Mrs. F. E.) Ford, a member of the church since 1888, resided at this address. In 1907, Frank Edwin Ford resided at this address. The book of Minnesotans: a biographical dictionary of leading living men of Minnesota, edited by Albert Nelson Marquis, indicates that Frank E. Ford resided at this address in 1907. The 1918 and 1923 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. William Mitchell and Mrs. C. C. Bancroft all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Ernest T. Richards, a physician at the Miller Hospital Clinic, and his wife, Virginia Richards, resided at this address. In 1934, Dr. Ernest T. F. Richards, Virginia Schuneman Richards, Virginia Richards, Ernest T. F. Richards, Jr., and Albert Richards all resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that E. T. Fraser Richards, Jr. (1918- ,) who attended the school from 1929 until 1937, resided at this address. The 1964 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that A. MacDonell Richards, a member of the Class of 1943, resided at this address. The Richards family were members of the White Bear Yacht Club and the Women's City Club of St. Paul. Frederick Stewart Bryant (1859- ,) the son of James Spencer Bryant (1838- ) and Sarah Ellen Stewart Bryant, was born in Erie, Pennsylvania, moved to St. Paul in 1878, was employed as the assistant general NorthWest freight agent of the Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul RailRoad from 1881 until 1887, married Shirley E. McManus (1868- ,) the daughter of Thomas Saville McManus and Ida Amelia Burgess McManus, in 1888, was president of the St. Paul Apartment House Company after 1888, was the NorthWest manager of the Maryland Casualty Insurance Company after 1902, resided at 433 Portland Avenue in 1907, was an Episcopalian, officed at the Pioneer Press Building in 1907, was a member of the Minnesota chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution, and was a member of the Minnesota chapter of the Society of Colonial Wars. Frederick Stewart Bryant also served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1896, as state secretary of the Minnesota Republican League from 1900 to 1906, and was a member of the Society of Colonial Wars and the Sons of the Revolution. Bryant previously lived at 433 Portland Avenue. Frederick Stewart Bryant and Shirley E. McManus Bryant were the parents of three children, Frederick Stewart Bryant, Jr., Gordon Spencer Bryant, and Kathryn Shirley Bryant. Frederick Stewart Bryant's siblings were James Spencer Bryant and Nellie Lucretia Bryant and his children were Stewart Frederick Bryant, Gordon Spencer Bryant, and Kathryn Shirley Bryant. Shirley E. McManus Bryant was included in the 1914 Woman's Who's Who publication and was noted as disfavoring woman's suffrage. Frederick Stewart Bryant, Jr., was an ensign in the U. S. Navy and married Yvonne Brock of Swansea, England, in 1914. James Spencer Bryant (1862-1939) and Edith Crawford Bryant (1866-1938) are both buried at Oakland Cemetery. Frank Edwin Ford (1862- ) was born in New York, attended New York public schools until 1877, worked on a farm, was admitted to the Potsdam, New York, State Normal School by examination in 1878, graduated from the Potsdam, New York, State Normal School in English and special teaching techniques in 1885, was the principal of the Richville, New York, Union Free School from 1885 until 1887, was a teacher at the Columbia Grammar School in New York City in 1887, read the law in the law offices of John I. Gilbert, taught higher mathematics and elocution at Malone, New York, from 1888 until 1889, was an insurance agent and adjuster, was employed by the Traveler's Insurance Company as special agent for southern New York in 1890, came to St. Paul from New York in 1890, became the state agent for Traveler's Insurance Company for Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota after 1890, married Margaret Elliott in 1892 or 1893 in St. Paul, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the Town & Country Club, was a member of the Lafayette Club, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, and officed at the Pioneer Press Building in 1907. Dr. Ernest Thompson Fraser Richards (1883- ) was born in St. Vincent, the West Indies, the son of Ernest Adolphus Richards (1862- ) and Lavinia Thomson Fraser, served in the British Expeditionary Force in France in 1916, and later settled in St. Paul, where he worked as a physician and surgeon at the Miller Hospital Clinic. Ernest T. F. Richards was a graduate of the University of Minnesota. Ernest Thompson Fraser Richards, M. D., C. M., a 1905 McGill University graduate, was an Instructor in Pathology at Harvard University in 1910-1911. Ernest T. F. Richards married Virginia Schuneman Richards ( -1955) and the couple had five children, Berry Richards (1917- ,) Fraser Richards (1918- ,) Virginia Richards, Ernest T. F. Richards, Jr., and Albert Richards. After the death of his first wife, Ernest T. F. Richards remarried. Ernest Adolphus Richards was born at St. Thomas, Barbados, and Lavinia Thomson Fraser Richards was born at St. Georges, Granada. Mrs. Ernest T. F. Richards was a member of the Assembly of St. Paul, a society organization which conducted an annual ball. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company, generally known as "The Saint Paul Road" or just "The St. Paul," was a rail line that traveled between Chicago and the cities of Puget Sound, reached Council Bluffs, Iowa, across the Missouri River from Omaha, Nebraska, in 1882, and reached Kansas City, Missouri, in 1887, reached Puget Sound from Mobridge, South Dakota, in 1909, was the successor of the Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company in 1874, leased the Chicago, Terre Haute & Southern RailRoad to gain access to coalfields in southern Indiana in 1921, entered receivership in 1925, and was deeded to the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad in 1927. The Lafayette Club is located on Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota. From the late 1870's through the early 1890's, wealthy visitors from all over the country rode trains and steamboats to the Twin Cities and then took James J. Hill's Great Northern RailRoad out to Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota. In 1882, James J. Hill opened the Hotel Lafayette on the peninsula between Crystal Bay and Holmes (now Lafayette) Bay. When the tourist boom on Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota, was over and the Hotel Lafayette had burned to the ground in Winter, 1897, Hill deeded the land to the founders of the Lafayette Club. Hill was an honorary member when the Club opened in 1899. The 1899 clubhouse, a wooden structure, was visited by members and guests, sometimes well-known and influential guests, including General Ulysses S. Grant, Vice President Adlai Stevenson, President Chester Arthur, President William Howard Taft, and many governors of the State of Minnesota. Adlai Stevenson resided in one of the cottages on the grounds and Chester Arthur used the Lafayette Club for a summer White House. The 1899 clubhouse burned down in 1922, but the Club's location on a peninsula in Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota, led the building of a new clubhouse, which was dedicated in 1925. Frederick E. Ford ( -1937) died in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Francis Edwin Ford ( -1924,) Albert L. Richards ( -1950,) and Ernest Richards ( -1951) all died in Ramsey County. Robert J. Elliott ( -1930) died in Hennepin County. Virginia Richards (1889-1955) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Trueworthy, and died in Ramsey County. Charles Augustus Wallingford was born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1854, the son of Estes Wallingford and Catherine McGurdy Wallingford, married Minnie M. Coffin, and the couple had one child, Daniel Kirkwood Wallingford. Estes Wallingford served in the Civil War, as Adjutant in the 33rd Indiana Volunteer Infantry. Daniel Wallingford served in World War I. Charles A. Wallingford also designed the building at 368 College Avenue and the Macalester Park Presbyterian Church/Stella Louise Woods Children's Center at 1652 Summit Avenue. The current owners of record of the property are A. MacDonnell Richards and Margaret S. Richards. [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.] [See note on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul RailRoad.] [See note for the Milwaukee & St. Paul RailRoad.] [See note for the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific RailRoad.] [See note on Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.] [See note on the St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company/Travelers Insurance Company for 297 Bates Avenue.] [See note on the White Bear Yacht Club for 18 Kenwood Parkway.] [See note on the St. Paul Commercial Club for 505 Summit Avenue.]

9 Crocus Place: W. H. S. Wright House; Built in 1894; Colonial Revival in style; Charles A. Wallingford, architect. The structure is a two story, 3474 square foot, six bedroom, three bathroom, frame house. The 1898 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. W. H. S. Wright and their daughter, Mrs. O. F. Brown, and William H. Wright resided at this address. The 1900 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. E. L. Booth resided at this address. The 1902 and 1904 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Stone resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Clapp resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Augustus W. Clapp, a partner with Newell H. Clapp, Charles E. Elmquist, Grant S. Mccartney, and Charles W. Briggs in the law firm of Clapp & Macartney, with offices at the Merchant Bank, resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Scandrett resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Benjamin W. Scandrett, executive vice president of the Northern Pacific RailRoad, and his wife, Bertha Scandrett, resided at this address. In 1934, Benjamin W. Scandrett and Bertha Reid Scandrett resided at this address. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Jack E. Hanstein (1909- ,) who attended the school from 1919 until 1922, resided at this address. The 1964 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Henry P. Blodgett, Jr., a member of the Class of 1942, resided at this address. William Henry Sterling Wright (1842-1907) was born in Ireland, moved to St. Paul in 1882, was engaged in the railroad business, and was a prominent freemason. William Henry Sterling Wright (1842-1907) was born in Ireland, settled in St. Paul in 1882, engaged in the railroad service, was a Freemason, was a founder of the Masonic Veteran Association of Minnesota, joined the Correspondence Circle in 1892 according to the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, was the local secretary for Minnesota, was the Grand Commander of the Grand Commandery of Minnesota in 1893, and died in St. Paul. William Henry Wright and Gertrude Wright Ketchum edited History of the Wright Family, published in Denver, Colorado, by the Williamson-Haffner Company in 1913. The Scandretts were members of the Minikahda Country Club, the White Bear Yacht Club, and the University Club in 1934. Benjamin Wright Scandrett (1883-1954) was born at Faribault, Rice County, Minnesota, and was the son of Henry Alexander Scandrett (1843-1883,) of Pennsylvania, and Jane Whiting Whipple (1847-1932,) of New York. Henry Alexander Scandrett (1843-1884) served as judge of the probate court in Rice County, Minnesota. Benjamin Scandrett's siblings were Cornelia Whipple Scandrett (1873-1946,) Sarah Kimes Scandrett (1874-1875,) Henry Alexander Scandrett (1876-1957,) Mary Stannes Scandrett (1881-1881,) and Jeanie Whipple Scandrett (1878-1970.) Benjamin W. Scandrett was raised by his grandparents, Episcopalian Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple (1822-1901) and Cornelia Wright Whipple (1816-1890,) went to the Shattuck Military Academy at Faribault, Minnesota, founded by Bishop Whipple, and to the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis, studying civil engineering, and finally studied law at the Washburn College Law School at Topeka, Kansas, and graduated in 1906. Scandrett joined the Topeka, Kansas, law firm of Blair, Scandrett & Scandrett with his brother, Henry Alexander Scandrett, Jr., was the first assistant general attorney for the Union Pacific RailRoad Company in Kansas and Missouri in 1912, and also was later employed as a vice president by the Northern Pacific RailRoad. Benjamin W. Scandrett married Bertha Draper Reid (1883- ) in 1910, and the couple had two children, Cornelia Whipple Scandrett (1912- ) and Bertha Reid Scandrett (1914- .) Bertha Scandrett married Cole Oehler, originally of Chicago and subsequently of Minneapolis. In 1858, in Faribault, Minnesota, Reverend Dr. James Lloyd Breck (1818-1876) established the Episcopal mission school and seminary from which Shattuck-St. Mary's developed. Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple came to Minnesota in 1859 and assumed responsibility for the school in 1860. Bishop Henry B. Whipple was the son of John Hall Whipple (1795-1859) and Elizabeth Wager Whipple (1798-1870), married Cornelia Wright Whipple (1816-1890) in 1842, and the couple had six children, Sarah Elizabeth Whipple (1843- ,) Cornelia Ward Whipple (1845-1884,) Jane Whiting Whipple (1847-1932,) Charles Henry Whipple (1849-1932,) Frances Ransom Whipple (1853- ,) and John Hall Whipple (1857-1878,) was ordained an Episcopal priest in 1849 or 1850, was the rector at Zion Church in Rome, New York, from 1849 to 1857, was sent as a missionary to Chicago in 1857, was elected Bishop of Minnesota in 1859, and married Evangeline Marrs Simpson Whipple (1860-1930,) the wealthy widow of Michael Simpson of Saxonville, Massachusetts, in 1896. Minnesota indians referred to him as "Straight Tongue" because of his truthfulness and honesty in dealing with them. Bishop Whipple served on several federal government commissions appointed to negotiate treaties or oversee the Indians' welfare, including distribution of supplies to the Sisseton and Wahpeton in Dakota Territory (1868-1870,) the Sioux Commission (1876,) the Northwest Indian Commission (1886,) several Ojibwe annuity commissions (1860's,) and the U. S. Board of Indian Commissioners (1895-1901.) Henry Benjamin Whipple, the son of John Hall Whipple and Elizabeth Wager Whipple, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfather Benjamin Whipple, a Private in the Rhode Island Militia during the Revolutionary War. A military program was added to the Shattuck School in 1865, by a Civil War veteran, Tommy Crump, an English divinity student. Using a donation from Dr. George Cheyne Shattuck of Boston in 1866, the grammar school added Shattuck Hall and eventually became known as the Shattuck School. A school for girls, St. Mary's Hall, opened in Faribault, Minnesota, in 1866. Dr. James Dobbin was headmaster of Shattuck from 1866 to 1914 and also founded the St. James School, for younger students, in 1901. In 1972, the three schools, Shattuck, St. Mary's, and St. James, were merged into the Shattuck-St. Mary's School. The Shattuck-St. Mary's School is now a college prep boarding and day school enrolling boys and girls in grades 6-12. Shattuck-St. Mary's has become known nationally and internationally for its superior boys hockey program. James Lloyd Breck was born in Philadelphia, the son of George Breck and Catherine D'isreali Breck, attended high school at the Flushing Institute, graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, attended the General Theological Seminary, went to Wisconsin in 1844 as an Anglican/Episcopal missionary to found Nashotah House, a monastic community, a seminary, and a theological center, moved to Minnesota in 1850, where he founded at Faribault grammar schools for boys and girls and the Seabury Divinity School (now part of the Seabury-Western Seminary in Chicago,) married Jane Maria Allen Mills, the daughter of William R. Mills, of Argyle, New York, in 1855, and, in 1867, moved to Benicia, California to build another seminary, St. Augustine's College and Grammar School, and St. Mary's Hall. He is commemorated as a saint on the calendar of the Episcopal Church. Henry Whipple was the author of three books, Bishop Whipple's Southern Diary , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press (1937,) Civilization and Christianization of the Ojibways in Minnesota (1901,) and Lights and Shadows A Long Episcopate: Being Reminiscences and Recollections of the Right Reverend Henry Benjamin Whipple, Bishop of Minnesota , New York, Macmillan (1899,) and edited Journal of the Rev. Samuel D. Hinman , Philadelphia, McCalla & Stavely (1869.) Good Thunder (1819-1901,) a Dakota, purchased one hundred acres of land in Renville County, Minnesota, upon his return from the 1860's exile in Nebraska, and donated twenty acres of it to Bishop Whipple for the erection of a house of worship, which became St. Cornelia's Episcopal Church, named after Bishop Whipple's wife, in the center of the Lower Sioux Indian Agency. Good Thunder and his second wife, Sarah or Mockpedaga, which means "Checkered Cloud," the widow of Shankah Skaw or "White Dog," a signer of the treaty of Traverse des Sioux, adopted a son, Charles Whipple Good Thunder. Jane W. Scandrett ( -1932,) Cornelia W. Scandrett ( -1946,) Bertha Reid Scandrett ( -1950,) and Benjamin W. Scandrett ( -1954) all died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Catherine M. Allan and Timothy J. Grady. Timothy J. Grady and Catherine M. Allan were contributors to Twin City Public Television in 2005. Catherine Allan was the executive producer of the film "Jane Goodall: Reason For Hope" and the film "Liberty - The American Revolution." [See note for Wallingford for 5 Crocus Place.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

10 Crocus Place: 10 Crocus Place; Tudor Revival in style; Built in 1911 (1909 according to Ramsey County property tax records). The structure is a two story, 7216 square foot, six bedroom, five bathroom, one half-bathroom, stucco house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1900 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Bangs and Mrs. J. H. Bangs all resided at this address. The current owner of record of the property is Margery J. Brewster. Margery J. Brewster is a contributor to the Summit Hill Association. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#3499) indicate that Ed Johnson (1882- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Private First Class in Battery B of the 151st Field Artillery, who was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, had blue eyes, dark hair, and a medium complexion, was 5' 5 1/2" tall, was a lineman and a stage hand at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including Aisne, the Marne, St. Mihiel, and Baccarat, was a gardener employed by Ker D. Dunlop after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former 13 Crocus Place. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#3870) indicate that Stuart K. Dunlop (1896- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Private First Class in Company E of the 25th Engineers, who was born in Sibley, Osceola County, Iowa, moved to Minnesota in 1899, had blue eyes, light hair, and a fair complexion, was 6' 1" tall, was a calf buyer at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including Meuse Argonne, was a livestock buyer employed by Swift & Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his father, Ker D. Dunlop, at the nearby former 13 Crocus Place. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#3873) indicate that Fred J. Dunlop (1894- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Private First Class in Battery B of the 151st Field Artillery, who was born in Sibley, Osceola County, Iowa, moved to Minnesota in 1899, had blue eyes, light brown hair, and a light complexion, was 5' 10" tall, was a clerk at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including Baccarat, Champagne, the Marne, Aisne, and St. Mihiel, was a sealer and yardman employed by the St. Paul Union Stockyards Company in South St. Paul, Minnesota, after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his father, Ker D. Dunlop, at the nearby former 13 Crocus Place. Ker D. Dunlop and Jane Dunlop resided at the nearby former 13 Crocus Place in 1917. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. K. D. Dunlop, their daughter, Fred Dunlop, and Stuart Dunlop all resided at the former nearby 13 Crocus Place. The 1920 city directory indicates that Constantine Dunlop, a buyer employed by Swift & Company, Fred Dunlop, a clerk, and Stuart K. Dunlop, a buyer employed by Swift & Company, all boarded at the former nearby 13 Crocus Place and that Ker Dunlop, a manager employed by the Iowa Land Company, Ltd., resided at the former nearby 13 Crocus Place. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. K. D. Dunlop, their daughter, Stuart Dunlop, Con Dunlop, Donald Dunlop, and Fred Dunlop all resided at the nearby former 13 Crocus Place. A native of Scotland, Ker Dunlop moved to St. Paul in 1898 and was a loyal fan of the St. Paul Saints baseball team. In Winnipeg, Manitoba, Ker Dunlop and S. Mair of St. Paul, curlers, won the Black & Armstrong Cup, a famed international curling trophy. Ker Dunlop, called the "Dean of Northwest Curlers," was made an honorary life member of the Manitoba Curling Association in 1930, the only non-Canadian so named during the 1930's. On March 21, 1918, during World War I, the Battle of Picardy began and the Germans advanced against the British 14 miles in one day during Operation "Michel" and during Operations "Blucher" & "Yorck," the Germans occupied Soissons and penetrated to Chateau Thierry, 56 miles from Paris. The German attack in Picardy made Paris vulnerable, plans for an autonomous American Army at the front were put aside, the battle-ready American divisions were placed under French command, and those units were moved to the critical front. On March 31, 1918, the Rainbow division took over the Baccarat Sector, relieving the French 128th Division, as a tactical unit on a frontage of about nine miles. On June 18, 1918, the Rainbow Division was withdrawn from Baccarat and was sent east of Reims to take part in the Champagne-Marne operation. By the end of June, 1918, due to the increased use of British shipping, there were 900,000 American troops in France. On July 14, 1918, the Battle of the Champagne began, the start of the final German offensive and an attempted massive push into France that was timed to be accomplished before the arrival of a million troops from America. The Germans were confident that the few American units already at the front would not hinder them from seizing Paris. The line was contained by the Fourth French Army, in which the Rainbow Division played a prominent role, causing the German perception of the fighting abilities of American soldiers to quickly change since the Americans bore the heaviest brunt of the fighting in the last few months of the war and the German army found the Americans to be much more aggressive in attack than either the English or the French. The success of the Americans is credited to the fitness, enthusiasm and bravery of the troops, overcoming poor training, lack of experience and poor tactics. Ker Dunlop Dunlop ( -1939,) Jane C. Dunlop ( -1946,) and Stuart Ker Dunlop ( -1950) all died in Ramsey County. Ker Donald Dunlop (1923-1992) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Quinn, and died in Ramsey County. Frederick J. Dunlop ( -1936) died in Washington County, Minnesota. Donald C. Dunlop (1902-1978) was born in Minnesota and died in Washington County, Minnesota.

15 Crocus Place: K. D. Dunlap House; Built in 1889 (1893 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Colonial Revival in style; Charles A. Wallingford, architect. The structure is a two story, 3240 square foot, eight bedroom, two bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1930 city directory indicates that Albert J. Deslauriers, the vice president of the Superior Metal Products Company, and his wife, Aurora Deslauriers, resided at this address. Albert DesLauriers (1877-1948) is buried in the St. Joseph Catholic Cemetery in Rosemount Township. Albert J. Deslauriers (1886-1956) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Fortier, and died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is Gregory Alan Felice. Greg Felice previously was the vice chair of the St. Paul School Board. [See note for Wallingford for 5 Crocus Place.]

18 Crocus Place: Grant S. Macartney House; Built in 1922; Georgian Revival in style; Charles Bassford, architect. The structure is a two story, 3688 square foot, five bedroom, three bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. G. S. McCartney resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Grant S. Macartney, lawyer in the law firm of Clapp, Richardson, Elmquist, Briggs & Macartney, and his wife, Hope D. Macartney, resided at this address. Grant S. Macartney was the son of Alvin E. Macartney, a lawyer, graduated from Yale University in 1909, worked for a lumber company in Madera, Mexico, in 1909, then forked for a lumber company in Northern Minnesota, graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1915, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, was a Republican, was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity at Yale University, was a member of Phi Delta Phi fraternity at the University of Minnesota, was a member of the University Club, was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1926, resided at 472 Holly Avenue in 1916, and officed at the Merchant's National Bank Building in 1916. In 1915, Grant Street Macartney was a member of the law firm of Clapp & Macartney (Newell H. Clapp and Alvin E. Macartney,) officed at the Merchants National Bank Building, was unmarried, and resided at 472 Holly Avenue. Clapp & Macartney, founded in 1882, was the predecessor to the current law firm Briggs & Morgan. Alvin E. Macartney (1859-1913) was born in Hudson, Wisconsin, graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1880, married Isabel Street at Waukesha, Wisconsin, in 1881, was a lawyer, was a member of Clapp & Macartney, lawyers, after 1881, was an incorporator, in 1897, with Hugo Schlenk and Newel H. Clapp, of the St. Paul Cold Storage Warehouse Company, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, resided at 472 Holly Avenue in 1907, and officed at the National German American Bank Building. Grant Street Macartney (1885-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Street, and died in Ramsey County. Theophilus F. Smith (1857- ,) the son of Fuller Smith and Maria Leech Smith, was born in Indiana, married Gertrude E. Hall of Columbus, Ohio, was employed by R. L. Polk & Company in Indianapolis, Indiana, moved to St. Paul in 1878, was the secretary, treasurer and manager of R. L. Polk & Company after 1882, was appointed supervisor of the census of the Third District of Minnesota by President Benjamin Harrison in 1890, was the president of the St. Paul Commercial Club in 1903 and 1904, was a member of the board of trustees of the Association of American Directory Publishers, resided at 593 Iglehart Avenue in 1907, and officed at the National German American Bank Building in 1907. The property was last sold for $350,000 and that sale occurred in 1994. The current owners of record of the property are Judith M. McCormick and Stanley R. McCormick. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Theo F. Smith, their daughters, and Ralph L. P. Smith all resided at the former nearby 19 Crocus Place. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Theophilus F. Smith (1857-1920,) the husband of Gertrude E. Smith, who was born in Indiana to parents born in England and who died of arteriosclerosis and angina, resided at the nearby former 19 Crocus Place in 1920 and that John C. F. Ely also resided at the nearby former 19 Crocus Place in 1920. Theophilus F. Smith ( -1920,) Gertrude Ella Smith ( -1923,) and John Charles Fremont Ely ( -1930) all died in Ramsey County. [See note on the St. Paul Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.]

27 Crocus Place: William J. Sleppy House/Joseph A. A. Burnquist House; Built in 1922 (1902 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne in style; J. M. Carlson, architect. The structure is a two story, 4142 square foot, six bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with one attached garage and one detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that William J. Sleppy resided at this address from 1907 to 1919. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mary Stees Sleepy (1831-1916,) the wife of William J. Sleppy, who was born in Pennsylvania to parents born in the United States and who died of valvular heart disease, resided at this address in 1915. In 1916, Kathrene Stees Sleppy was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Miss Katherine S. Sleppy, Miss Mabel Ford, and Miss Dora C. Jett all resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Hon. Joseph A. A. Burnquist, the Governor of the State of Minnesota, resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. A. A. Burnquist and W. H. Steffen all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Albert L. Haman, the president of the A. L. Haman Company, wholesale jewelers, and his wife, Katherine M. Haman, resided at this address. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Donald P. Gaver, Jr. (1926- ,) who attended the school from 1937 until 1944, who served in the U. S. Navy in the Pacific during World War II, and who attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, resided at this address. William J. Sleppy (1843-1916,) the son of Christian Sleepy and Catherine Vandermark Sleppy, was born in Wilkes Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, was educated in the Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania, public schools, was a member of the 52nd Pennsylvania Regiment and the 199th Pennsylvania Regiment during the American Civil War, married Mary A. Stees, the daughter of Benjamin Stees and Lydia A. Stees, in Philadelphia in 1865, was employed in Pennsylvania and in Minnesota in the railroad business, was a station agent and telegraph operator employed by the Lackawanna & Bloomsburg RailRoad in Pennsylvania in 1868, then was an agent and telegraph operator in Ottawa, Minnesota, for one year, was an agent and telegraph operator in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, from 1869 until 1871, moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1870 and worked in the drug business, moved to Minnesota in 1871, settled in St. Paul, was associated with Stees Brothers, was chairman of the St. Paul Decoration Day celebration in 1884, was in the furniture business, Quimby & Abbott's, furniture dealers and funeral directors, located at Third Street and Minnesota Street, until 1894, then became a self-employed undertaker with a funeral parlor at 495-497 Selby Avenue in 1894, was a member of the Summit Lodge Number 163 of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, was a member and the president of the Acker Post of the Grand Army of the Republic, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, was a member of the the Modern Woodmen of America, was a Mason, resided at 515 Dayton Avenue in 1907, and officed at 495 Selby Avenue in 1907. In 1896, William J. Sleppy was a junior warden of St. Paul's Episcopal Church. William J. Sleppy and Mary A. Stees Sleppy were the parents of one daughter, Katherine Stees Sleppy. In 1909, Katherine Sleppy lectured on Missions in the Summer Schools at the Minnetonka, Minnesota, Summer School of Missions and, in 1917, Katherine S. Sleppy taught storytelling at the Merriam Park Summer School in St. Paul. Joseph Alfred Arner Burnquist (1879-1961) was the Lieutenant Governor and became Governor in 1915 upon the death of Governor Winfield S. Hammond. Burnquist was born in Dayton, Webster County, Iowa, and married Mary Louise Cross in 1906. After graduating from Carlton College in 1902 and playing football there and after gaining a law degree from the University of Minnesota in 1905, Burnquist practiced law briefly in St. Paul before entering politics as a state legislator in 1908. As Governor, at the same time as U. S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer was conducting raids on alleged subversives, Burnquist created the Minnesota Public Safety Commission in 1917 to monitor public sentiment toward World War I, quashed pacifist demonstrations, and initiated legislation that improved the state highways, disaster assistance programs, labor relations, and the welfare of children. Burnquist also used the Minnesota Home Guard in the surveillance of alleged subversive activities, in focusing opposition to labor unions and strikes, in locating draft evaders, in imposing a curfew on saloons and restaurants, in discouraging the use of non-English languages in schools, and in registering and monitoring aliens. In 1917, Minnesota's German-Americans formed the state's largest ethnic group and 70 percent of the state's residents were immigrants or first-generation Americans when Minnesota's seven-member Commission on Public Safety was formed by the state,with its members appointed by Governor J. A. A. Burnquist. Having no public accountability,it immediately suspended civil rights, set up an armed militia and created a network of spies. They hired Pinkerton detectives to attend German-American meetings and events, and even though the agents reported back that the worries about treason or violent protests were exaggerated, the commission members,using their subpoena power to question people,accused three elected New Ulm officials of lacking patriotism, because,while they supported the draft, they suggested that German-Americans serve in non-combatant capacities. The Commission immediately suspended the New Ulm officials on grounds of disloyalty. Also in 1917, Governor J. A. A. Burnquist directed that the State Capitol basement restaurant, with a German beer hall theme, be painted over and it was repainted. Between 1855 and 1915, Germans in America lived not in an American culture, but rather in a German-American culture. All that changed with the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915. Minnesota participated enthusiastically in the anti-German mood, most vehemently through the Commission of Public Safety and its quasi-military arm, the Home Guard. The Commission, led by Governor J. A. A. Burnquist, was given vast powers to stop strikes and labor organizing, to regulate liquor traffic, to require the registration of aliens, and to investigate people for a wide variety of activities, including 682 complaints of sedition. A virtual spy system took over the state, focused on Germans. A 1917 Commission circular declared that "anyone who talks and acts against the government in time of war, regardless of the 'constitutional right of free speech,' is a traitor and deserves the most drastic punishment." The Commission’s activities were supplemented by those of a national organization that operated also in Minnesota, the American Protective League. The League conducted raids in both St. Paul and Minneapolis, detaining hundreds of German men, almost all of them innocent, on suspicion of draft evasion. The Non-Partisan League also fell afoul of the Commission of Public Safety, which hounded and attacked it as disloyal. J. A. A. Burnquist accused the Nonpartisan League's leadership of being connected with "lawless I. W. W. red socialists, and pacifists." The Commission waged war on German language and culture in Minnesota. It forbade the use of German as a language of instruction in schools, discouraged the performance of German music, banned some German-language books, and had the publisher of the newspaper Volkzeitung interned for refusing to stop publishing in German. The heavy-handed reign of the Commission of Public Safety became a powerful political symbol, helping to build the left-leaning Farmer Labor Party in Minnesota. The early Farmer Labor Party electoral success owed much to German-American Minnesotans, a mostly conservative population who were estranged from the major parties for years after the Burnquist loyalty campaign. The Commission of Public Safety's own lead lawyer, Ambrose Tighe (1859-1928,) provided the agency's best epitaph, observing that the Commission provided lasting evidence of how dangerous it is to vest even good men with arbitrary power. In October, 1918, forest fires ravaged portions of North Central and Northeastern Minnesota. The Minnesota towns of Arnold, Automba, Brookston, Cloquet, Kalevala, Kettle River, Lawler, Lester Park, Moose Lake, and Woodland were burned to the ground. A half-dozen other communities were 50 percent destroyed and 10 more suffered severe damage. A total of 1500 square miles were burned, and more than 50,000 people were displaced. Scores of people were severely burned, and 453 people were killed outright. More than 4,000 houses were consumed, and another 6,000 barns were burned, with livestock dead in the tens of thousands. Huddled in shelters in Duluth and Superior, thousands of victims sat shivering in shock and dismay. The Minnesota Home Guard was mobilized to handle necessary duties within the state and the Minnesota Forest Fires Relief Commission was formed days after the fire by Gov. Joseph Burnquist and was given authority over the relief efforts. Governor J. A. A. Burnquist called a special session of the Minnesota Legislature and, on September 8, 1919, it ratified the 19th Amendment in the House by a vote of 120 to 6 and in the Senate by a vote of 60 to 5. It was during Burnquist's time as governor of Minnesota, on June 15, 1920, that three black men, Elias Clayton, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie, employed by the railroad-based John Robinson Circus as cooks and "roustabouts," were lynched from a street lamppost by an angry mob estimated between 5,000 and 10,000 people in Duluth, Minnesota, led by Louis Dondino, for the alleged rape on June 14, 1920, of a white woman, Irene Tusken, a 19-year-old stenographer from West Duluth, Minnesota, who had attended the circus with her boyfriend, James Sullivan, an 18-year-old dockworker/boat-spotter and reputed gambler. A St. Louis County grand jury issued 37 indictments for the lynching mob, 25 indictments for rioting, and 12 for murder in the first degree, but only three men, Dondino, Carl John Alfred Hammerberg ( -1924,) and Gilbert Henry Stephensis/Stephenson, were convicted and the convictions were only for rioting. Louis Dondino (1882-1959) was charged with first-degree murder, was convicted on a lesser charge, and spent 13 months in Stillwater State Prison before moving to Washington State. Gilbert Henry Stephensis received a five year prison sentence and was paroled after serving 13 months in Stillwater State Prison. Carl Hammerberg spent 15 months in the Minnesota State Reformatory for Men, St. Cloud, Minnesota, and died while attempting to ride the rails in a refrigerated rail car. J. A. A. Burnquist, as State Attorney General, with Matthias N. Orfield and George W. Markam, represented the State in the Supreme Court case of Minnesota v. National Tea Company et al (1940,) a challenge to a chain store gross sales tax. Burnquist also filed an amicus curiae brief with the U. S. Supreme Court in the case of Phillips Petroleum Company v. Wisconsin , 347 U.S. 672 (1954.) J. A. A. Burnquist married Mary Louise Cross in 1906 and the couple had at least three children, two daughters and one son, Mary L. Burnquist (Mrs. Joseph C.) Beck (1910-2001,) Ruth Burnquist, and Rowland Burnquist. J. A. A. Burnquist was buried at Lakewood Cemetery, Minneapolis. Alexander Mitchell Palmer (1872-1936) was born in White Haven, Pennsylvania, was educated at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, and was admitted to the practice of law in 1893. He was a member of the Democratic Party, served in the House of Representatives from 1909 to 1915 and supported Woodrow Wilson in the presidential campaign in 1912. In 1919, Wilson appointed Palmer as U. S. Attorney General. Although Palmer had previously been associated with the progressive wing of the Democratic Party, supporting women's suffrage and trade union rights, as Attorney General, Palmer's views on civil rights changed dramatically, and he became convinced that Communist agents were planning to overthrow the American government. After the discovery of 38 bombs that were sent to leading politicians and after an Italian anarchist, Carlo Valdinoci, blew himself up outside Palmer's Washington home, Palmer recruited John Edgar Hoover as his special assistant and used the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 against radicals and left-wing organizations. On the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution, Palmer had over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists arrested in actions that became known as the "Palmer Raids" as a step to becoming the Democratic Party's presidential candidate in 1920. Palmer failed to win the 1920 nomination and his influence in the Democratic Party then waned. The Stees family burial plot at Oakland Cemetery includes the graves of Charles J. Stees (1834-1897,) who was a Captain in Company G of the Sixth Minnesota Regiment and a Major in the Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment during the Civil War, Mathais Benjamin Stees (1831-1854,) who served in the U. S. Navy, Dia Greenwalt Stees (1799-1886,) Jamin Stees (1798-1869,) Jamin G. Sleppy (1866-1891,) William J. Sleppy (1843-1916,) Mary Stees Sleppy (1836-1915,) Kathrene Stees Sleppy (1870-1929,) John A. Stees (1839-1918,) and Virginia H. Stees (1839-1927.) Charles J. Stees (1834-1897,) the son of Benjamin Moore Stees and Lydia Shaffner Greenawalt Stees (1798- ,) was a relative of Alexander Ramsey by virtue of the Greenawalt family, was born in Dauphin, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, moved to St. Paul in 1851, fought the Daniel's Hotel fire in 1851, was engaged in the furniture business on Minnesota Street, was an undertaker, returned to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1853 and learned the jewelry business, went South to Raleigh, North Carolina, in the jewelry business until the eve of the American Civil War, returned to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, initially joined a Pennsylvania infantry regiment, returned to Minnesota and served in the Ninth Minnesota Regiment and the Sixth Minnesota Regiment during the American Civil War, fought in the 1862 Dakota Uprising, was part of the Sibley expedition to the Dakota Territory against the Dakota Indians after the American Civil War, married, settled down engaging in the furniture business with his brother, Washington Stees, sold Stees Brothers Furniture to Quinby & Abbott, was engaged in the real estate business, was the registrar of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, was a member of the executive council of the Minnesota Historical Society, was post commander of the Acker post of the Grand Army of the Republic, moved to California, resided in California for 12 years, then returned to Minnesota, and died in San Francisco, California. According to Minnesota Adjutant General records, Charles J. Stees was mustered into the Sixth Minnesota Regiment in 1862, from Ramsey County, and was mustered out in 1865. Charles J. Stees provided an appendix document concerning Lieutenant Colonel Marshall's raid into Dakota Territory in 1862 to a regimental history of the Sixth Minnesota Regiment, Company E, that was authored by Alfred James Hill (1833-1895.) Cytheria A. Jones was the wife of Charles J. Stees and their divorce was handled by Richard L. Gorman, the son of Willlis A. Gorman, a Minnesota Territorial Governor and a Civil War General. Charles Stees, the son of John Alfred Stees and Virginia Hollins Stees, the grandson of Benjamin Greenawalt and Lydia Shafner Greenawalt, and great grandson of John Philip Greenawalt and Catharine Shafner Greenawalt, who married Helen Cratsenberg, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfather Philip Lorentz Greenawalt, a Colonel in the Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Militia during the Revolutionary War. Charles J. Stees, the son of Benjamin Moore Greenawalt and Lydia Shafner Greenawalt and the grandson of John Philip Greenawalt and Catharine Shafner Greenawalt, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfather Philip Lorentz Greenawalt, a Colonel in the First Battalion of the Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Militia during the Revolutionary War. John A. Stees (1839- ) was born in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, moved to St. Paul in 1856, and was engaged in the real estate business after 1883. Washington M. Stees (1826- ) was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, moved to St. Paul in 1850, and operated a furniture business. Mary Stees Sleepy was a daughter of Benjamin Moore Stees and Lydia Shaffner Greenawalt Stees and married William J. Sleppy. Mary Stees Sleepy ( -1915,) Ambrose Tighe ( -1928,) Kathrene S. Sleppy ( -1929,) Mabel Myrtle Ford ( -1934,) Albert Louis Haman ( -1935,) and Mary Beck ( -1940) all died in Ramsey County. Joseph Alfred A. Burnquist (1879-1961) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Johnson, and died in Hennepin County. Mary Louise Burnquist (1880-1966) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Weeks, and died in Hennepin County. Katherine M. Haman (1869-1958) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Truell, and died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Linda L. Hedemark and Marc R. Pritzker. Marc R. Pritzker graduated from Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, went to Medical School at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, did his residency in internal medicine at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, completed a fellowship in cardiology at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and in electrophysiology/pacing at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, has certifications in Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases by the American Board of Internal Medicine, and is a cardiologist at Minneapolis Cardiology Associates, Minneapolis Heart Institute, Minneapolis. Linda L. Hedemark also is a doctor and published the article "Somali Refugee Health Screening in Hennepin County" with Mary Jo Fritz, M.S., R.N., in Minnesota Medicine in 1998. [See note for Ambrose Tighe for the former 505 Summit Avenue.] [See note for Richard L. Gorman for 11 Alice Court.]

30 Crocus Place: R. L. Wright House; Renaissance Revival in style; Built in 1900 (1899 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) A. H. Stem, architect. The structure is a two story, 6585 square foot, seven bedroom, five bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The original owner of this house was Robert Campbell Wight, who was a director at the Chicago Great Western Railway Company and who was a director and the president of the Iowa Development Company and of the Iowa Townsite Company. The 1902 and 1904 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Wight resided at this address. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Robert Campbell Wight resided at this address in 1907. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Grant Van Sant resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Grant Van Sant and Miss Virginia Van Sant all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Harold J. Richardson, a lawyer in the law firm of Clapp, Richardson, Elmquist, Briggs & Macartney, and his wife, Anna R. Richardson, resided at this address. In 1934, Harold J. Richardson and Anna Reimers Richardson resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that John H. Richardson (1915- ,) who attended the school from 1926 until 1930 and who graduated from Yale University in 1936, resided at this address. The 1964 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Louis F. Hill, a member of the Class of 1963, resided at this address. Robert Campbell Wight (1861- ,) the son of Robert Leach Wight and Janet Kerr Wight, was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was educated in the Montreal, Quebec, Canada, private and public schools, was a clerk employed by the St. Lawrence & Chicago Forwarding Company of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 1877 until 1882, moved to St. Paul in 1882, was employed as a stenographer in 1882, was a railway official, was an auditor of construction of the Wisconsin, Minnesota & Pacific RailRoad in 1883, was the secretary of the Minnesota Loan & Debenture Company in 1884, married Grace L. __?__ (1863- ) in 1888, was a member of the board of directors, the secretary for, and the auditor of capital accounts for the Chicago Great Western Railway Company after 1892, was a member of the board of directors and the treasurer of the Interstate Investment Trust Ltd., was a member of the board of directors and the president of the Iowa Development Company, was a member of the board of directors and the president of the Iowa Townsite Company, was a member of the board of directors and the treasurer of the Metropolitan Opera House Company, was the president of the West Side Power, Heat & Light Company, was a member of the board of directors of the St. Paul Union Stock Yards Company, was a notary public in Ramsey County in 1888, owned a White Steamer automobile in 1901, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, and officed at the Chicago Great Western Railway Company. Robert Campbell Wight and Grace L. Wight were the parents of two children, Griffith Wight (1891- ,) a U.S. Army Captain, and Leora Wight Williams (1893- .) In 1920, Grant Van Sant purchased the Napoleon Ebert homestead on the Yellowstone River near Livingston, Montana, for $200,000, in order to stock it with thoroughbred cattle. Harold J. Richardson associated with Charlie Weyerhaeuser, Rudolph Weyerhaeuser, William Carson, Horace Irvine, and George S. Long in the Northwestern timber industry. Harold J. Richardson, a lawyer, was married to a granddaughter of F. C. A. Denkmann, the brother-in-law of Frederick Weyerhaeuser, and was made a director of the Clearwater Timber Company, Lewiston, Idaho, a predecessor of Potlatch Corporation, in 1925, along with John Phillip "Phil" Weyerhaeuser III. There is a Harold J. Richardson scholarship fund at the Law School of the University of Minnesota. Grant Van Sant (1872- ) was born in Le Claire, Iowa, went to Northwestern University, then went to Amherst College, graduated with a bachelors degree and a law degree from the University of Minnesota, was admitted to the practice of law in Minnesota in 1896, practiced in Morris, Minnesota, and then practiced in Winona, Minnesota. Grant Van Sant, the son of Samuel R. Van Sant and Ruth Hall Van Sant, the grandson of J. W. Van Sant and Lydia Anderson Van Sant, great grandson Nicholas Van Sant and Mercy Davis Van Sant, and great great grandson Phoebe Westcott Davis, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfather Richard Westcott, a Major in the Third Battalion of the Gloucester County, New Jersey, Militia, during the Revolutionary War. Harold J. Richardson was a graduate of the University of Minnesota and of Northwestern University. The Richardsons were members of the Minikahda Country Club, the Somerset Club, the White Bear Yacht Club, and the Women's City Club of St. Paul. Harold J. Richardson, a lawyer, was a partner with Augustus W. Clapp, Charles E. Elmquist, Charles W. Briggs, Grant S. McCartney, and Wayne C. Gilbert in the law firm of Clapp, Richardson, Elmquist, Briggs & McCartney, located at the Merchants National Bank Building in 1930. There is a Harold J. Richardson Scholarship at the University of Minnesota. Rudolph Weyerhaeuser ( -1946,) Robert C. Wight ( -1947,) Wayne C. Gilbert ( -1947,) Charles Emil Elmquist ( -1948,) and Harold J. Richardson ( -1952) all died in Ramsey County. Anna Reimers Richardson (1875-1967) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Denkman, and died in Ramsey County. Charles W. Briggs (1887-1978) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Weaver, and died in Ramsey County. Wayne C. Gilbert (1895-1959) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of McCord, and died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is Kay Ann Walton. [See note of Harold Richardson for 815 Lincoln Avenue.] [See note on Stem for 929 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the Chicago Great Western Railway.] [See note on the Wisconsin, Minnesota & Pacific RailRoad.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

40 Crocus Place: Leo Goodkind House; Tudor in style; Built in 1864 (1891 according to Martha Hubbs, a former owner, and 1914 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Tudor Revival/Cotswold Cottage in style; A. H. Stem, architect, and David Heide, renovation architect. The structure is a two story, 6900 square foot, seven bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, stone house, with a detached garage. The house is surrounded by a large limestone wall. The house has a circular driveway, a central courtyard, and a fountain. The house and its partner, built by Benjamin Goodkind and William Goodkind respectively, also are joined at the hip roof by a second-story enclosed walkway, giving them the look of a small, quaint English village rather than two large separate homes. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1917 Catalogue of Delta Upsilon indicates that Leo Goodkind, employed in dry goods by Mannheimer Brothers, resided at this address. The 1918 and 1923 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. Leo Goodkind resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Leo Goodkind, assistant treasurer of Schunemans & Mannheimers department store, and his wife, Grace G. Goodkind, resided at this address. The 1964 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Karl H. Spilhaus, a member of the Class of 1963, resided at this address. Leo Goodkind graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1892 and then went to the University of Minnesota to study architecture. Leo Goodkind was the architect for the 1905 Goodkind-Koenen residence at 318 Ryan Avenue in St. Paul's Irvine Park. Benjamin Goodkind was the president and and William Goodkind was the secretary/treasurer of the Mannheimer Brothers Department Store. William Louis Goodkind ( -1935) resided at 757 Osceola Avenue in 1930 and died in Ramsey County. Louis Goodkind (1825- ) was born in Bavaria, Germany, married Mina Mannheimer (1837-1914,) the daughter of Moses/Moritz Mannheimer and Johanna Lindenthal Mannheimer and the sister of Jacob Mannheimer, emigrated to the United States, initially resided in Adrian, Michigan, relocated to Chicago, where he operated a dry goods business, moved to St. Paul in 1871, partnered with Jacob Mannheimer and opened the first Goodkind & Mannheimer store in 1871 on Third Street. Louis Goodkind and Mina Mannheimer Goodkind had six children and resided with Robert Mannheimer and Emil Mannheimer in 1880. Benjamin L. Goodkind (1855- ,) the son of Louis Goodkind and Mina Mannheimer Goodkind, was born at Adrian, Michigan, was educated in public and private schools, attended the Haven School in Chicago, Illinois, attended Dyrenfurth's Business College, married Addie Rau in New York City in 1888, moved to St. Paul in 1871, was a clerk in the retail dry goods store of Goodkind & Mannheimer in 1871, was a clerk employed by Mannheimer Brothers in 1873, became a partner of Mannheimer Brothers in 1882, became the vice president of Mannheimer Brothers, when the firm was incorporated, in 1903, became the president of Mannheimer Brothers, on the death of Robert Mannheimer, in 1903, was a member of the board of directors of the American National Bank, was a Mason, was a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the Town & Country Club, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the Chicago, Illinois, Fishing and Hunting Club, engaged in the hobbies of fishing and hunting, officed at the NorthWest corner of Sixth Street and Robert Street in 1907, and resided at 45 South St. Albans Street in 1907. Leo Goodkind (1868- ,) the son of Louis Goodkind and Mina Mannheimer Goodkind, was born at Chicago, Illinois, came to Minnesota with his parents in 1871, was educated in the public schools of St. Paul, attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1892, was engaged in the dry goods business after 1895, was a vice president of Mannheimer Brothers, dealers in dry goods, since the incorporation of the company, was a member of the Delta Upsilon fraternity, was unmarried in 1907, officed at the corner of Fifth Street and Robert Street in 1907, and resided at 215 Nelson Avenue in 1907. William L. Goodkind (1859- ,) the son of Louis Goodkind and Mina Mannheimer Goodkind, was the secretary and treasurer of Mannheimer Brothers, was born in Chicago, Illinois, came to Minnesota with his parents in 1871, was educated in the public and high schools of St. Paul, was engaged in the mercantile business, was the secretary and treasurer of Mannheimer Brothers since the incorporation of the company, was a member of the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, married Mrs. Tillie Rosenfield Sternberg at Rock Island, Illinois, in 1900, officed at the corner of Fifth Street and Robert Street in 1907, resided at 43 South St. Albans Street in 1907. With growth and the addition of Emil Mannheimer and Robert Mannheimer, Jacob Mannheimer's brothers, to the partnership, the Goodkind & Mannheimer department store was renamed Mannheimers Brothers, was incorporated in 1903, merged with Schuneman & Evans in 1926, became the Schuneman's Department Store in 1928, and lated merged with the Dayton's department Store. Louis Goodkind served on the board of Mount Zion Temple, was the president of the Minnesota Lodge of B'nai B'rith in 1880, and was an organizer of the Standard Club, the upper class Jewish club in St. Paul, which folded into the St. Paul Athletic Club when it was formed. Jill Harmon and Frank Fairman purchased the house in 1990 and are currently renovating and restoring the house. In 2003, Francis Fairman was a contributor to the Randy Kelly for Mayor campaign and resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Louis W. Goodkind (1914- ,) who was born in St. Paul, who attended the school from 1925 until 1932, who graduated from Yale University in 1936, who attended Yale University Law School in 1939, who was on the editorial board of the Yale Law Journal, who was a member of the Thomas Swan Barrister's Union and of Corbey Court, resided at 565 Park Avenue in New York, New York. In 1879, B. Goodkind was the financial secretary of the Standard Club, organized in 1875 and located at 79 Jackson Street. In 1879, Benjamin C. Mannheimer, a clerk employed by Manheimer Brothers, and William Mannheimer, a clerk employed by Mannheimer Brothers, both boarded at 177 Fort Road and Louis Mannheimer, a bookkeeper employed by Mannheimer Brothers, all resided at 177 Fort Road. Robert Mannheimer ( -1914,) William Louis Goodkind ( -1935,) and Leo Goodkind ( -1943) all died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Francis E. Fairman and Jill N. Harmon. [See note on Stem for 929 Summit Avenue.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

41 Crocus Place: The property is a tax exempt vacant lot. The property is owned by the City of St. Paul.

46 Crocus Place: Dr. Harry Parks Ritchie House; Built in 1885 (1907 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Tudor Revival in style; Louis Lockwood, architect. The structure is a two story, 5170 square foot, seven bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1909 University of Minnesota Catalogue indicates that Harry P. Ritchie, a clinical instructor in surgery, resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mrs. Emma P. Ritchie and Harry P. Ritchie both resided at this address in 1913. The 1916 University of Minnesota Alumni Directory indicates that Harry Parks Ritchie resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Emma E. Ritchie (1851-1918,) the widowed mother of Harry P. Ritchie, who was born in Indiana to parents who were born in England and in the United States and who died of chronic myocarditis, resided at this address in 1918. The 1918 city directory indicates that Dr. and Mrs. H. P. Ritchie resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Sarah Bates resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. P. Ritchie resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Harry P. Ritchie, a physician and a partner in Ritchie, Daugherty & Gerting, located at 350 St. Peter Street, and his wife, Elizabeth Ritchie, resided at this address. In 1934, Dr. Harry P. Ritchie, Elizabeth Winter Ritchie, Wallace Ritchie, and Priscilla Ritchie all resided at this address. Harry Parks Ritchie (1873- ,) the son of Parks Ritchie and Emma Bates Ritchie, was born in Wellington, Kansas, graduated from the St. Paul High School in 1890, graduated from the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University in 1893, was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, was a member of the Nu Sigma Nu fraternity, graduated from the Medical School of the University of Minnesota in 1896, was a surgeon and physician, worked in the City & County Hospital in St. Paul in 1897, practiced medicine in St. Paul, was a medical partner of Dr. A. MacLaren, was an instructor in physiology at the Medical School of the University of Minnesota from 1893 until 1896, was an instructor in gynecology at the Medical School of the University of Minnesota from 1899 until 1908, married Elizabeth Winter, the daughter of E. W. Winter, in St. Paul in 1902, was an instructor in surgery at the Medical School of the University of Minnesota after 1908, was an assistant professor of surgery at the University of Minnesota Medical School, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was a Republican, was a Mason, was a member of the Town & Country Club, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the University Club, was a member of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church, and officed at the Lowry Arcade in 1907 and the Lowry Building in 1916. Harry P. Ritchie was a First Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon for the 13th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry during the Spanish-American War in 1898. Dr. Harry P. Ritchie was a graduate of Yale University and of the University of Minnesota, was the president of the Western Surgical Association in 1932, and was a member, with E. Starr Judd, Kellogg Speed, and Carl E. Black, of the Committee on Nomenclature of the Western Surgical Association in 1935. In 1926, Dr. Harry P. Ritchie was the author of the paper "Congenital Cleft Lip And Palate: A Muscle Theory Repair Of The Lip Cleft" published in the Annals of Surgery. Mrs. Harry P. Ritchie of St. Paul was the president of the Minnesota Medical Association auxiliary in 1924-1925. Harry Parks Ritchie and Elizabeth Winter Ritchie were the parents of four children, Elizabeth Louise Ritchie (1904- ,) Wallace Parks Ritchie (1906- ,) Edwin Winter Ritchie (1908- ,) and Priscilla Burbank Ritchie (1911- .) The Ritchie family were members of the Minikahda Country Club and the Somerset Club in 1935. Parks Ritchie (1845- ,) the son of James Ritchie, a Presbyterian minister, and Hannah Parks Ritchie, was born in Bainbridge, Indiana, attended the Franklin Academy in Indiana, served in the 132nd Indiana Regiment during the American Civil War, graduated from the Ohio Medical College in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1870, practiced medicine in Petersburg, Indiana, from 1870 until 1872, married Emma Bates in Petersburg, Indiana, in 1871, practiced medicine in Wellington, Kansas, from 1872 until 1874, practiced medicine in Martinsville, Indiana, from 1874 until 1881, moved to St. Paul in 1881, was the chair of obstetrics at the University of Minnesota Medical School from 1889 until 1912, was the dean of the University of Minnesota Medical School from 1897 until 1906, was the president of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was the president of the Minnesota Academy of Medicine, was a member of the American Medical Association, was a Mason, and was a Presbyterian. Dr. Harry Parks Ritchie was a plastic surgeon and Dr. Wallace Parks Ritchie, Sr., was a 1927 graduate of Yale University, was a member of the Skull and Bones Society in 1927, was a neurosurgeon who also trained at the University of Minnesota Medical School from 1933 to 1936 under Dr. Owen H. Wangensteen, and was the author of Essentials of General Surgery, published in St. Louis, Missouri, by the C. V. Mosby Company in 1941. Dr. Wallace Parks Ritchie, Jr., also was a surgeon who trained at the University of Minnesota Medical School under Dr. John S. Najarian. Emma E. Ritchie ( -1918,) Sarah D. Bates ( -1925,) Dr. Harry Parks Ritchie ( -1942,) and Elizabeth Winter Ritchie ( -1947) all died in Ramsey County. Wallace Parks Ritchie (1905-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Winter, and died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Gail O. Lafave and James W. Lafave. [See note on the St. Paul Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.] [See note on Lockwood for 1118 Summit Avenue.]

54 Crocus Place: David W. Aberle House; Built in 1926 (1927 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Jacobethan in style; H. M. Elmer, architect. The structure is a two story, 5268 square foot, six bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, stone house, with a detached garage. The building is on the National Register of Historic Places. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that David W. Aberle resided at this address from 1928 to 1970. The 1930 city directory indicates that David W. Aberle, the president-treasurer of Henry C. Garrett Inc., and his wife, Lisette Aberle, resided at this address. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that David F. Aberle, who attended the school from 1929 until 1936, who graduated from Harvard University, who did graduate work in Anthropology at Columbia University from 1946 to 1947, served as a Technical Sergeant in the Army during World War II, and was a Research Fellow in Mental Health at the School of Public Health at Harvard University, resided at this address. In 1996 and in 1999, this address was subject to a property code enforcement actions by the City of St. Paul. Mrs. David W. Aberle was the mother-in-law of Kathleen Gough. David W. Aberle was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society in 1926. David Friend Aberle (1918-2004) was born in St. Paul, graduated from Columbia University, taught at Harvard University from 1947 until 1950, worked in New Mexico studying the Navajo and Hopi in 1949 and 1950, worked for the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs in Window Rock, Arizona, taught at Johns Hopkins University, taught in the Departments of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Michigan from 1952 until 1960, was an American anthropologist and author, married Kathleen Gough ( -1990,) a professor at Brandeis and Oregon, in 1955, taught at Brandeis University in 1961, taught at the University of Oregon in 1963, left the United States because of leftist views and a controversy related to the Cuban Missile Crisis, taught at the University of British Columbia in the Department of Anthropology and Society from 1967 until 1984, and died in Vancouver, British Columbia. David Winfield Aberle ( -1935) died in Ramsey County. Lisette Friend Aberle (1888-1971) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Friedlander, and died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Beverley S. Abuzzahab and M. Jennifer Abuzzahab. Beverley S. Abuzzahab is a real estate agent with Edina Realty. Mary Jennifer Abuzzahab, with a medical degree from Eastern Virginia Medical School and additional pediatric and endrocrinological study at Ohio State University and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, is a pediatric specialist at Children’s Hospitals & Clinics and the McNeily Endocrinology & Diabetes Clinic. [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

90 Crocus Place: O'Brien House; Built in 1926 (1923 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Tudor Revival in style; Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., architect. The structure is a two story, 4132 square foot, six bedroom, three bathroom, two half-bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. World War I veteran Vincent R. O'Brien resided at 1149 Summit Avenue in 1919. The 1930 city directory indicates that Vincent R. O'Brien, vice president with the Cochran-Sargent Company, and his wife, Margaret O'Brien, resided at this address. In 1934, Vincent R. O'Brien, Margaret Gillette O'Brien, Vincent R. O'Brien, Jr., and Margaret O'Brien all resided at this address. The O'Briens were members of the Minikahda Country Club in 1934. Margaret G. O'Brien ( -1954) died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is Joseph H. Mindrum. J. H. Mindrum Engineering is located at this address. [See note on the Cochran-Sargent Company for 79 Western Avenue North.] [See note for the Minikahda Club for 702 Fairmount Avenue.] [See note on Johnston for 476 Summit Avenue.]

91 Crocus Place (former 594 Goodrich Avenue:) Bushnell-West House; Built in 1863 (1886 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne/Shingle in style; Charles E. Joy, architect. The structure is a two story, 3877 square foot, five bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with a two car tuck-under garage and a detached garage. The building is on the National Register of Historic Places. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Alvin R. Bushnell resided at this address from 1889 to 1891. The 1891 city directory indicates that Alvin R. Bushnell, associated with Bushnell & Bushnell, engaged in real estate and loans, and the secretary-treasurer of the Standard Investment Company, resided at this address and that Horace Bushnell boarded at this address. The 1892 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Bushnell and Mr. and Mrs. Horace Bushnell all resided at this address. The 1894 and 1898 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. John B. West resided at this address. The 1900 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. B. West, Miss Mary Cooper, and Miss L. B. West all resided at this address. The 1902 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Dorr resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Bronson West, the father of an infant son who died in 1913 of infantile atrophy and heat, who was born in the United States, resided at this address in 1913. In 1916, William W. Cutler was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Cutler resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that William W. Cutler, associated with Beebe Laboratories, Inc., resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Cutler, their daughter, and E. H. Cutler, Jr., resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Edward H. Cutler, Jr., a teacher, Lydia A. Cutler, an assistant employed by the St. Paul Public Library, and William W. Cutler, a lawyer who officed at the Endicott Building, resided at this address. In 1916, William W. Cutler was elected to the executive board of the Minnesota Historical Society and was on the executive board in 1922. In 1919, William W. Cutler presented to the Minnesota Historical Society a collection of newspaper clippings and cartoons from the St. Paul Pioneer Press relating to the presidential campaign of 1912 made by his sister, Ruth Cutler ( -1918,) who died in Paris while in the service of the American Red Cross. In 1934, William W. Cutler, Edward H. Cutler, Jr., and Henry H. Cutler resided at this address and were members of the St. Paul Town & Country Club and the St. Paul Athletic Club. William W. Cutler was a graduate of Harvard University. Edward Hutchins Cutler ( -1935) and William W. Cutler ( -1948) both died in Ramsey County. John B. West ( -1912) died in Nicollet County, Minnesota. The 1887 St. Paul Winter Carnival ice palace, measuring 217 feet by 194 feet at the bottom and 135 feet tall, was designed and built by Charles E. Joy in Central Park for only $7,500 and he also designed the 1888 ice palace. Mark Fitzpatrick (1866-1956) was a partner of Charles E. Joy at one time. Charles E. Joy also designed the Edward W. White House at 702 East Fourth Street. Charles E. Joy resided at 882 South Point Douglas Road. Charles Joy (1837-1905) was born in the United States and died in Ramsey County. Charles Edward Joy ( -1928) died in Becker County, Minnesota. The current owners of record of the property are James D. Flanagan and Sarah V. Flanagan. [See note on the St. Paul Town & Country Club for 952 Wakefield Avenue.] [See note on John B. West for 1008 Fairmount Avenue.]

94 Crocus Place: C. H. Biorn House; Built in 1891 (1906 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Georgian Revival in style; Krapp & Holm, architects. The structure is a two story, 4560 square foot, seven bedroom, three bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. The house has an open floor plan, numerous leaded glass windows, a wrap-around porch, five second floor bedrooms, a third floor separate apartment, and a two car garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1916 University of Minnesota Alumni Directory indicates that Carl Herman Bjorn resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Biorn resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Carl H. Biorn, a lawyer who officed at the Globe Building, resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that C. H. Biorn, a lawyer who officed at the Globe Building, and his wife, Jeanette V. Biorn, and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Carl H. Bjorn resided at this address. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Norman E. Biorn (1915- ,) a member of the Class of 1933, a 1937 graduate of Princeton University, and a law student at the University of Minnesota, resided at this address. The house reputedly was built in 1906 for Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Rosen to be given as a wedding present to their daughter. Carl Herman Biorn/Bjorn (1871- ,) the son of Rev. L. M. Biorn/Bjorn and Borly Fleischer Biorn/Bjorn, was born in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, was one of only two graduates of St. Olaf's College, Northfield, Minnesota, in 1891, graduated from the United Church Theological Seminary in 1895, graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1898, married Jeannette Valfrida Rosen, the daughter of Adolph Theodore Rosen and Anna Sophia Johnson Rosen, in 1906, resided at 254 Summit Place in 1907, officed at the Globe Building in 1907, was a member of the Valdris Samband in 1920, practiced law in St. Paul, and was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club. In 1955, Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. Moore, Mr. and Mrs. Roland J. Faricy, Mr. and Mrs. B. Warren Hart, Mr. and Mrs. Harry G. Costello, and Mr. and Mrs. Norman E. Biorn were financial donors to the University of Minnesota Heart Disease Research Fund. Norman Biorn was the chair of the Jaycees' Winter Carnival Committee in 1939. Adolph Theodore Rosen (1856- ) was born in Stockholm, Sweden, attended the public schools in Sweden, attended a Swedish naval school, became a sailor for several years, initially married Charlotte Josephine __?__ in 1876, emigrated to the United States in 1880, moved to St. Paul, was employed in a fur dressing house by Joseph Gulda, established his own fur processing business in 1885, subsequently married Anna Sophia Flink/Johnson in 1882, was a Republican, was a member of the South St. Paul, Minnesota, city council in 1902 and 1903, was a South St. Paul, Minnesota, city alderman for six years, was a warden of the Sigfried Episcopal Church, was a member of the board of directors of the Scandinavian American Bank, was a Mason, was a Knight Templar, was a Shriner, was the president of the Norden Club, was the president of the Union Cemetery, was a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and resided at 334 Cherokee Avenue in 1906. Carl H. Biorn ( -1950) died in Ramsey County. Jeanette Valfreida Biorn (1886-1979) had a mother with a maiden name of Sophia and died in Ramsey County. The property was last sold in 2003 with a sale price of $990,000. The current owners of record of the property are Ronald M. Schwartz and Susan L. Schwartz. [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

99 Crocus Place: L. T. Jones House; Built in 1906 (1905 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Colonial Revival in style; Louis Lockwood, architect. The structure is a two story, 2450 square foot, five bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Levi T. Jones resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Levi Taylor Jones resided at this address in 1920. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. L. T. Jones and R. W. Jones all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Levi J. Jones, a credit man employed by McKesson St. Paul Drug Company, and his wife, May E. Jones, resided at this address. Levi T. Jones (1868-1955) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Burnham, and died in Ramsey County. May E. Jones ( -1936) died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is Daniel F. O'Neil. [See note on Lockwood for 1118 Summit Avenue.]

618 Fairmount Avenue: Built in 1903; Queen Anne in style. The structure is a two story, 3776 square foot, five bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, stucco house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. W. O. Stout resided at this address. The 1923 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Stout resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Catherine Strong, the widow of Warren Strong, resided at this address. In 1934, Wilfred Oakley Stout, Sr., Lillian DeCoster Stout, and Wilfred Oakley Stout, Jr., all resided at this address. Wilfred Oakley Stout, Sr., was a graduate of the University of Minnesota and Wilfred Oakley Stout, Jr., was a graduate of Princeton University. The Stout family were members of the St. Paul Athletic Club and the Women's City Club of St. Paul in 1934. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Wilfred O. Stout, Jr. (1909- ,) who was born in St. Paul, who attended the school from 1921 until 1928, who graduated from Princeton University in 1932, who attended graduate school at Princeton University in 1935, who taught at Princeton University in 1937 and at the University of Chattanooga in 1937-1938, and who pursued the hobbies of golf, skiing, and communism, resided at this address. Wilfred Oakley Stout (1872-1945,) the son of David James Cooper Stout (1840-1909) and Agnes Margaret Scott Stout (1845-1910,) was born in Lake City, Minnesota, was educated in the public and high schools of St. Paul, attended the University of Minnesota, was a member of the 1893 University of Minnesota football team, was engaged as the advertising manager of The Boston after leaving college, was a federal census enumerator in Ramsey County in 1895, served in the Spanish-American War, was engaged as the superintendent of advertising of the St. Paul Dispatch, was employed as a hydrographer in Anoka County, Minnesota, in 1899, was a poet who published "Faithless, "The Sea Dog's Song," "In Love's Garden," and "Not Ours To Choose," in the magazine Blue Sky in 1900, was the advertising manager of Gordon & Ferguson, was an incorporator and the president of the International Railway Device Company, which organized in 1904, was engaged in railway supplies, married Lillian DeCoster in 1908, was a playwright who authored The White Feather in 1916, was the publisher of On Belief by Edgar B. Tolson in 1941, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, resided at the Waldorf in 1907, and officed at 319 Jackson Street in 1907. In 1932, Wilfred Oakley Stout was the author of A Railroad Period in the History of the United States Exemplified in Minnesota: 1849 to 1860. Wilfred Oakley Stout, Sr., and Lillian DeCoster Stout (1874-1945) were the parents of Wilfred O. Stout, Jr. In 1942, Wilfred O. Stout, Jr. (1909-1960,) was promoted to the rank of assistant professor at the University of Chattanooga. Wilfred O. Stout, Jr., married Maud Hammes and the couple were the parents of three children, Penelope Stout, Lassie Stout, and Richard Stout. Wilfred Oakley Stout ( -1945) died in Ramsey County. The current owners of record of the property are Fred H. Pritzker and Renee B. Pritzker. Fred H. Pritzker received a bachelors degree from Northwestern University in 1972 and law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1976 and is the founding partner and the president of Pritzker|Ruohonen & Associates, P.A. Renee B. Pritzker, a homemaker, was a contributor to the John Kerry for President campaign in 2004. In 1916, Benjamin Sommers was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at the former nearby 628 Fairmount Avenue. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Sommers resided at the former nearby 628 Fairmount Avenue. Benjamin Sommers ( -1942) died in Ramsey County. [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

633 Fairmount Avenue: Frank B. Kellogg House; Built in 1891 (1889 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne in style; William H. Willcox, architect. The structure is a two story, 8139 square foot, seven bedroom, five bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Frank B. Kellogg resided at this address from 1889. The 1891 city directory indicates that Frank B. Kellogg resided at 592 Portland Avenue. The 1892 and 1894 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Kellogg and Miss L. D. Cook all resided at this address. The 1896 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Kellogg resided at this address. The 1898 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Kellogg, Miss L. D. Cook, and P. P. Cook all resided at this address. The 1900 and 1902 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Kellogg, Miss L. D. Cook, and P. B. Cook all resided at this address. The 1902 University of Minnesota Alumni Record indicates that Paul Burns Cook, a 1900 Medical School graduate and an assistant city physician who officed at the Lowry Arcade, resided at this address. The 1904 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Kellogg and Dr. Paul B. Cook all resided at this address. The 1915 Woman's Who's who of America, compiled by John William Leonard and published by The American Commonwealth Company of New York, indicates that Clara Cook (Mrs. Frank Billings) Kellogg resided at this address. In 1916, Frank Billings Kellogg, a U. S. Senator, was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at this address. The 1916 University of Minnesota Alumni Directory indicates that Paul Burns Cook resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Hon. and Mrs. Frank B. Kellogg and Dr. P. B. Cook all resided at this address. In 1920, the United States Adjutant-General's Office U. S. Army Register, Volume VIII, indicates that Paul Burns Cook (1877- ,) a Major in the Medical Department and a member of the Minnesota Medical Association, resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Dr. Paul B. Cook, a partner with Charles D. Freeman in the medical practice of Cook & Freeman, located at the Lowry Building, resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Kellogg and Dr. P. B. Cook all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Frank B. Kellogg, a lawyer and a partner in the law firm of Kellogg, Morgan, Chase, Carter & Headley, officed at the Merchants National Bank, and his wife, Clara Kellogg, resided at this address. In 1934, Frank B. Kellogg and Clara Cook Kellogg resided at this address and were members of the Minneapolis Club and the Minikahda Country Club. The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Bruce B. Harris, Jr. (1928- ,) who attended the school from 1939 until 1946 and who served in the U. S. Marines, resided at this address. Frank Billings Kellogg (1856-1937) was born in Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York, the son of Asa Farnsworth Kellogg (1823-1893) and Abigail Billings Kellogg (1826-1892,) the second wife of Asa Kellogg, and the grandson of William Kellogg (1790-1868) and Rhoda Farnsworth Kellogg ( -1823,) moved to Viola, Minnesota, with his parents in 1865, attended public school in Elgin, Minnesota, and worked on a farm until 1875, when he decided to study law in Rochester, Minnesota. Kellogg was admitted to the bar in 1877, was employed as a city attorney in Rochester, Minnesota, from 1878 to 1881, served as a county attorney for Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1882 to 1887, and moved to St. Paul in late 1887. Kellogg married Clara May Cook. Kellogg campaigned for the Republican nomination for attorney general of Minnesota in 1886, but was defeated by Moses Clapp (1851-1929.) Kellogg then formed a law firm with his cousin, former Governor and former U.S. Senator Cushman Kellogg Davis (1838-1900,) and with Cordenio Severance (1862-1925,) which later became Briggs & Morgan, a leading law firm in St. Paul, and where he specialized in antitrust suits against corporations during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Kellogg earned a substantial fortune from his law practice. Kellogg became counsel for some of the railroads, the iron mining companies, and the steel manufacturing firms that developed the rich Mesabi iron range in Minnesota and, consequently, was a friend of Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and James J. Hill. Despite those associations, Kellogg achieved national fame as a trustbuster, winning suits against the General Paper Company, a trust which was the marketing agency for a number of paper companies in Minnesota and Wisconsin, against E. H. Harriman and the Union Pacific RailRoad, and against John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company. Kellogg was a government delegate to the Universal Congress of Lawyers and Jurists at St. Louis in 1904, was a member of the Republican National Committee from 1904 to 1912, and served as president of the American Bar Association in 1912 and 1913. Kellogg was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1916 after being convinced by a petition drive to run. Kellogg was one of the few Republicans who supported the League of Nations. After serving one term, in part because he was a poor campaigner, he lost to Henrik Shipstead (1881-1960) in 1922 and returned to St. Paul and resumed practicing law. Senator Robert M. La Follette (1855-1925,) the Wisconsin Progressive, acting on a vendetta because Kellogg tried to get him ousted from the Senate during World War I because of his anti-war sentiments, spoke in St. Paul in 1922 against the reelection of Senator Kellogg, asserting that Kellogg "has bowed obsequiously to wealth and to corporations' orders and to his masters" and describing him as "by nature a subservient cringing creature." In 1923, Kellogg served as a delegate to the Fifth International Conference of American States in Santiago, Chile and served as Ambassador to Great Britain from 1923 to 1925. Kellogg served in the Cabinet as Secretary of State from 1925 until 1929, succeeding Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948,) and co-authored, with Aristide Briand (1862-1932,) the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact (Pact of Paris; Treaty on the Renunciation of War) in 1928. Briand evolved a plan in 1928 for a bilateral pact outlawing war as a tool of national diplomacy, but Kellogg delayed for months, partly fearful of a two-nation entanglement and then prodded into action by vocal American proponents of the "outlawry of war" movement, he succeeded in broadening the agreement to include 62 nations, among them all of the major powers. A total of 80 treaties of various kinds were signed while he was in office. Kellogg bettered relations with Mexico and helped to settle the Tacna-Arica Controversy between Chile and Peru. He was named associate judge of the Permanent Court for International Justice, to fill the balance of Hughes' unexpired term, and served from 1930 to 1935, when he resigned due to ill health. In 1933, Kellogg was the senior partner of the law firm Kellogg, Morgan, Chase, Carter & Headley. Kellogg received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact. Kellogg established a foundation for the study of international relations at Carleton College. Kellogg was the owner of a Pierce Arrow automobile and had a pet dog named "Bodger." Kellogg died in St. Paul of pneumonia following a stroke and was interred in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington Cathedral, Washington, D.C. The former Third Street in downtown St. Paul was renamed "Kellogg Boulevard" in his honor. Clara Cook Kellogg was born in Rochester, Minnesota, the daughter of George Clinton Cook and Elizabeth Burns Cook, was educated in the Rochester Public Schools, and married Frank Billings Kellogg in Rochester in 1886. Cushman Kellogg Davis ( -1900,) the son of Horatio N. Davis and Clarissa F. Cushman Davis and the grandson of Peter Newcombe Cushman and Sally Kellogg Cushman, was a member of the Minnesota Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by virtue of great grandfather Nathaniel Cushman, a Private in the Connecticut Continental Line during the Revolutionary War. Paul Burns Cook (1877-1930) originally was a resident of Rochester, Minnesota, graduated from the Rochester, Minnesota, High School, moved to St. Paul in 1901, was the brother-in-law of Frank Billings Kellogg and the brother of Mrs. F. J. Ottis, graduated from the University of Minnesota Medical School in 1900, was a member of the Alpha Kappa Kappa fraternity, was a physician, was an intern at the City and County Hospital in St. Paul from 1900-1901, was the assistant city physician from 1901 until 1904, was appointed a St. Paul City police surgeon in 1902, was the surgeon for the Rock Island System in St. Paul, was a member of the medical staff at the City and County Hospital in St. Paul, specialized in pediatrics and contagious diseases, was a member of the medical staff at the St. Paul Free Medical Dispensary, was a clinical assistant in the diseases of children in 1907, was an instructor in genito-urinary diseases at the University of Minnesota in 1909 and 1911, was the treasurer of the Minnesota Public Health Association in 1915, was a member of the medical staff at the Charles T. Miller Hospital in St. Paul in 1920, was a member of the American Urological Society, was a member of the American Medical Association, was a member of the Minnesota Medical Society, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the University Club, was a member of the Town and Country Club, was a member of the White Bear Yacht Club, and died of hypertension at Miami Beach, Florida. L. B. Smith was the administrator of the estate of Paul Burns Cook, who died intestate. Laura D. Cook (1880-1960) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Page, and died in Hennepin County. The property was last sold for $1,350,000 and that sale occurred in 2003. The current owners of record of the property are Mark T. Destache and Penny L. Destache. Dr. Mark Destache is associated with The Associated Anesthesiologists and is the president-elect of the Minnesota Society of Anesthesiologists. Dr. and Mrs. Mark T. Destache and Penny L. Destache were financial supporters of the United Hospital Foundation in 2003. Mark Destache made political contributions to the American Society Of Anesthesiologists Political Action Committee in 2006 and 2007. Penny and Mark Destache were financial supporters of the Jeremiah Program in 2006. [See note for the Minikahda Club for 702 Fairmount Avenue.] [See the note for the St. Paul Academy.]

639 Fairmount Avenue: Willis Hall Vittum House; Built in 1898 (1894 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Georgian Revival in style. The structure is a two story, 3683 square foot, four bedroom, one bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1900, 1902, and 1904 city directories indicate that Dr. and Mrs. W. H. Vittum resided at this address. The 1909 General Catalogue of the University of Minnesota indicates that Alfred E. Comstock, a professor of surgery, resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Dr. Alfred E. Comstock, the father of a prematurely born infant female, resided at this address in 1911. The 1918 city directory indicates that Dr. and Mrs. A. E. Comstock resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Alfred E. Comstock, a surgeon who officed at the Lowry Building, resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Comstock resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Minnesota B. Comstock, the widow of Alf E. Comstock, and Minnesota Comstock, a student, both resided at this address. In 1934, Alexander Leslie James, Sr., Nancy Wood James, Alexander Leslie James, Jr., Richard W. James, Frank A. James and Julian C. James all resided at this address and summered on the peninsula in White Bear Lake, Minnesota. Dr. Willis Hall Vittum (1855-1910) was born in Baraboo, Wisconsin, graduated from the the University of Louisiana at New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1875, graduated from the Rush Medical College of Chicago, practiced in Baraboo, Wisconsin, in 1880, moved to St. Paul in 1886, was a physician, was a poet, and died in St. Paul. Willis Hall Vittum was the author of Orpheus and other poems, published in Boston by the Gorham Press in 1911. In 1890, Willis Hall Vittum translated from German, with C. Eugene Riggs, Ludwig Edinger's Twelve Lectures on the Structure of the Central Nervous System for Physicians and Students. Ludwig Edinger founded modern comparative neuroanatomy. Alexander Leslie James, Sr., and Frank A. James were graduates of the University of Minnesota and of Harvard University. Julian C. James was a graduate of the University of Minnesota. Nancy Wood James was a member of the Womens City Club of St. Paul in 1934. Alfred Erwin Comstock (1872- ,) the son of George Erwin Comstock (1839- ) and Anna Margaret Kreamer Comstock (1848-1886,) was born in Fayette, Fayette County, Iowa, attended the Fayette, Iowa, high school, graduated with a bachelor's degree from the Upper Iowa University in 1895 and with a master's degree from the Upper Iowa University in 1898, graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College in Chicago in 1899, moved to Minnesota and settled in St. Paul, was a homeopathic physician, was a professor at the University of Minnesota Medical School from 1901 until 1909, was a visiting surgeon at the City and County Hospital in St. Paul, was the chief surgeon for the Omaha Railway Employees Benefit Association, married Minnesota Berkey (1874- ,) the daughter of John A. Berkey and Minnie Degraff Berkey, in 1907, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was a member of the Minnesota Medical Society, was a member of the American Medical Society, was a member of the Minnesota Homeopathic Medical Society, was a Mason, was a Republican, was a member of the Town and Country Club, was a member of the University Club of St. Paul, was a member of the St. Paul Automobile Club, was a member of the White Bear, Minnesota, Yacht Club, and died in St. Paul. Alfred Erwin Comstock and Minnesota Berkey Comstock had one child, Minnesota Comstock (1909- .) The Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago, Illinois, opened in 1860 and became coeducational in 1871. Many of Chicago's most prominent citizens and politicians participated on the board of trustees of the proposed Hahnemann Medical College, including Chicago's mayor, two congressmen, including Joseph B. Doggett, an Illinois state representative, a Chicago city councilman, Orrington Lunt, the co-founder of Northwestern University, William H. Brown, the founder of Chicago Union Railroad, and several medical doctors who were homeopaths. Except for the emphasis upon homeopathic therapeutics, instruction at the Hahnemann Medical College resembled that in Chicago's "regular" medical schools. Homeopathic theory held that drugs should be tested to determine their effects, that a drug which causes specific symptoms in a well person is the drug which should be used to cure those same symptoms in an unwell person (like cures like,) and that a drug's potency is enhanced by a series of dilutions (the law of infinitesimals.) Alfred Erwin Comstock ( -1930) died in Ramsey County. Minnesota Berkey Comstock ( -1954) died in Wabasha County, Minnesota. The current owner of record of the property is Alice L. Freeman. [See note on the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad.] [See note on the University Club for 420 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the White Bear Yacht Club for 18 Kenwood Parkway.]

Internet sources:

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