Thursday Night Hikes: Capitol Hill/Cathedral Hill Hike Architecture Notes, Part 1


Observations on Architectural Styles, Capitol Hill/Cathedral Hill Hike

Assembled by

Lawrence A. Martin

Webpage Creation: July 15, 2003

General. Cathedral Hill is located at the head of Summit Avenue and is the neighborhood in the immediate vicinity of St. Paul's Cathedral. The Cathedral and the Capitol on an adjacent hill form an impressive sight that is easily viewed from many points in the city.

Specific Structures or Points of Interest Along the Hike. The following presents available information on points of interest and the building styles of specific structures located along the hike:

100 Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Blvd.: State Office Building. Built in 1932; Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., architect. Because of a lack of space in the capitol building that caused state agencies to remove their offices from that space every biennial legislative session, the 1929 Legislature authorized the appointment of the State Office Building Commission and appropriated $1.5 million for a new state office building. Governor Theodore Christianson appointed the commission which voted in favor of a six-story brick office building at the rear of the Capitol, on the block bounded by University Avenue, Park Street, Sherburne Avenue, and Capitol Boulevard. The State Office Building Commission plan declined to follow Cass Gilbert's overall plan for the Capitol complex. Cass Gilbert was asked by the City of St. Paul to restudy his original Capitol approach plans, came to Saint Paul in 1930, entered into contract with the city to prepare a plan of approaches, and submitted the new plans in 1931. The supplemental plan located a building on the current site of the State Office Building. The 1931 Legislature overruled the State Office Building Commission's decision on the University site in favor of the Wabasha Street (now Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Blvd.) site. The State Office Building was erected in 1932. Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., also designed the prior Historical Society Building, which now is incorporated into the Minnesota Judicial Center, which houses the State Supreme Court and the State Court of Appeals. The building initially housed various State agencies through the early 1970's, when the building began its conversion to a legislative office building, first to office the Senate Minority Caucus members and then to provide offices for the entire House of Representatives membership. The building was remodeled and updated in 1984-1986, when hearing rooms replaced the prior central air shafts and the seventh floor was added. The building is now almost entirely a legislative office building, with the sole nonlegislative occupants being the office of the Minnesota Secretary of State and Ken "Lawn Boy" Kirkpatrick's Capitol Barber shop. Ken Kirkpatrick is the former chair of the Minnesota Board of Barber Examiners and recently served as the president of the National Association of Barber Boards of America. [See note on Johnston for 476 Summit Avenue.]

105 University Avenue West: Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church/Christ Lutheran Church on Capitol Hill; Built in 1913; Beaux Arts church in style; Buechner & Orth, architects. The structure is a two story, 34701 square foot, church, office space, and rectory. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Christ Lutheran Church, the Lutheran Coalition for Public Policy, the St. Paul Area Synod ALCA, and the Zion Evangelical Fellowship were located at this address. The church was founded in 1868 by Scandinavian immigrants. In the late 1970's, Christ Lutheran Church on Capitol Hill became involved in ministry to Southeast Asian refugees fleeing from Communism in their native countries. The church still has a strong Scandinavian following which results in a unique cultural mix within the church community. Christ Lutheran is also one of the founding congregations and an active corporate partner of the Lyngblomsten Care Center at 1455 Almond Avenue in St. Paul, hosts the Hmong Explorer Post 6, a Boy Scout Troop of Hmong teenagers, provides a monthly forum for the Minnesota Association of Christian Songwriters, shares its building with the Zion Evangelical Fellowship, a church of Ethiopian immigrants who hold their services in their native Amharic language, and sponsors the Southeast Asian Ministry. The CLC building is also home for the St Paul Area Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Rev. Susan Tjornehoj is the pastor of the church, Paul Swenson is the organist, Sean Whelan is the choir director, and Bun Loeung is the Khmer choir leader. The current owner of record of the property is the Christ Lutheran Church on Capitol Hill. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Snodgrass resided at the former nearby 96 University Avenue. [See note on Charles William Buechner.] [See note on Henry W. Orth.]

116 University Avenue West (Across from 117 University Avenue West): Lief Erikson/Leif Erickson Statute Erected in 1949; John Karl Daniels, Sculptor. The 13 foot tall bronze figure depicts the man who many consider to be the first European to reach North America, circa 1000 A.D. The statue was dedicated on Leif Erikson Day, October 9, 1949. The monument was sponsored by the Vestfoldlaget i Amerika, a Norwegian-American organization, and the Minnesota Leif Erikson Monument Association and was funded by a public subscription. The Norwegian National League was reborn in 1927 and became a factor in the Leif Erikson movement locally. The Norwegian National League in Minneapolis took the initiative after 1929 in getting the Minnesota Legislature to adopt a law making October 9 annually Leif Erikson Day and the law was enacted 1931. Also in 1931, Nordkap Lodge No. 8, Sons of Norway, St. Paul, launched the idea of a Leif Erikson monument on the Capitol grounds and the Leif Erikson Monument Association was organized with Prof. M. O. Wee ( -1942) as president. The statue was unveiled and dedicated in 1949 to coincide with Minnesota's territorial centennial celebrations. There are Leif Erikson statues in Qassiarsuk, Greenland, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Duluth, Minnesota, Cleveland, Ohio, Warnemünde, Germany, Chicago, Illinois, Boston, Massachusetts, Trondheim, Norway, Seattle, Washington, and Reykjavik, Iceland. [See note on John K. Daniels for 187 Summit Avenue, across from 186 Summit Avenue]

117 University Avenue West: Ford Building; Built in 1913; Kees & Colburn, Minneapolis architects, and John Graham, a Seattle architect and the Ford Motor Company architect. The three story, 58891 square foot, reinforced concrete commercial/industrial building was originally a Ford motor car sub-assembly plant, was built at the same time as the Minneapolis plant, located at 419 North Fifth Street, and was used to assemble 500 cars a year. The roof of the building was constructed in a manner, with walls extending nine feet above the roof tiling, so that cars could be tested on the roof. The Ford Motor Company spent $10,199 to acquire the site and the building cost $56,000. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the Minnesota Department of Agriculture and the State of Minnesota University were located at this address. The Ford building was one of 18 assembly facilities located around the country to serve local dealerships (Buffalo, New York; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Chicago; Columbus, Ohio; Dallas, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Houston, Texas; Kansas City, Missouri; Long Island City, New York; Los Angeles; Memphis, Tennessee; Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Portland, Oregon; San Francisco; Seattle; St. Louis, Missouri, and the Twin Cities.) The St. Paul Ford Assembly Plant was smaller, but more ornate, than its Minneapolis counterpart. In 1921, the W. H. Schmelzel Company conducted training courses for auto mechanics at the Ford Building. The 1930 city directory indicates that The Peterson-Greenman Company, an automobile dealer, was located at this address. When the Ford Motor Company built the Highland Park assembly plant in 1924, utilizing assembly line technology, the building was utilized by Ford as a sales and service center. The building was vacant from 1937 to 1941. In 1947, the Kedney Warehouse Company occupied the building. In 1951, the federal government acquired the building and it housed the U. S. Division of Conciliation and the Division of Social Welfare. It was acquired by the State of Minnesota as an office building in 1952 and initially housed the Department of Labor, the Department of Taxation, and the Barbers Examination Board. The building has since been vacated and has been proposed by the State Department of Administration for demolition and for the expansion of Capitol Complex Parking Lot "C." The current owner of record of the property is the State of Minnesota. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. William H. Kelley and their daughter all resided at the former nearby 142 University Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Cooke resided at the former nearby 133 West University Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. Frank Ricker, Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Russ, and J. G. McClellan all resided at the former nearby 135 West University Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. S. E. Barker resided at the former nearby 137 West University Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Jackson resided at the former nearby 139 West University Avenue. [See note on the Ford Motor Company for 334 St. Clair Avenue.] [See note on Frederick Kees.] [See note on Serenus Colburn.]

145 University Avenue West: League of Minnesota Cities Building; Built in 1995. The structure is a four story, 63218 square foot, office building. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the Association of Metro Municipalities, Berkeley Risk Administrators LLC, the League of Minnesota Cities, Messerli & Kramer PA, and the Minnesota Regional Railroads Association were located at this address. The League of Minnesota Cities was established in 1913 by a special law passed by the Minnesota Legislature. The organization was initially a part of the Extension Division of the University of Minnesota. In 1974, the League became an independent organization. The League's membership includes cities and their elected and appointed officials, special districts, and townships across Minnesota. The building was designed to be reminiscent of a generic city hall building. Judy Johnson, mayor of the City of Plymouth, Minnesota, was the president of the Board of the League of Minnesota Cities. The current owner of record of the property is the League of Minnesota Cities Building Company Inc. The 1930 city directory indicates that the sole residents of the Aerie Apartments apartment building located at the former 150 University Avenue West were Martin O'Donnell, a laborer employed by the St. Paul Department of Public Works, and his wife, Sarah O'Donnell, in Apartment #1, with Apartments #2, #3, and #4 vacant. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#4695) indicate that Alfred A. Meier (1893- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Private in Advanced Ordinance Depot #1, who was born in St. Paul, had brown eyes, dark brown hair, and a medium fair complexion, was 5' 6" tall, was a mechanic and instrument repairer at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was an optical surface grinder employed by the F. A. Hardy Optical Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Mrs. Henry Meier, at the nearby former 157 West University Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#4646) indicate that Lee Aizman (1890- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Sergeant in Company F of the 25th Engineers, who was born in Getno, Russia, moved to Minnesota in 1916, had brown eyes, black hair, and a medium complexion, was 5' 9' tall, was a chauffeur at induction, was a mechanic employed by U. S. Post Office after the completion of service, and was married, resided with his wife, Aida Aizman, at the nearby former 176 West University Avenue.

441 Rice Street: Former Trinity Lutheran Church/Berean Church of God in Christ; Reverend Bob Battle, pastor. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the Berean COGIC Church, Capitol City Printing Inc., and Open Arms Daycare Inc. were located at this address. Reverend Bob Battle (1940- ) grew up in Mississippi during the days of segregation and served as the head of the St. Paul Human Rights Department under Mayor Norm Coleman and Mayor Randy Kelly. The current owner of record is the Berean Church of God in Christ, Inc. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John Clark resided at the former nearby 438 Rice Street, that Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Miller resided at the former nearby 435 Rice Street, and that Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Boxell resided at the former nearby 428 Rice Street. The 1887 city directory indicates that that Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Brown and their daughters all resided at the former nearby 426 Rice Street, Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Miller resided at the former nearby 435 Rice Street, and that Mr. and Mrs. John Clark resided at the former nearby 438 Rice Street. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Susan Riley, the widow of Edward Riley, resided at the former nearby 436 Rice Street and that the Deutsches Haus, the Deutsches Haus German American Club House, and the Hermann Sons Hall Association, Inc., were located at the former nearby 444 Rice Street, that Delphine Lanouette, Oliver J. Dufresne, a salesman, and Angelica Pepin all resided at the former nearby 426 Rice Street, that the former nearby 427 Rice Street was vacant, that Eugene Lefevre, an engineer with W. F. Buth & Company, his wife, Carroll Lefevre, Mrs. May/Mary Jacobs, the widow of Paul Jacobs, and Edwin O. Malvey, a clerk employed by the Seeger Refrigerator Company, and his wife, Mary Malvey, all resided at the former nearby 428 Rice Street, that Holtkamp & Adams, automobile representatives, was located at the former nearby 430 Rice Street, and that Commonwealth Hall was located at the former nearby 435 Rice Street. Elise Dufresne was the wife of Oliver Dufresne in 1930. Delphine Lanouette ( -1950) died in Nicollet County, Minnesota. Oliver J. Dufresne (1892-1980) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Ducharme, and died in Ramsey County. Elise Dufresne (1896-1977) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Dickey, and died in Ramsey County. Paul Jacobs ( -1928) and Eugene Lefevre ( -1950) died in Ramsey County. Edwin O. Malvey (1905-1985) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County.

425 Rice Street: Sears Roebuck Store; Built in 1962. The property contains two retail buildings, one a one story, 30282 square foot, building and the other a two story, 185540 square foot, building. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Consumer Programs Inc., H & R Block, License Bureau Inc., Miracle Ear, Sears, and Sears Optical were located at this address. The current owner of record of the property is the Sears Roebuck & Company of Hoffman Estates, Illinois. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. B. Albachten resided at the former nearby 413 Rice Street. The 1924 city directory indicates that H. A. Gerber and R. B. Gerber both resided at the former nearby 424 Rice Street. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Fredericka Gerber, the widow of Fred Gerber, resided at the former nearby 424 Rice Street.

Former 168 Aurora Avenue: Built in 1961. The structure was a one story, 7950 square foot, commercial building and is now a parking lot. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that William H. Williams resided at this address in 1907. The 1916 city directory indicates that Dr. and Mrs. F. H. Alexander and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1916 University of Minnesota Alumni Directory indicates that Marion C. Alexander, a 1915 graduate of the University of Minnesota, resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Kathryn Connor, a clerk employed by Husch Brothers, boarded at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Herman T. Hoenck and Alex H. Janssen resided at this address. William H. Williams (1843- ,) the son of Daniel Williams and Sara Hall Williams, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, married Carrie Wallace Meusch in 1870, was educated in the public and high schools of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, served in New Jersey and Pennsylvania regiments during the American Civil War with the rank of Captain, was a manufacturer's agent, was initially employed by W. E. Garrett & Company, snuff manufacturers, from 1865 until 1867, was a traveling salesman for Ralph & Company, snuff manufacturers, from 1867 until 1869, traveled for a wholesale grocery house from 1869 until 1902, was a manufacturer's agent in St Paul after 1906, was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, was a Mason, and officed at the New York Life Building in 1907. Husch Brothers was a Jewish-owned clothing manufacturer since at least 1915 and continued until some date between 1950 and 1956. James Neiger was the president of Husch Brothers, Inc., in 1930. The current owner of record of the property is the State of Minnesota. The 1879 city directory indicates that Mary Hartigan was a domestic at the nearby former 121 Aurora Avenue, that Edward Herrmann, a furrier employed by Albrecht, Lanpher & Finch, boarded at the former nearby 172 Aurora Avenue, that William H. Kelley, a clerk employed by the State Auditor, resided at the former nearby 150 Aurora Avenue, that John B. Lewis, a clerk, and J. V. Lewis, a carpenter employed by Auerbach, Finch, Culbertson & Company, both resided at the former nearby 171 Aurora Avenue, that Thomas W. Malcolm, a clerk employed by Smith & Company, resided at the former nearby 143 Aurora Avenue, and that August Yeager, a laborer, resided at the former nearby 106 Aurora Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mathew Rafferty and Miss Lizzie Rafferty both resided at the former nearby 169 Aurora Avenue. The 1916 city directory indicates that Miss L. C. Weber resided at the former nearby 157 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. John Sinclair resided at the former nearby 159 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Spence and their daughter all resided at the former nearby 167 Aurora Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Scheuer and their daughters all resided at the former nearby 174 Aurora Avenue. The 1916 University of Minnesota Alumni Directory indicates that William John Murphy resided at the nearby former 169 Aurora Avenue. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John Sinclair resided at the former nearby 159 Aurora Avenue, that Dr. A. A. Feist resided at the former nearby 161 Aurora Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Scheuer and Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Shannon all resided at the former nearby 174 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#13279) indicate that O. C. Robert Drizzle (1892- ,) a 1917 draftee and a Dispensary Assistant in the 366th Infantry, who was born in Paris, Texas, moved to Minnesota in 1915, had black eyes, black hair, and a colored complexion, was 5' 3" tall, was a waiter/barber at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including Vosgen, the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, the Marbache Sector, and the Boise de Vourolte Offensive, was issued one bronze victory button, was a waiter employed by the Great Northern RailRoad after the completion of service, and was married, resided at the nearby former 155 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#22245) indicate that Harry D. Perkins (1889- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private First Class in Company E of the 809th Pioneer Infantry, who was born in Topeka, Kansas, moved to Minnesota in 1915, had brown eyes, black hair, and a colored complexion, was 5' 10 1/2" tall, was a porter at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was unemployed after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former 155 Aurora Avenue. The 1920 city directory indicates that Rose Berman, a milliner with a shop at 494 St. Peter Street, roomed at the former nearby 174 Aurora Avenue, that Lucy M. Cook, a matron, boarded at the former nearby 155 Aurora Avenue, that Charles H. Floto, a grocer with a store located at 459 Rice Street, resided at the nearby former 169 Aurora Avenue, and that Harry C. Floto, a chauffeur, and Ruth C. Floto, a housekeeper, both boarded at the nearby former 169 Aurora Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. R. F. Malchow resided at the former nearby 166 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. Conrad Holland and Mr. and Mrs. T. Woodworth all resided at the former nearby 167 Aurora Avenue, that Mae F. Callanan, an accountant employed by the State Dairy & Food Department, boarded at the nearby former 159 Aurora Avenue, and that Mary Callanan, the widow of Martin Callanan, resided at the nearby former 159 Aurora Avenue. The 1930 city directory indicates that the former nearby 152 Aurora Avenue was vacant, that the former nearby 154 Aurora Avenue was vacant, that Charles Black, a waiter for the Great Northern RailRoad, resided at the former nearby 155 Aurora Avenue, that Joseph N. Benson, a coal dealer, was located at the former nearby 156 Aurora Avenue, that Maurice Weber resided at the former nearby 157 Aurora Avenue, that Carl J. Sorlien, a body builder employed by the Ford Motor Company, his wife, Inga Sorlien, Theo T. Ronstadt, an inspector, and his wife, Elizabeth Ronstadt, all resided at the former nearby 159 Aurora Avenue, that John A. Healy, a watchman at the Old State Capitol Building, and William J. Quinn, a lawyer who officed at the Commerce Building, and his wife, Celina Quinn, all resided at the former nearby 161 Aurora Avenue, that Chris J. Allgreen, a foreman at American Hoist & Derrick Company, resided at the former nearby 164 Aurora Avenue, that William Hoversten, a barber employed by Albin Sjobeck, and his wife, Laura Hoversten, resided at the former nearby 166 Aurora Avenue, that John F. O'Fourke and Clarence S. Fishley, a steel worker, and his wife, Minnie L. Fishley, all resided at the former nearby 167 Aurora Avenue, and that Joseph A. Scheuer, Rose Boettcher, and Albert H. Grondahl, a clerk employed by Grain King Manufacturing Company, and his wife, Frances Grondahl, all resided at the former nearby 174 Aurora Avenue. Della Black was the wife of Charles Black in 1930. Joseph N. Benson and his wife, Mary Benson, resided at The Piedmont Apartments, at Ninth Street and Smith Avenue, according to the 1930 city directory. William John Murphy was a member of the Class of 1901 at the University of Minnesota Law School and was an inspector employed by the U. S. Customs Service in 1916. Anna Allgreen was the wife of Chris J. Allgreen in 1930. O. C. Robert Drizzle (1892-1966) was buried at the Fort Snelling National Cemetery. Conrad Holland was a poultry dealer located at 455 Wabasha Street in 1904. The Grain King Manufacturing Company of St. Paul manufactured agricultural equipment such as wagons, trucks, harrows, stackers, and bobsleds and published catalogs in 1926 and 1932. The Grain King Manufacturing Company originally was the Anderson Company, a farm implement manufacturing company that was established in 1876, and the company was located at Snelling Avenue and University Avenue, in a structure that was built in 1904 by the Twin City Rapid Transit Company as a large carhouse, power substation, and centralized shops for streetcar manufacture and maintenance. The Grain King Manufacturing Company manufactured farm wagons, farm trucks, wagon boxes, grain tanks, motor truck bodies, wagon brakes, spring seats, end gates, shoveling boards, adjustable tongues, whiffletrees and neckyokes, boss harrows, wood lever harrows, stackers, sweep rakes, bob sleds, bob sled runners, hog feeders, and steel wheels. Its factory covered seven acres, with 110,000 square feet of floor space. Herman T. Hoenck (1880-1966) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Scheinstahl, and died in Ramsey County. Charles H. Black (1875-1955) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. John A. Healy ( -1935,) Maurice A. Weber ( -1937,) Carl J. Sorlien ( -1946,) Charles Black ( -1951,) Chris J. Allgreen ( -1952,) Clarence Stanley Fishley ( -1953,) and Theodore T. Ronstadt ( -1954) all died in Ramsey County. Della Arlean Black ( -1930) died in Dakota County, Minnesota. Minnie Fishley (1889-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Beckman, and died in Ramsey County. Maurice John Weber (1909-1979) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Fosselsberger, and died in Ramsey County. Joseph A. Scheuer (1867-1955) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Rose Runge Boettcher (1906-1980) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stanke, and died in Blue Earth County, Minnesota. Albert H. Grondahl (1903-1982) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hanstad, and died in Ramsey County. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on the Ford Motor Company for 334 St. Clair Avenue.] [See note for the American Hoist and Derrick Company for 2010 Summit Avenue.] [See note on the Twin City Rapid Transit Company.] [See note on Maurice Auerbach for 400 Summit Avenue.]

175 Aurora Avenue: Minnesota AFL-CIO Federation of Labor Building; Built in 1965. The structure is a one story, 8480 square foot, office building. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the AFL-CIO Region 12 Office, the Minnesota AFL-CIO, the Minnesota Labor Interpretative Center, and the Working For America Institute were located at this address. The structure is a the headquarters of the Minnesota branch of the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations. The union organization represents 400,000 Minnesotans in over 100 locals and affiliated unions. Minnesota factors into national labor history. The Minnesota State Federation of Labor was founded in 1890 in the Twin Cities and the first strike involving Minnesota workers was the 1893 Pullman strike. From 1911 to 1935, E. G. Hall (1865-1938) of the Minneapolis Cigarmakers Union was the president of the organization. The first Minnesota local of the American Federation of Teachers was formed in St. Paul in 1918. The first sit-down strike in American history took place at the Hormel Plant in Austin, Minnesota, in 1933. The 1934 Minneapolis Teamster's Strike was one of most violent in Minnesota history. The CIO was formed in 1935-1936 by John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers, after a dispute within the AFL. The Minnesota State Federation of Teachers was formed in 1936 and several Minnesota locals also joined in the formation of the American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees. Robert A. Olson became the organization's president in 1938. The Minnesota AFL and the Minnesota CIO merged in 1956 and Robert Olson continued as its president. Recent organization presidents were Dave Roe, Dan Gustafson, and Bernard Brommer. Ray Waldron, of the Roofers Union, is the current president of the organization. Emanuel G. Hall ( -1938) died in Hennepin County. The current owner of record of the property is the Minnesota AFL-CIO Building Corporation. Douglas W. Cox, a lobbyist for Minnesota Citizens for Tax Justice, is located at this address. The 1879 city directory indicates that Barbara Albrecht, the widow of Gottlieb Albrecht, resided at the former nearby 172 Aurora Avenue, that Anna Betz, the widow of John Betz, resided at the former nearby 156 Aurora Avenue, that Gustav Betz, a painter employed by Beck & Rank, boarded at the former nearby 156 Aurora Avenue, that James S. Chapman, a bookkeeper employed by E. J. Hodgson, resided at the former nearby 177 Aurora Avenue, that Peter O. Evans, a cook, resided at the former nearby 207 Aurora Avenue, that Erick Johnson, a shoemaker with a shop at 136 1/2 East Seventh Street, resided at the former nearby 217 Aurora Avenue, and that Hans B. Larsen, a partner with Oluf Larsen in H. B. & O. Larsen, builders located at 213 Broadway Street, resided at the former nearby 201 Aurora Avenue. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Ernest Dustin Lyman Sperry resided at the former nearby 181 Aurora Avenue in 1907 and that Christopher Hoff resided at the former nearby 213 Aurora Avenue in 1907. The book of Minnesotans: a biographical dictionary of leading living men of Minnesota, edited by Albert Nelson Marquis, indicates that Peder Andreas Hoff resided at this address in 1907. The 1916 city directory indicates that E. J. Seitz resided at the former nearby 202 Aurora Avenue, that Dr. and Mrs. E. R. Smith and Mrs. Ida Mellen all resided at the former nearby 206 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. Alois Marzolf resided at the former nearby 210 Aurora Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. Mathais Bantz resided at the former nearby 219 Aurora Avenue. Jennie Rosenthal was the mother of Reuben Rosenthal and resided at 177 Aurora Avenue in 1916. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Faricy resided at the former nearby 202 Aurora Avenue, that Dr. and Mrs. E. R. Smith resided at the former nearby 206 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. Alois Marzolf resided at the former nearby 210 Aurora Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. Mathias Bantz resided at the former nearby 219 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#4511) indicate that Reuben Rosenthal (1896- ,) a 1916 enlistee and a Private in Company G of the 166th Infantry, who was born in San Francisco, California, moved to Minnesota in 1898, had blue eyes, brown hair, and a medium complexion, was 5' 4" tall, was a laborer at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including St. Mihiel, Chatieu Thierry, and the Argonne, was a laborer employed by Swift & Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former 177 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#19362) indicate that Henry M. Finstad (1893- ,) a 1917 draftee and a Wagoner in the Supply Company of the 301st Infantry, who was born in Moorhead, Minnesota, had brown eyes, black hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 10 1/2" tall, was a bartender at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including Haute Alsace, was a bartender employed by Gus Finstad after the completion of service, and was married, resided with his wife, Lydia Finstad, at the nearby former 184 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#19577) indicate that Arthur J. C. Carey (1888- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private First Class in Battery E of the 332nd Field Artillery, who was born in St. Paul, had brown eyes, brown hair, and a dark complexion, was 5' 8" tall, was a painter at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was a steam fitter helper employed by Prendergast Brothers after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Mary Owens Carey, at the nearby former 204 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#20156) indicate that Harold W. Albeck (1896- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private in Company D, Third Corps, Artillery Park, who was born in St. Paul, had blue eyes, brown hair, and a light complexion, was 5' 4 1/2" tall, was a salesman at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, was a salesman and department manager employed by Crane & Ordway Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, E. E. Albeck, at the nearby former 189 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#22163) indicate that Eugene R. Wunsch (1895- ,) a 1917 draftee and a Corporal in the 305th Guard & Fire Company of the Quartermaster Corps, who was born in Butte, Montana, moved to Minnesota in 1901, had blue eyes, brown hair, and a ruddy complexion, was 5' 8" tall, was a surveyor at induction, was a tapeman employed by the Engineering Department of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Mrs. C. H. Wunsch, at the nearby former 191 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#29345) indicate that Frank J. Markie (1896- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Wagoner in Company B of the Sixth Ammn. Train, who was born in St. Paul, had blue eyes, black hair, and a dark complexion, was 5' 7" tall, was a farmer at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including Vosges and Meuse-Argonne, was a laborer employed by P. M. Friel after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Carrie Markie, at the nearby former 190 Aurora Avenue. Sarah Singh, the sister of Reuben Rosenthal, resided at 199 Aurora Avenue in 1920. The 1920 city directory indicates that W. H. Abeck, a comptroller employed by Charles Weinhagen & Company, and William H. Albeck, a foreman, both resided at the former nearby 189 Aurora Avenue, that Clarence F. Albeck, a clerk employed by Cochran-Sargent Company, and Helen K. Albeck, an artist, both boarded at the former nearby 189 Aurora Avenue, that Gertrude I. Bayne, a clerk employed by Webb Publishing Company, boarded at the nearby former 201 Aurora Avenue, that John A. Bayne, a partner with Carl A. Ahl in Bayne & Ahl, blacksmiths located at 392 Rice Street, resided at 201 Aurora Avenue, that Olaf Berg, the manager of the Minnesota Milk Company, resided at the former nearby 213 Aurora Avenue, that Lydon A. Brandenburg, an assistant cashier employed by the Cosmopolitan State Bank boarded at the former nearby 190 Aurora Avenue, that Helen R. Campion, a teacher employed at the Hendricks School, boarded at the former nearby 181 Aurora Avenue, that Arthur J. Carey, a steamfitter, Gerald J. Carey, a painter employed by Victor Ingeman, Marie G. Carey, a clerk, Raymond J. Carey, a clerk, Sheridan J. Carey, a mechanic, Thomas J. Carey, a painter, and Vincent Carey, a steamfitter employed by the Midway Plumbing & Heating Company, all boarded at the former nearby 204 Aurora Street, that Mary O. Carey, the widow of Thomas F. Carey, resided at the former nearby 204 Aurora Avenue, that Ray T. Charlton, an electrician, resided at the former nearby 159 Aurora Avenue, that Patrick J. Connolly, a watchman employed by the Merchants Hotel, resided at the nearby former 240 Aurora Avenue, that Genevieve R. Crabe, a cashier employed by the Golden Rule, and Reginald S. Crabe, a clerk employed by the Great Northern RailRoad, both boarded at the nearby former 211 Aurora Avenue, that John W. Crabe, a painter employed by the St. Paul Public Schools, resided at the nearby former 211 Aurora Avenue, that Anna M. Finnegan, a marker, and Benjamin J. Finnegan, a grinder employed by the St. Paul White Lead & Oil Company, both boarded at the nearby former 188 Aurora Avenue, that John F. Finnegan resided at the nearby former 188 Aurora Avenue, that Henry Finstad resided at the nearby former 184 Aurora Avenue, and that Jacob Fishman, the proprietor of the Fishman Cattle Company in South St. Paul, Minnesota, resided at the nearby former 194 Aurora Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. T. O. Duckworth resided at the former nearby 174 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. G. F. Schmitt resided at the former nearby 176 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Becker and F. A. Becker all resided at the former nearby 181 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. W. G. McNish resided at the former nearby 207 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. Alois Marzolf resided at the former nearby 210 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. Olaf Berg resided at the former nearby 213 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. H. R. Volkenant resided at the former nearby 215 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. Mathais Bantz and Dr. and Mrs. C. W. Waas all resided at the former nearby 219 Aurora Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. J. G. Nystrom resided at the former nearby 223 Aurora Avenue, and that May Ferguson, the widow of Jay Ferguson, resided at the nearby former 235 Aurora Avenue. The 1930 city directory indicates that Simon Cohen, manager of Libman's Auction Storage, and his wife, Lillian Cohen, Isadore Simon, an assistant employed by Simon & Mogliner, a manufacturer ladies knickers, children's knickers, play suits, and sleepwear, and his wife, Mary Simon, resided at the former nearby 176 Aurora Avenue, that Julius Rosenthal, a shoe repairer with shops at 467 Broadway Street and 256 North Smith Street, resided at the former nearby 177 Aurora Avenue, that Frank A. Morrisette, a lather, his wife, Mamie Morrisette, and Mrs. Nettie Smith, the widow of William Smith, all resided at the former nearby 178 Aurora Avenue, that Harvey A. Roof, a carpenter, his wife, Margaret Roof, Michael F. Roof, an auto mechanic, and Patrick H. Roof, a timekeeper, all resided at the former nearby 179 Aurora Avenue, that Mrs. Johanna C. Broecker and John B. Broeker, a painter at the Ford Motor Company, both resided at the former nearby 180 Aurora Avenue, that William G. Becker, a salesman, and his wife, Elizabeth Becker, resided at the former nearby 181 Aurora Avenue, that Ernest Moore and Emma Sebastian, the widow of Charles Sebastian, both resided at the former nearby 182 Aurora Avenue, that Joseph Thompson resided at the former nearby 184 Aurora Avenue, that Oscar Nelson, a laborer, and his wife, Bertha Nelson, resided at the former nearby 185 Aurora Avenue, that Joseph Thompson, a painter, and his wife, Alma Thompson, and Mrs. Anna Woods, the widow of Joseph Woods and a maid employed by the St. Francis Hotel, all resided at the former nearby 186 Aurora Avenue, that Leo V. McCarty, an installer employed by the Twin City Furnace Company, and his wife, Anna McCarty, resided at the former nearby 187 Aurora Avenue, that John J. McInerney and Hubert J. Brandt, a conductor for the Twin City Rapid Transit Company, and his wife, Agnes Brandt, all resided at the former nearby 188 Aurora Avenue, that Francis Kane, an expressman, Florence Kane, an operator employed by the Tri State Telephone & Telegraph Company, and Thomas F. Kane and his wife, Mary M. Kane, all resided at the former nearby 189 Aurora Avenue, that the former nearby 190 Aurora Avenue was vacant, that G. Louise Maiden, a private secretary employed by the St. Paul Daily News, resided at the former nearby 191 Aurora Avenue, that Roy Barke and his wife, Bertha Barke, resided at the former nearby 192 Aurora Avenue, that Mrs. Martha Ensley and Albert Apland, a painter employed by the Northern Pacific Shops, and his wife, Harriet Apland, all resided at the former nearby 193 Aurora Avenue, that Albert Scapanski, a cutter employed by G. J. Weisenbach, and his wife, Vera Scapanski, resided at the former nearby 194 Aurora Avenue, that James H. Lavelle, an attendent at 410 Farrington Avenue, and his wife, Winifred Lavelle, Grace E. LaVelle, a bookkeeper employed by the F. W. Woolworth Company, and Bart F. LaVelle, a salesman employed by W. F. Smith Tire & Battery Company, all resided at the former nearby 195 Aurora Avenue, that Thomas Sutton, a machine operator, his wife, Minnie Sutton, Elvis Wilson, a helper, and his wife, Rose Wilson, all resided at the former nearby 196 Aurora Avenue, that John J. Griffin, a driver for the Eagle Laundry Company, and his wife, Sophia Griffin, and Henry E. Ryberg, a linotype operator employed by McGill-Warner Company, and his wife, Louise Ryberg, all resided at the former nearby 199 Aurora Avenue, that Peter W. Osander, a chef employed at the Frederic Hotel, and his wife, Josephine Osander, resided at the former nearby 201 Aurora Avenue, that Nathan Nemer, a peddler, his wife, Anna Nemer, and Harry Kanevsky, an instructor at the Progressive Music School, and his wife, Elizabeth Kanevsky, all resided at the former nearby 202 Aurora Avenue, that the former nearby 203 Aurora Avenue was vacant, that Mrs. Josephine A. Kramer, the widow of John L. Kramer, resided at the former nearby 204 Aurora Avenue, that Henrietta B. Haas, the widow of Harry J. Haas, resided at the former nearby 205 Aurora Avenue, that John Farrelly, a foreman for the Great Northern RailRoad, and his wife, Bridget Farrelly, resided at the former nearby 206 Aurora Avenue, that Mrs. Emma McKusick, the widow of Charles McKusick, Charles McKusick, an apprentice employed by the Union Depot, and Charles W. McCusick, a switchtender employed by the Union Depot, all resided at the former nearby 207 Aurora Avenue, that Frank C. Winkel, an engineer, and his wife, Anna Winkel, resided at the former nearby 209 Aurora Avenue, that Anthony Ethen, a tinner, his wife, Katie Ethen, and Alois Athan, a mechanic employed by Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Company, all resided at the former nearby 210 Aurora Avenue, that A. Lyal Mallory, a driver employed by the Minnesota Milk Company, and his wife, Freda Mallory, resided at the former nearby 211 Aurora Avenue, that Mrs. Mary M. Coe, the widow of Paul J. Coe, Clifford F. Coe, a printer with H. Peltz & Sons, and Cora G. Coe, a student nurse at St. Joseph's Hospital, all resided at the former nearby 213 Aurora Avenue, that Frank C. Kueppers, associated with Jungbauer & Kueppers, an insurance agency, and his wife, Anna F. Kueppers, resided at the former nearby 214 Aurora Avenue, that Hugo R. Volkenant and his wife, Ottilia Volkenant, resided at the former nearby 215 Aurora Avenue, that Richard F. Jones, an engineer at the State Capitol, and his wife, Mabel Jones, and Theo Carlson, a cement worker, and his wife, Theresa Carlson, all resided at the former nearby 219 Aurora Avenue, that John C. Hermann, a meat cutter employed by O. E. Weinstein, and his wife, Genevieve Hermann, resided at the former nearby 221 Aurora Avenue, and that Mrs. Belle Manke, the widow of William F. Manke, resided at the former nearby 223 Aurora Avenue. Peder Andreas Hoff (1874- ,) the son of Christopher Hoff and Christine Anderson Hoff, was born in St. Paul, was educated in public schools of St. Paul, graduated from the St. Paul Central High School, graduated from the Medical Department of the University of Minnesota in 1900, took a post-graduate course at Harvard University in 1901, was a physician and surgeon, was unmarried in 1907, was an instructor in medicine at the University of Minnesota after 1902, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was a member of the Minnesota State Medical Association, was a member of the American Medical Association, was a Mason, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, and officed at the Lowry Arcade in 1907. Christopher Hoff (1847- ,) the son of Peter Hoff and Christine Dosen Hoff, was born in Lillehammer, Norway, was educated in common schools in Norway and in the United States, learned the machinist's trade in Norway, moved to St. Paul in 1868, married Christine Anderson in 1870, was foreman at the St. Paul Harvester Works in 1873, was a tool maker Great Northern Shops until 1884, established the Lee & Hoff Manufacturing Company in 1885, incorporated the company in 1892, was a manufacturer, and officed at 91 Fillmore Avenue. Ernest Dustin Lyman Sperry (1868- ,) the son of Lyman B. Sperry and Ellen Dustin Sperry, was born in North Bangor, New York, received a common school education in New York, attended the Malone, New York, Academy for one year, moved to Minnesota, was employed by Brown, Treacy & Company, stationers, from 1887 until 1901, was a merchant, married Carlotta Hills in 1898, was a member of Brown, Treacy & Sperry Company, wholesale and retail printers, lithographers, blank book manufacturers, stationery and office suppliers from 1901 until 1905, was the secretary of Brown, Treacy & Sperry Company after 1905, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, and officed at the corner of Fifth Street and Minnesota Street in 1907. Michael Treacy ( -1900) and H. D. Brown formed Brown, Treacy & Company in 1881. H. D. Brown, Mrs. Michael Treacy and D. S. Sperry formed Brown, Treacy & Sperry Company in 1900. The Cosmopolitan State Bank was founded in 1921 and was located in Stillwater, Minnesota. Jeremiah C. Prendergast was an owner of the Prendergast Brothers plumbing business and his son, James Prendergast, also worked for the Prendergast Brothers. Mathias Bantz was an Eighth Ward St. Paul City Alderman in 1902. Sperry glacier in Glacier National Park in Montana is named for Lyman Beecher Sperry, a veteran of the 98th New York Regiment during the American Civil War and a professor of geology and zoology formerly from Oberlin College and later from the University of Minnesota who, in 1895/1896, was a member of a party that explored the region. Simon Cohen ( -1930,) John J. McInerney ( -1932,) Julius Rosenthal ( -1933,) Thomas F. Kane ( -1936,) Roy Barke ( -1945,) Ernest E. Moore ( -1945,) Isadore Simon ( -1946,) and Harvey Roof ( -1949) all died in Ramsey County. Frank A. Morrisette ( -1961) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Phimomenia, and died in Ramsey County. Johanna Christen Broecker (1889-1959) was born in Minnesota and died in Chisago County, Minnesota. William G. Becker ( -1933) and Harriet Apland ( -1945) both died in Hennepin County. Anna Woods (1885-1969) was born outside of Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Anna Woods (1876-1964) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Dehnoff, and died in Ramsey County. Hubert J. Brandt (1896-1956) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Donahugh, and died in Ramsey County. Francis G. Kane (1906-1967) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Schmidt, and died in Ramsey County. Francis Raphael Kane (1903-1978) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Weyman, and died in Dakota County, Minnesota. Gertrude Louise Maiden (1898-1998) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of __?__, and died in Ramsey County. Bertha Barke (1880-1955) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Kanefsky, and died in Ramsey County. Albert L. Scapanski (1905-1964) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Knafla, and died in Ramsey County. [See the note for Swift & Company for 110 Robie Street West.] [See note on the Crane Company for 936 Goodrich Avenue.] [See note on the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad.] [See note on the Cochran-Sargent Company for 79 Western Avenue North.] [See note on the Ford Motor Company for 334 St. Clair Avenue.] [See note on the Twin City Rapid Transit Company.] [See note for the Minnesota Milk Company and Old Home Creameries for 234 Ryan Avenue.] [See note for Tri-State Telegraph & Telephone Company for 596 Portland Avenue.] [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on the Northern Pacific RailRoad.] [See note for the Union Depot Company for 165 Western Avenue North.] [See note on the St. Paul Daily News for 1002 West Linwood Avenue.] [See note on Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Company for 406 Maple Street.] [See the note for Webb Publishing for 58 Prospect Boulevard.] [See note on the Brown, Treacy & Sperry Company for 342 West St. Clair Avenue.]

Former 224 Aurora Avenue: The 1916 and 1918 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Lux and their daughter all resided at this address. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#15601) indicate that William J. Lux (1895- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Sergeant in the 56th Engineers, who was born in St. Paul, had brown eyes, light hair, and a light complexion, was 5' 7" tall, was a grocer at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was a grocery manager employed by John W. Lux after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his father, John W. Lux, at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Lux and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Katherine Lux, the widow of John W. Lux, resided at this address. John W. Lux ( -1930) died in Ramsey County. Katherine Lux (1867-1957) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Thielen, and died in Ramsey County. The property is vacant commercial land. The current owner of record is the University National Bank. The 1916 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Coddon resided at the former nearby 230 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#23087) indicate that Robert A. Manteuffel (1896- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private in the Engineer Depot Detachment, who was born in St. Paul, had gray eyes, brown hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 3" tall, was a stationary fireman at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was issued two Overseas chevrons, was a bank clerk employed by the First National Bank after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former 230 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#23429) indicate that William Charles Gebhard (1893- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private in Company A of the 132nd Infantry, who was born in St. Paul, had brown eyes, brown hair, and a ruddy complexion, was 5' 7" tall, was a brewer at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, suffered gun shot wounds in both arms, both legs, and the chest, was employed by Dunwoody Institute after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former 233 Aurora Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#33098) indicate that Robert P. Schaffhausen (1893- ,) a 1918 draftee and a Private in the 34th Engineers, who was born in St. Paul, had brown eyes, brown hair, and a ruddy complexion, was 5' 5 1/2" tall, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was a machinist employed by A. Guthrie after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at the nearby former 230 Aurora Avenue. The 1920 city directory indicates that Edward Callahan, a stamper, resided at the former nearby 230 Aurora Avenue and that Florence Ferguson, the assistant director of the Church Federation, boarded at the former nearby 235 Aurora Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. M. M. Kanevsky resided at the former nearby 230 Aurora Avenue. William Charles Gebhard was incorrectly reported as having been killed in action in 1918. [See note on the First National Bank of St. Paul for 331 Maple Street.] [See note on the Kanevskys for 1552-1558 St. Clair Avenue.]

450 Marion Street: The structure is a commercial building. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the Sears Roebuck Company was located at this address.

387 Marion Street: Western Sculpture Park; Established in 1998. The 4.49 acre Western Sculpture Park is a model of urban revitalization, after being one of the most neglected and crime-ridden patches of land in St. Paul. The current owner of record is the City of St. Paul. The site of the park once was a staging area for the Red River Ox Cart caravans that travelled back and forth from the Red River of the North valley (i. e. the Fargo-Moorhead area,) where Scottish tenant farmers had relocated and mixed with the Metis (French and Indian mixed bloods) hunters who already lived there, to St. Paul from the 1830's to the 1860's. In an effort to survive, these farmers began trapping and tried to market their furs. The American Fur Company, founded by John Jacob Aster, and located in St. Paul, paid two to four times more for furs than did the British Hudson's Bay Company, so the peasant farmers built their own unique carts to transport furs and goods to St. Paul. The carts were made primarily of oak, cost about $15 to make, and could carry weights of furs and supplies of up to one half ton per cart. They were pulled by an ox or a horse and ran tandem two, three, or more carts together with a driver for each three to five carts. The drivers were called "boisbrule" and their ancestry was a combination of American Indian, Scottish, and French. The ox carts could be heard five miles away because of their squeaky wheels, and they would sometimes travel with as many as 200 carts in a line. Several Red River ox cart trails crossed what is now the St. Paul Midway area, linking the former St. Anthony (now Minneapolis) with St. Paul. The need for the ox carts diminished as the steamboats on the Red River became the new mode for transporting furs and supplies, and eventually, as the railroad replaced steamboats. Around the turn of the 20th Century, this area became the city's first Victorian neighborhood. After a decline in the area's housing stock and the construction of nearby I-94, the site required urban renewal, was acquired by the St. Paul Housing and Redevlopment Agency, and was given to the St. Paul Parks and Recreation Department in 1966. The Fuller Aurora Neighborhood Association spent a decade and a $300,000 capital improvement grant to develop the park. The design of the park was the work of St. Paul City Landscape Architect Jim Brewer. The crushed stone pathways and the format hedge are intended to evoke both the neighborhood's ox cart trail history and Victorian housing heritage. Sculptor John Hock is the curator of the park. Twin blue towers in the median of Marion Street, by Mexican artist Sebastian Enrique Carabajal, serve as a garish park beacon. About 20 other works of public art line the park's gravel paths, including a major centerpiece sculpture from internationally recognized steel-beam artist Mark diSuvero. Sculptures include "Wild Slide" by Peter Lundberg, "Armadillo" by Robert Ressler, "Fallen Leaf" by Karl Ciesluk, "Woods For Trees and Tree Bracelets", "Mute, Beacon, Shift", "Frame" by Shaun Cassidy, "Embracing Reason", "Site of the Source", "Androecium", "Sunstack #1", "Walking Warrior I", "Haints and History" by Preston Jackson, "Harmony VII", and "Chicago Nike". The full circle bench and the half-circle bench were designed by Afton artist and St. Paul Academy and Summit School art teacher Paul Benson, were constructed from light granite, dark granite, and aluminum, and also were intended to evoke the memory of ox cart wheels. Benson also designed the railing at the Marion Street park entrance. The nearby apartment complexes make the neighborhood one of the most densely populated in the city, with 750 households and 450 children, 300 of which are under ten years of age. Preston Jackson (1944- ) is a professor of sculpture at the School of the Art Institute in Chicago, Illinois, and teaches art to both children and adults at the Contemporary Art Center of Peoria, Illinois. Robert Ressler is a New York City sculptor who has exhibited sculpture at sites as diverse as the Jewish Museum, Prospect Park in Brooklyn, Times Square, Riverbank State Park in Harlem, and Wave Hill, the world renowned gardens in Riverdale. Karl Ciesluk is a Canadian sculptor. John Hock (1958- ) is co-founder and artistic director of the Franconia Sculpture Park in Franconia Township (Taylors Falls,) Minnesota. Born in England, Shaun Cassidy (1968- ) was educated at the West Surrey College of Art and Design, at the Norwich School of Art, and at the University of Alberta, Canada, taught at L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Marseilles, France, was an assistant professor at the Kansas City Art Institute, and served on the faculty at Bennington College, Vermont, before joining the faculty at Winthrop University in South Carolina. Mark DiSuvero (1933 - ) was born in Shanghai, China, received his bachelor's degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and began making large abstract works from structural steel in the 1960's.

375 Marion Street: Built in 1961. The six structures are multifamily apartment buildings. The first building is a three story, 10242 square foot, apartment building. The second building is a three story, 10242 square foot, apartment building. The third building is a three story, 10146 square foot, apartment building. The fourth building is a three story, 10242 square foot, apartment building. The fifth building is a three story, 10146 square foot, apartment building. The sixth building is a three story, 10242 square foot, apartment building. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were Vergel M. Anderson, Gene P. Asfaw, Scott V. Auterino, Karen S. Breen, Anthony Joseph Chulla, Sr., Barbara Cimat, Daniel Griffen, Patrick A. Jackson, L. Jones, Brian Moloitor, David Spangler, and Evelyn Spaulding. The current owner of record of the property is the Capitol Plaza LLC, located in Hastings, Minnesota.

375 St. Anthony Avenue: Ober Community Center; Built in 1945. The structure is a one story, 27968 square foot, recreational facility. The property is tax-exempt property. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the King Family Foundation Child Development Center, the Salvation Army, and the Union Gospel Mission were located at this address. The current owner of record of the property is the Union Gospel Mission Association, located at 435 University Avenue East. The Union Gospel Mission of St. Paul, founded in 1902, exists to respond to the needs of homeless and hopeless people in the Twin Cities metro area. The Ober Community Center provides recreational activities, mentorship, personal development classes, educational services, and Christian discipleship to youth ages 12-17. The Citadel Corps runs the Ober Community Center and coordinates the King Family Foundation Child Development Center (CDC.) The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. Swain resided at the former nearby 340 St. Anthony Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. A. Swain and Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Carrer all resided at the former nearby 340 St. Anthony Avenue. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Funk and Mr. and Mrs. S. L. Duin all resided at the former nearby 343 St. Anthony Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. John Steinmetz resided at the former nearby 347 St. Anthony Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. G. C. MacKnight and their daughters all resided at the former nearby 355 St. Anthony Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John P. Funk, Mrs. P. J. Eiswirth, and Mr. and Mrs. John Steinmetz all resided at the former nearby 343 St. Anthony Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Fountaine resided at the former nearby 347 St. Anthony Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. G. C. McKnight, K. B. McKnight, and the Misses McKnight all resided at the former nearby 355 St. Anthony Avenue. [See note for Edgar Buchanan Ober for 265 South Exchange Street.]

227 Western Avenue North: Built in 1884. The structure is a two story, 1860 square foot, three bedroom, three bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. The property was last sold in 1998 with a sale price of $95,000. The current owner of record of the property is Joyce L. Murray, who resides in Lake Elmo, Minnesota. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Elfelt resided at the former nearby 229 Western Avenue North and that D. H. Horst resided at the former nearby 226 Western Avenue North. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. M. G. Brown and C. F. Brown all resided at the former nearby 229 Western Avenue North and that Mr. and Mrs. Archibald MacLean resided at the former nearby 231 Western Avenue North. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Alfred F. Storey resided at the former 229 Western Avenue North in 1907. The 1916 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. M. L. Dillon resided at the former nearby 233 Western Avenue North. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Jay L. Newman resided at the nearby former 230 Western Avenue in 1917. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. M. L. Dillon resided at the former nearby 233 Western Avenue. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#2493) indicate that Marquette Harry Smith (1897- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Fireman First Class in the United States Navy, who was born in Chicago, moved to Minnesota in 1902, had blue eyes, light brown hair, and a ruddy complexion, was 6' tall, weighed 165 lbs., was an express sorter employed by the American Express Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Anna Smith, at the nearby former 229 Western Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that M. Emma Norton resided at the former nearby 228 1/2 Western Avenue North in 1922. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Elizabeth McMann resided at the former nearby 226 Western Avenue North. Alfred F. Storey (1813- ,) the son of Reuben R. Storey and Mary McCartney Storey, was born in Morrow County, Ohio, was educated in common schools of Morrow County, Ohio, attended Central College in Iberia, Ohio, moved to Minnesota in 1873, read the law, was admitted to the practice of law in 1877, was a lawyer, practiced law in St. Cloud, Minnesota, from 1877 until 1879, married Emma A. Perkins in 1878, was the county attorney of Morrison County, Minnesota, from 1878 until 1879, practiced law in Little Falls, Minnesota, from 1879 until 1885, was a judge of probate in Morrison County, Minnesota, from 1880 until 1884, moved to St. Vincent, Minnesota, in 1885, was the deputy collector of customs in St. Vincent, Minnesota, from 1885 until 1888, moved to St. Paul in 1888, was a special deputy collector of customs in St. Paul from 1888 until 1898, practiced law in St. Paul after 1898, was a Mason, and officed at the New York Life Building. The American Express Company was a delivery business established in 1850 in New York City, when the U. S. Postal Service had geographical limits to its service and did not accept valuables. From an express company that forwarded freight and valuables, the American Express Company evolved first into a company that created and sold money orders in 1882 and travelers cheques in 1891, then as a company that issues charge cards in 1958, and currently is a global payments company.

225 Western Avenue North: Built in 1884. The structure is a two story, 1956 square foot, three bedroom, two bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. The 1916 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Bowe, Mr. and Mrs. Gunder Torkelson, and Mrs. Dorothy Torkelson all resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Bowe and E. B. Lehmann all resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Hugh W. Bowe, a plumber located at 376 Dayton Avenue, resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Hugh W. Bowe, a plumber located at 337 Selby Avenue, his wife, Martha H. Bowe, and Mrs. Amelia J. Lehmann, the widow of Frederick C. Lehman, all resided at this address. In 1900, Gunder Torkelson was issued U. S. Patent 663,709 for an improvement in a thill coupling, with one half of the patent assigned to Franklin N. Ryan of St. Paul. A thill coupling is a device for connecting the thill, or pulling shaft, of a wagon or other vehicle, to the axle. Martha H. Bowe (1873-1957) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Haas, and died in Ramsey County. The property was last sold in 2005 with a sale price of $385,900. The previous owner of record of the property was Cristie Maki and the current owners of record of the property are Brian D. Laney and Hollie L. Laney, who reside at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. S. B. Gault resided at the former nearby 223 Western Avenue North and that Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Mead resided at the former nearby 221 Western Avenue North. The 1887 city directory indicates that S. B. Gault, his daughter, and Miss Kate Clark all resided at the former nearby 223 Western Avenue North and that Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Mead resided at the former 221 Western Avenue North.

355 Marshall Avenue: St. Joseph's Academy/Christ's Household of Faith. The complex includes three buildings, with the 10196 square foot, one story, building #1 built in 1931, the 77855 square foot, four story, building #2 built in 1930, and the 41884 square foot, three story, building #4 built in 1864. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Christ's Household of Faith, Christ's Household of Faith Health Department, and North Star Services Auto were located at this address and that Travis C. Walker and Cindy L. Warneke resided at this address. St. Joseph's Academy was founded in 1851. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that St. Joseph's Academy was located at this address from 1863 to 1972. The former girl's school was established by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondolet. The Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondolet were founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, in 1650. The order of nuns, directed by Rev. Jean Pierre/Jean-Paul Medaille, S.J. (1618-1689), was the third non-cloistered religious order for women, following St. Francis de Sales, who started the Visitandines (the Institute of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin (1607),) and St. Vincent de Paul, who started the Daughters of Charity (1629.) Members of the new order wore the garb of widows to be seen as respectable when they traveled the streets of Le Puy, France, unaccompanied, performing corporal and spiritual works of mercy by aiding orphans and the poor. The order barely survived the French Revolution, when they became a secret society, caring for the sick and dying, and hiding priests who refused to swear an oath of allegiance to the civil government. Five sisters of St. Joseph were captured and lost their lives to the guillotine. Eventually, Napoleon changed his policies from intolerance to limited approval for "useful" congregations of women. In 1836, a few religious women set sail for the New World, when a measles epidemic struck St. Louis and left scores of children hearing-impaired, and Bishop Joseph Rosati, who knew that the Sisters of St. Joseph taught the deaf in France, begged them to come to America to help. They landed in New Orleans and made their way up the Mississippi river, first settling in Carondelet, Missouri, and then beginning to open schools, orphanages, and hospitals. In 1851, four Sisters of St. Joseph arrived in the former settlement of Pig's Eye, which had only recently been renamed St. Paul. A few days after their arrival, the sisters opened St. Joseph's Academy with one student. In 1851, the shed was the residence hall and the classroom was the vestry of the log cabin chapel. By Fall, 1852, a brick building was erected, with 87 students. The current owner of record of the property is Christ's Household of Faith, Inc. The historic Marshall Avenue complex is valued at $3.3 million. Christ's Household of Faith, Inc., was founded by Donald Alsbury, a self-proclaimed prophet who preaches communal living and a return to Christianity's roots, and traces its roots to Mora, Minnesota. The group incorporated in 1971, moved to St. Paul in 1972, and purchased this property in 1976. The group, with about 500 members, owns at least 43 homes, including dozens of homes near its Marshall Avenue campus, and commercial properties, the vast majority in the Ramsey Hill area of St. Paul. One of its businesses is North Star Kitchens, a high-end home renovation firm. In September, 2006, the church began discussions about selling this six-acre property to the St. Paul College in order to facilitate a possible purchase of and relocation of the school to a 140-acre former reform school for girls near Sauk Centre, Minnesota.

358 Marshall Avenue West: Built in 1884. The structure is a two story, 2008 square foot, eight room, two bathroom, stucco house, with a detached garage. The property was last sold for $245,000 and that sale occurred in 2003. The current owner of record of the property is Wesland LLC, located at 208 Western Avenue North. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Wendt resided at the former nearby 362 Marshall Avenue West.

370 Marshall Avenue: The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were A. Adamidis, Michael Amante, Michelle Amante, Gyl Rhonda Anello, Robert Raymond Anello, Margaret M. Betts, Shalabh Bobra, M. Duncan, Gerry Ann Federer, Robert Joel Ferderer, Barbara Jo Foss, John Patrick Foss, Tracy Hasselman, Ryan Howell, Joan Bernadette Johnson, Jayne Jae Jones, Marni Jo Lattimore, Courtney N. Ligday, Timothy Joseph Mattes, Kevin J. Penne, Deborah Ann Reynolds, Scott Michael Robinson, Lorna L. Rupp, Thomas L. Segar, Thomas Segar, Ashley Shams, A. O. Simpson, Shane O. Sondreal, Demetrios J. Stavropoulos, Karl Strohmeier, K. Strohmeiker, Kelly S. Tubbs, Anne K. Utyro, Richard L. Warzecha, and Nicholas Brian Zimmer and that Electronic Artisans Inc., Joseph O'Connor Inc., the Minnesota Transgender Health Coalition, and Paper Street Consulting LLC were located at this address. The Minnesota Transgender Health Coalition is a group of trans and allied community organizers that works to improve health care access and the quality of health care received by trans and gender variant people, including offering professional training on transgender basics and trans specific health concerns to health care professionals, clinic staff, and health care students in Minnesota.

393 Marshall Avenue West: Northern Star Council, Boy Scouts of America, Hulings Scout Service Center (previously the Charles L. Sommers Service Center;) Built in 1966. The structure is a two story, 18274 square foot, office building. The 1916 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. S. G. Goldberg resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Edward LaVelle, a clerk employed by the St. Paul Union Stockyards Company, Katherine LaVelle, a presser employed by Levering's, Lawrence LaVelle, a checker employed by the St. Paul Union Stockyards Company, Lenora LaVelle, a saleswoman, Thomas LaVelle, his wife, Sarah La Velle, and Walter T. LaVelle, a pressman employed by West Publishing Company, all resided at this address. In 1910, a group of 26 St. Paul business and professional men, led by C. F. Proctor, a friend of Robert S. S. Baden-Powell, the founder of the Boy Scout Movement in England, organized the Ramsey County Troop #1 of the Boy Scouts of America. The initial executive board of the council included Foster Hannaford, Clarence B. Randall, George M. Brack, Frank R. Neibel, Charles L. Sommers, Hon. Grier M. Orr, Hon. Carlton F. McNally, Charles Bunn, Webster Wheelock, and Frederic D. McCarthy. The council moved to this location in 1967. Previously, the council was located in the Dispatch Building (1910-1911,) at the Endicott Building (1912-1915,) at the Old Capitol Building (1916-1925,) at the Wilder Building (1926-1945,) at the St. Paul Building (1946-1952,) and at 266 Summit Avenue (1953-1966.) The building was totally reconstructed in 1998 and was rededicated as the Hulings Scout Service Center to honor the long commitment and support of Betty Hulings and A. D. "Bill" Hulings of Bayport. The primary council staffers have been J. A. Wauchope (1910-1913), E. B. Palmer (1913-1915), H. S. Sorels (1915), Frank R. Neibel (1915-1937), Elmaar Bakken (1937-1940), Paul L. Hesser, Sr. (1940-1960), L. Robert Kilmer (1961-1966), Carl M. Martindell (1967-1970), Norman E. Swails (1970-1978), Ronald A. Phillippo (1978-2000), and John R. Andrews (2000- .) In 2005, the Indianhead Council (St. Paul based) and the Viking Council (Minneapolis based) consolidated to become a single council which serves more than 108,000 youths and families in all or part of 21 counties in Minnesota (Anoka County, Carver County, Chippewa County, Chisago County, Dakota County, Hennepin County, Isanti County, Kandiyohi County, Lac Qui Parle County, Le Sueur County, McLeod County, Meeker County, Ramsey County, Renville County, Rice County, Scott County, Washington County, Wright County, and Yellow Medicine County, and portions of Stearns and Swift County) and four counties in Western Wisconsin (Pierce County, St. Croix County, Polk County, and Burnett County,) operates two council service centers and eight different camp properties located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, and utilizes 23,000 volunteers. The council is led by a volunteer board of directors of 57 members, charters 1,801 Scouting units, employs 98 full-time paid staff and 20 permanent part-time paid staff, and employs nearly 500 seasonal employees deliver camping programs and outdoor adventure in the summer and winter months with a 2006 budget of $12.1 million. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Foster Hannaford (1888- ,) who was born in St. Paul, who attended the school from 1900 until 1905, who was a 1908 graduate of Yale University, who attended the Technical University at Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1910 and 1911, and who was employed as a coal officer by the Commonwealth Edison Company, resided in Winnetka, Illinois, and that Foster Hannaford, Jr. (1914- ,) who attended the school from 1926 until 1929, who attended the University of Honolulu, and was interested in flying, resided at Manitou Island, White Bear Lake, Minnesota. Foster Hannaford, Sr., married Alice Steele Ide (1888-1975,) the daughter of Charles W. Ide ( -1903) and Fannie Ogden "Ruth Ogden" Ide (1853- ,) in Brooklyn Heights, New York, in 1912, and the couple had five children, Foster Hannaford, Jr. (1913- ,) Taylor Hannaford (1915- ,) R. Ogden Hannaford (1917- ,) Priscilla K. Hannaford (1919- ,) and Charlotte S. Hannaford (1927- .) The 1950 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Foster Hannaford, Jr. (1914- ,) who attended the school from 1926 until 1929, who attended the University of Honolulu, and who married Mary Eva Gay Baker, resided in Chicago, Illinois. Alice Steele Ide Hannaford was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and was a sculptor who studied at the Art Students League of New York and who exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. The Hannaford Aircraft Company, founded in 1923, eventually located in Glenview, Illinois, and marketing plans for the "Hannaford Rose Parrakeet" and "Hannaford Bee" airplanes, had Foster Hannaford, Jr. (1913-1971,) as its owner. Foster Hannaford, Jr., of Minneapolis, purchased the salvaged remains of a crashed Northrop Alpha c/n11, registered NC986Y, in 1938, planning to rebuild the aircraft and retaining its registration until 1948 and also purchased an intact Alpha NC11Y in 1945, which, after restoration, is on display at the National Air and Space Museum. Alice Ida Hannaford was the wife of Foster Hannaford and corresponded with Booker T. Washington. Charles L. Sommers (1870-1964) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stern, and died in Ramsey County. Clarence B. Randall (1882-1963) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stone, and died in Ramsey County. Clarence B. Randall was a lawyer and was the counsel for the United States Independent Telephone Association and the Tri-State Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1927, filing an amici curiae brief in the initial hearing of the case of Roy Olmstead v. United States of America. Clarence B. Randall, of Chicago in 1928, was a counsel for the Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company, the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, the United States Independent Telephone Association, and the Tri-State Telephone & Telegraph Company, filing an amici curiae brief in the case of Olmstead v. United States of America, 277 U.S. 438 (1928.) George McKenzie Brack (1880-1976) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Hudson, and died in Goodhue County, Minnesota. Grier M. Orr ( -1939) died in Ramsey County. Grier M. Orr was the first judge of a juvenile court in Ramsey County in 1907. Carlton F. McNally (1886- ) resided at 705 West Linwood Avenue from 1916 to 1919, was a lawyer who officed in the Commerce Building in 1915, was a First Lieutenant in World War I, and was a Minnesota district court judge in 1943. Charles W. Bunn ( -1941) died in Ramsey County. Charles W. Bunn had a summer house built by Cass Gilbert at 2550 Manitou Island in White Bear Lake, Minnesota, in 1895. Charles W. Bunn was a lawyer and was involved in the U. S. Supreme Court cases Northern Securities Company v. United States, 193 U.S. 197 (1904,) Northern Lumber Company v. O'Brien, 204 U.S. 190 (1907,) Northern Pacific Railway Company v. State Of Minnesota, 208 U.S. 583 (1908,) Interstate Commerce Commission v. Northern Pacific Railway Company, 216 U.S. 538 (1910,) Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, & Omaha Railway Company v. United States, 217 U.S. 180 (1910,) Weyerhaeuser v. Hoyt, 219 U.S. 380 (1911,) Northern Pacific Railway Company v. Wass, 219 U.S. 426 (1911,) Northern Pacific Railway Company v. Trodick, 221 U.S. 208 (1911,) Simpson v. Shepard, 230 U.S. 352 (1913,) Northern Pacific Railway Company v. State Of North Dakota On Relation Of T. F. McCue, 236 U.S. 585 (1915,) West v. Edward Rutledge Timber Company, 244 U.S. 90 (1917,) Wallace v. Hines, 253 U.S. 66 (1920,) United States v. Northern Pacific Railway Company, 254 U.S. 251 (1920,) State Of North Dakota ex rel Lemke v. Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company, 257 U.S. 485 (1922,) Fullerton-Krueger Lumber Company v. Northern Pacific Railway Company, 266 U.S. 435 (1925,) Willcuts v. Bunn, 282 U.S. 216 (1931,) and was the special master for the Court in State Of Connecticut v. Commonwealth Of Massachusetts, 283 U.S. 789 (1931.) Camp Neibel, named for Frank Neibel, was a 101 acre property, located in Balsam Lake, Wisconsin, that was a scout camp for the former Indianhead Council in the 1940's and the early 1950's and was replaced by the Tomahawk Scout Camp, 1,932 acres of land with over eight miles of shoreline on Long Lake, Wisconsin, that was purchased in 1953 from Aksel Nielsen, a restaurateur from Illinois, who had originally intended to raise cattle on the property. The camp's total acreage has increased to 3,000 and the Tomahawk Scout Camp is now among the largest and most prominent Scout reservations in the world. The Tomahawk Scout Camp is divided into four separate sub-camps: Chippewa sub-camp, Sioux sub-camp, White Pine sub-camp, and Navajo sub-camp. The Chippewa, Sioux, and White Pine sub-camps each offer a traditional Boy Scout summer camping experience, while the Navajo sub-camp offers a transitional camping experience for second year Webelos. The Chippewa sub-camp is the oldest and largest of the four sub-camps and has a large-capacity dining hall. The Sioux sub-camp has fifteen campsites located within the southernmost point of the Tomahawk peninsula, offers the most independent program of the sub-camps, and provides meals in the campsites that were prepared at the Tomahawk Central Kitchen. The White Pine sub-camp is the newest sub-camp, founded in 1994, is the smallest of the three Boy Scout sub-camps, with ten campsites, features raised platforms for provided canvas tents, and has meals provided family style in one of two open-air log dining shelters. The 1916 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Galvin resided at the former nearby 390 Marshall Street, that Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Hall resided at the former nearby 395 Marshall Street, and that Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Fink, C. S. Kuhles, and Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Wolf all resided at the former nearby 397 Marshall Street. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Brown resided at the former nearby 395 Marshall Avenue and that Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Bassford resided at the former nearby 397 Marshall Avenue. [See note on the West Publishing Company for 415 Summit Avenue.] [See note for St. Paul Union Stockyards for 537 Ohio Street.] [See note for Tri-State Telegraph & Telephone Company for 596 Portland Avenue.] [See note for Joseph A. Wauchope for 262 Winifred Street West.] [See note on Northern Pacific RailRoad.] [See note on Charles Asher Bassford.]

208 Western Avenue North: Former Marquettte Apartments/Former Westholm Apartments; Built in 1919. The structure is a three story, 21824 square foot, multifamily apartment building. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that the Marquette Apartments was located at this address from 1919 to 1934 and that the Westholm Apartments was located at this address beginning in 1935. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#4734) indicate that Florence E. Olund (1893- ,) a 1918 enlistee and a Reserve Nurse in the Army Nurse Corps, who was born in Duluth, Minnesota, was a graduate nurse after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Dorothy G. Curley, office secretary and registrar at the Nichols Expert Business and Secretarial School, Harold C. Curley, a dentist who officed at the Hamm Building, Adam DeFea, a mechanic employed by the Central Garage, and Anna Doyle, the widow of James Doyle, all resided at this address, that Margaret Doyle, a teacher at the Lincoln School, and Mary Doyle, a stenographer employed by W. P. O'Brien, both boarded at this address, that Abbie T. Duncan, a stenographer employed by the Department of Insurance, boarded at this address, and that Lillian Ebinger, a clerk employed by the Central Warehouse Lumber Company, resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Hanscum, Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Libby, Miss May Mills, Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Sanford, and Mrs. L. L. Schaefer all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the residents at this address were Eugene J. Keough, a paving contractor, and his wife, Ruth Keough (Apartment A,) Katherine E. Tosney, an operator employed by McKibbin, Driscoll & Dorsey Company, and Winifred E. Tosney, a stenographer employed by the Great Northern RailRoad (Apartment #401,) Mrs. Bernadetta Seippel, a demonstrator employed by the Golden Rule, Alvin Seippel, a clerk employed by the First National Bank, and Wilfred Seippel, a doorman employed by Finch, Van Slyck & McConville (Apartment #402,) Beulah Wetterlind, a nurse employed by the Gillette State Hospital, and Inez Wetterlind, a stenographer employed by Montgomery Ward & Company (Apartment #403,) Alice O'Toole (Apartment #405,) Florence Bernetz, a nurse, Frank Vavra, a salesman employed by Extension Magazine, and his wife, Florence A. Vavra (Apartment #407,) Isabell C. Strunk, a bookkeeper employed by the Freeman Thompson Shoe Company, and Bertha G. Strunk, a demonstrator (Apartment #502,) Reuben Steinman, an agent employed by the Prudential Insurance Company, and his wife, Mary Steinman (Apartment #503,) Norman L. Wright, a rodman employed by the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad, and his wife, Myrtle Wright, a saleswoman employed by the Golden Rule (Apartment #504,) Frank Swan, a salesman employed by the Fuller Brush Company (Apartment #505,) Mabel H. Aalberg, a stenographer with Todd Fosness & Green, (Apartment #506,) Walter Stevens, an insurance agent (Apartment #507,) Marie N. Scott, a commercial artist (Apartment #508,) Marguerite Lutgen, a laboratory assistant employed by Ancker Hospital (Apartment #601,) Ann E. Miller (Apartment #602,) Philip A. Rosen, a salesman employed by E. E. Atkinson & Company (Apartment #603,) John R. Foster, an electrician's helper, and his wife, Flora Foster, (Apartment #606,) Joseph J. Murphy, a salesman (Apartment #607,) and Pauline M. Dowe, a cashier with the Great Northern RailRoad (Apartment #608,) with Apartments #404, #406, #408, #501, #604, and #605 vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were Kassi Anderson, P. J. Bovio, Sue Byl, Derek Clever, Sarah Fisher, Scott Flaherty, Jodi Furness, Danie Joseph Gilbert, Lisa Graff, Christopher S. Kelsey, Lorna Larson, Christopher H. McCambridge, John Edmund McCambridge, Maureen Ann McDaniel, Brian Nelson, Brian Andrew Pergament, Heidi E. Pergament, Macario M. Saulog, Yolanda Pascua Saulog, Erin Schmickle, and Cristie A. Maki. Frank Swan ( -1939) and Katherine Tosney ( -1948) died in Ramsey County. Alice O'Toole ( -1954) died in Hennepin County. Beulah La Taine Wetterlind (1904-1991) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of La Taine, and died in Ramsey County. Frank Raymond Vavra (1898-1964) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Bruzek, and died in Hennepin County. Marie Nanny Scott (1887-1968) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Peterson, and died in Ramsey County. Marguerite C. Lutgen (1904-1973) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Brown, and died in Ramsey County. Philip Albert Rosen (1902-1979) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stoneman, and died in Hennepin County. Pergola Management LLC is located at Unit D at this address. Brian Pergament is the President of Pergola Management LLC. Alfred Carl Fuller (1885-1973,) an entrepreneur from Welsford, Nova Scotia, who initially moved to Boston, founded the Fuller Brush Company in 1906, making well-made brushes and selling them door-to-door using commission-only salesmen at a time when only poor quality brushes were sold in that manner. The firm moved to Hartford, Connecticut, and grew from a set of custom-made brushes to a manufacturer of 2,000 home/business care and personal care products. From an initial investment of $375 in 1906, the company grew to a $1 million per year business in 1919 and to a $109 million in 1960. Alfred C. Fuller was named to the the Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans in 1957. The Hartt School, an internationally acclaimed conservatory with innovative programs in music, dance, and theatre and one of the institutions that founded the University of Hartford in 1957, was a primary beneficiary of the philanthropy of Alfred C. Fuller and his wife, Mary Primrose Fuller. Extension Magazine was a monthly religious magazine that regularly published fiction during the 1930's, was published by the Catholic Church Extension Society, and was edited by Rev. W. D. O'Brien. The last sale of this property was in 1999 and the sale price was $1,685,000. The current owner of record of the property is American Property Financing, located in New York, New York. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad.] [See note on the First National Bank of St. Paul for 331 Maple Street.] [See note for Anker Hospital for 265 Nugent Street.] [See note on the Fuller Brush Company for 208 Western Avenue North.]

204 Western Avenue North: Former Marquettte Apartments/Former Westholm Apartments; Built in 1919. The structure is a three story, 21824 square foot, multifamily apartment building. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that the Marquette Apartments was located at this address from 1919 to 1934 and that the Westholm Apartments was located at this address beginning in 1935. The 1920 city directory indicates that B. H. Bain, a mechanic employed by the St. Paul Gas Light Company, and Arthur R. Berreau, a salesman employed by the National Candy Company, both resided at this address and that Alice Bushnell, the widow of Fred H. Bushnell, resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Brandell, Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Brandner, Rev. L. R. S. Ferguson, Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Hellweg, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Moss, and Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Segal, all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the residents of the Marquette Apartments apartment building located at this address were Herman R. Dalege, a janitor at The Marquette Apartments, and his wife, Augusta Dalege (Apartment #101,) Earl E. Wolfe, a chauffeur, and his wife, Hazel Wolfe (Apartment #102,) Mrs. Charlotte Swan, the widow of Myron Swan (Apartment #103,) William M. Halvorseth, an salesman, and his wife, Laura Halvorseth (Apartment #104,) Charles F. Graf, a clerk employed by the Northern States Power Company, and his wife, Ruth Graf (Apartment #105,) Lloyd M. Green, a salesman employed by the St. Paul Milk Company (Apartment #106,) Harry B. Davidson, an engineer with the Daily News Publishing, and his wife, Violet Davidson, (Apartment #107,) Mrs. Cora Kilty, the widow of Raymond J. Kilty (Apartment #201,) Ferdinand L. Daman, a clerk, and his wife, Ann Daman, (Apartment #202,) Vivian M. Lancaster, a stenographer (Apartment #203,) Mrs. Myrtle Major, the widow of Frank M. Major and a saleswoman (Apartment #204,) Esther Moran, a home economics consultant (Apartment #205,) Gerald P. Dykstra, a clerk with Railway Mail Service (Apartment #206,) Eleonora F. Deem, a teacher at Mechanic Arts High School (Apartment #207,) Harold A. Hawley, a clerk employed by the Great Northern RailRoad, and his wife, Gretta Hawley (Apartment #208,) Hazel Lutjen, an operator employed by the Quality Package Box Company (Apartment #304,) Marie H. Rudd, the widow of Charles Rudd (Apartment #305,) and Winifred Vogt, a bookkeeper employed by the Tri-State Telephone & Telegraph Company (Apartment #306,) with Apartments #108, #301, #302, #303, #307, and #308 vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were Karen Brungrag, Meaghan J. Butzer, Matthew P. Chaplin, Derek Erin Durum, Robyn J. Durum, Jon Fish, Daniel Fox, Andrea Heezen, Keith Hulbert, Danielle Jean Ibister, Robert C. Jorgenson, Molly Larson, Tim W. Larson, C. Lownds, Megan L. Nepstad, Toni Marie Peterson, Melanie Walker, and Paul C. Yau. The property was last sold in 1999 with a sale price of $1,685,000. The current owner of record of the property is American Property Financing, located in New York, New York. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See note on the Northern States Power Company for 21-27 South St. Albans Street.] [See note for Tri-State Telegraph & Telephone Company for 596 Portland Avenue.] [See note on Railway Mail Service for 360 Maria Avenue.] [See note on the St. Paul Gas & Light Company for 761 West Linwood Avenue.]

201 Western Avenue North: Captured Visions Gallery and Custom Framing is located at this address. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Wolff resided at the former nearby 200 Western Avenue North.

198 Western Avenue North: Built in 1900. The structure is a three story, 38276 square foot, commercial building. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Advance Family Dental was located at this address and that Joshua B. Richardson, Regina D. Richardson, and Paul K. Zol all resided at this address. The YWCA St. Paul Career and Community Learning Center once was located at this address. The Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) was formed in London by Emma Roberts and Mrs. Arthur Kinnaird in 1855 and the YWCA movement was introduced to the United States in 1858, when New York City and Boston opened women's residences. The YWCA opened the first boarding house for female students, teachers and factory workers in New York City in 1860, as women moved from farms to cities. In 1894, the U. S. American Committee, England, Sweden, and Norway joined together to create the World YWCA. The YWCA adopted its Interracial Charter in 1946, eight years before the U. S. Supreme Court decision against segregation in Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954.) The National Board of the YWCA became a sponsoring agency in 1963 for the summer March On Washington in support of civil rights. The National Board voted support for a Direct Action Program, which was a two-year project to complete desegregation of Community YWCAs. In 1998, a major reorganization of the YWCA of the U.S.A. was inaugurated and the YWCA shifted from a top down to a bottom up grassroots organization. The current owner of record of the property is the YWCA of St. Paul, located at 375 Selby Avenue.

193 Western Avenue North: The property is tax-exempt property. The property was last sold for $20,000 and that sale occurred in 1994. The current owner of record of the property is the YWCA of St. Paul, located at 375 Selby Avenue.

191 Western Avenue North: Built in 1884. The structure is a three story, 5704 square foot, commercial building. The AA Market is located at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Orville G. Young, a restaurateur, resided at this address. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that AA Market was located at this address and that Andrew J. Gifford, Jackie Linton, Andrew Madland, and Emily Madland all resided at this address. The current owner of record of the property is Steven E. Wirth, located in Bloomington, Minnesota. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. McClellan resided at the former nearby 180 North Western Avenue and that Mrs. W. S. Hall and Albert S. Hall both resided at the former nearby 178 North Western Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Wolff resided at the former nearby 186 Western Avenue North, that Mr. and Mrs. Frank H. Hainert resided at the corner of Western Avenue North and Selby Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. J. N. Johnson resided at the former nearby 175 Western Avenue North. In 1897, a second floor closet fire of an unknown cause occurred at a 2 1/2 story brick veneered building located at the former nearby 179 Western Avenue which was owned by the St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company and which was occupied C. D. Whittle. The 1920 city directory indicates that George H. Dusty was a baker with a shop located at the former nearby 180 Western Avenue North. The 1930 city directory indicates that Julius G. Langer, a shoe rebuilder, was located at the former nearby 189 Western Avenue North and resided at 721 Lee Avenue, that Sam Lee, a laundry operator, and his wife, Shee Lee, resided at the former nearby 187 Western Avenue North, that the Ruby Motor Car Company, an automobile dealer, was located at the former nearby 184 Western Avenue North, that John W. Egan, a confectioner, and his wife, Florence Egan, resided at the former nearby 183 Western Avenue North, that Hill Market, a meat market, was located at the former nearby 182 Western Avenue North, that the former nearby 181 1/2 Western Avenue North was vacant, that Phillip J. Dinkel, a baker, and his wife, Anastasia Dinkel, resided at the former nearby 181 Western Avenue North, that Anderson & Company, bakers, was located at the former nearby 180 Western Avenue North, that Ludwig T. Peterson, a tailor with a shop located at 422 Selby Avenue, and Mrs. Sadie Stewart, the widow of Ronald Stewart, resided at the former nearby 179 1/2 Western Avenue North, that Mrs. Rosa Ehrmanntraut, a meat market operator and the widow of Charles Ehrmanntraut, resided at the former nearby 179 Western Avenue North, that Fred J. Whitehead, a barber, his wife, Anna Whitehead, and Alice R. Norton, a beauty parlor operator all resided at the former nearby 178 Western Avenue North, and that Abr. M. Zeff was a grocer with a store located at the former nearby 176 Western Avenue North. Frank H. Hainert was employed by George Benz & Sons in 1915 and was a general field representative of the Northwestern Drug Company in 1919. H. Charles Ehrmanntraut, who resided at 150 Mississippi Street, operated a meat market with Charles J. Weyl at 195 East Seventh Street in 1879. In 1896, Charles Ehrmanntraut was the treasurer of the German-American Bimetallic Club of St. Paul. Rosa Ehrmanntraut (1874-1967) was born in Minnesota to a mother with the maiden name of Simon and died in Ramsey County. [See note on the St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company for 297 Bates Avenue.] [See note on George G. Benz for 668 Greenbriar Avenue.] [See note on George Benz & Company for 83 Douglas Street.]

173 Western Avenue North: Built in 1963. The property is a one story, 13710 square foot, tax-exempt property. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. Doench resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Schroeder & Amiot, a grocery, was located at this address. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the Selby Area Business Association was located at this address. The current owner of record is the College of Associated Arts. The College of Visual Arts Main Gallery is located at this address. The College of Visual Arts, located at 344 Summit Avenue, is a private, accredited, four year college of art and design offering Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees in communication, design, illustration, photography, and the fine arts. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner S. Moore resided at the former nearby 170 Western Avenue North and that Dr. and Mrs. Jay Owens resided at the former nearby 172 Western Avenue North. The 1887 city directory indicates that that Mr. and Mrs. C. N. McLain resided at the former nearby 168 Western Avenue North, that Mr. and Mrs. N. R. Frost resided at the former nearby 169 Western Avenue North, that Mr. and Mrs. J. H. McAfee and Mr. and Mrs. N. McAfee all resided at the former nearby 170 Western Avenue North, and that Dr. and Mrs. Jay Owens and H. S. Hicks all resided at the former nearby 172 Western Avenue North. Jay Owens (1852-1890) was born in Genesee County, Michigan, was educated in the public schools of Saginaw County, Michigan, was a hospital steward in the U. S. Army from 1869 until 1877, graduated from the medical school of the University of the City of New York in 1877, settled in St. Paul in 1877, was a physician, was a member of the Minnesota State Medical Society, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was a professor of medicine at the medical school of Hamline University, presented a paper on nasal catarrh, a thick exudate of mucus and white blood cells caused by the swelling of the mucous membranes in the head after an infection, to the Minnesota State Medical Society in 1880, was a member of the Ramsey County Democratic Central Hancock & English Club in 1880, was a professor of medicine at the St. Paul Medical School in 1880, was the editor of the Northwestern Lancet in 1884, was shortstop for the "Unconquered" amateur baseball team in 1884, was a member of the State Board of Medical Examiners in 1889, and died in St. Paul.

360-378 Selby Avenue: Dakotah Building/W. A. Frost Restaurant; Built in 1886 (1889 according to Ramsey County property tax records) and rennovated in 1974; Romanesque Revival in style; Hennessey Brothers, Agnew & Cox, original architects; Hennessey brothers, original builders. The building has arched doorways and windows, copper cornices, and walls of sandstone and brick. The foundation stone blocks for the building are set 14 feet below grade. Construction of the building cost $70,000. Originally, the upper floors were apartments, with fireplaces, ornate plasterwork, tile floors, electric doorbells, and a system of speaking tubes. Originally, the main floor of the Dacotah Building housed a ladies' bath and manicure establishment and the William A. Frost pharmacy. After World War II, the W. A. Frost & Company pharmacy closed its doors. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Ridge Associates Insurance, Greg Stern PsyD., Top Dog Grill, Virtual Medical Systems Inc., 106 Group Ltd., Barnaby Company, Id Insight Inc., J. M. Peterson and Associates Inc., Junior League of St. Paul, Orion Corporation of Minnesota, Reeher Group LLC, Scout International LLC, Scranton Service Group, Team Informatics Inc., Tuohy Furniture Corp., and W. A. Frost all were located at this address. William A. Frost ( -1930) died in Ramsey County. Hennessey Brothers, Agnew & Cox, a St. Paul construction firm, also was the construction contractor for the Endicott Building in downtown St. Paul, built in 1891.

165 Western Avenue North: Albion Hotel/Angus Hotel/Blair Flats/The Blair Arcade. Built in 1888 (1887 and modified in 1893 and 1911 according to Ramsey County property tax records; 1893 according to other sources;) Victorian/Late Victorian/High Victorian/Queen Anne in style; William H. Thomas and Hermann Kretz, architects. The property is a combination commercial and residential condominium brick building. The rounded tower at the building's northeastern comer is its focal point. Other important features are orate pressed metal three-sided oriel windows which extend from the cornice above the storefront all the way to the top of the fifth floor windows, with more orate decorative metal work above that. The building is on the National Register of Historic Places. Unit 1 is a commercial portion of the structure, currently owned by Ted Glasrud Associates Inc. of Minneapolis. Unit 2 is a commercial portion of the structure, currently owned by Ted Glasrud Associates Inc. of Minneapolis. Unit 200 is a 800 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $195,000, and is currently owned by Victoria E. Jacobson. Unit 201 is a 700 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2001 at a sale price of $130,000, and is currently owned by John H. Holtan. Unit 202 is a 1050 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1994 at a sale price of $79,500, and is currently owned by Jobeth Marshall. Unit 203 is a 1275 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $232,000, and is currently owned by Harriet S. Chapman. Unit 204 is a 1400 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1995 at a sale price of $109,000, and is currently owned by Deadra M. Dahl and John L. Rodman. Unit 205 is a 1050 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Marie A. Malanaphy. Unit 206 is a 1175 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1995 at a sale price of $84,000, and is currently owned by Helga Kroll. Unit 207 is a 1225 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1998 at a sale price of $119,000, and is currently owned by Richard B. Flatz. Unit 208 is a 1275 square foot, three bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1993 at a sale price of $75,000, and is currently owned by Patricia L. Mitchell and Elmer L. Pierre. Unit 209 is a 975 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $246,900, and is currently owned by William P. Alexander. Unit 210 is a 1250 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2004 at a sale price of $269,900, and is currently owned by Don M. Mason. Unit 300 is an 800 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $220,000, and is currently owned by Justin Newhall and Philip Newhall. Unit 301 is a 700 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1999 at a sale price of $93,000, and is currently owned by Robert D. Yates. Unit 302 is a 1050 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1993 at a sale price of $62,500, and is currently owned by Mark R. Johnson. Unit 303 is a 1275 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1997 at a sale price of $105,500, and is currently owned by Brian R. Genesky. Unit 304 is a 1400 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by D. Cheryl Medintz and Earl Medintz. Unit 307 is a 1223 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Naomi M. Quillopa and Warren V. Schubert, who reside in Shoreview, Minnesota. Unit 308 is a 1400 square foot, three bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2001 at a sale price of $225,000, and is currently owned by Kevin T. Fenton and Ellen F. Shaffer. Unit 309 is a 975 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $220,000, and is currently owned by Amy Thul. Unit 310 is a 1250 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $224,000, and is currently owned by Diane L. Tannehill and Robert C. Tannehill. Unit 400 is a 1500 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1994 at a sale price of $110,000. Unit 402 is a 1050 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1993 at a sale price of $55,000, and is currently owned by the Blair House Residence Condominium Association, located in Golden Valley, Minnesota. Unit 403 is a 1275 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1999 at a sale price of $169,900, and is currently owned by Fred T. McGrath. Unit 404 is a 1400 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1994 at a sale price of $97,500, and is currently owned by August S. Caron and Patricia C. Caron. Unit 405 is a 1050 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Neil E. Anderson and Susan L. Rosenberg. Unit 406 is a 1175 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1997 at a sale price of $103,000, and is currently owned by James W. Concidine. Unit 407 is a 1225 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1994 at a sale price of $76,250, and is currently owned by Lawrence Fuchsberg, who resides at 1631 Highland Parkway. Unit 408 is a 1400 square foot, three bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1994 at a sale price of $81,000, and is currently owned by Timothy W. Jorissen. Unit 409 is a 975 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1993 at a sale price of $73,500, and is currently owned by Marta Tackas. Unit 410 is a 1250 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1996 at a sale price of $116,660, and is currently owned by Margaret T. Kyne. Unit 500 is a 800 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1995 at a sale price of $46,000, and is currently owned by Kip L. Lily. Unit 501 is a 700 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by James R. McDonagh and Louise M. McDonagh. Unit 502 is a 1050 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2004 at a sale price of $254,000, and is currently owned by Melinda Breva and Lance R. Fensterman. Unit 503 is a 1275 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2001 at a sale price of $200,000, and is currently owned by Aimee L. Hanson. Unit 504 is a 1400 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1998 at a sale price of $175,000, and is currently owned by Kim W. Jenkins and Marilyn J. Jenkins. Unit 505 is a 1050 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Victor A. Bloomfield. Unit 506 is a 1175 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Victor A. Bloomfield. Unit 507 is a 1225 square foot, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1993 at a sale price of $90,000, and is currently owned by Peter W. Fish and E. Caroline Gale. Unit 508 is a 1400 square foot, three bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $255,000, and is currently owned by Kathleen M. Bellus. Unit 509 is a 975 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1992 at a sale price of $72,000, and is currently owned by Michelle J. Rookey. Unit 510 is a 1250 square foot, two bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1998 at a sale price of $169,000, and is currently owned by Cristina A. Baker and J. J. Kuhn. The Minnesota Association for Children's Mental Health is located at Suite 2. The Inter Faculty Organization, representing the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU) State University faculty, offices at Suite 8. The Minnesota Community College Faculty Association is also located at this address. Hooker & Company, an advertising and direct mail business, is located at Suite 12. The Mortgage Bankers Association is located at Suite 12. The St. Paul office of Congresswoman Betty McCollum is located at Suite 17. Miller & Fein Instruments, makers, restorers, and dealers of violins, violas, cellos, and bows, is also located at this address. The Estetica Salon, Local Color, the BTF Gallery, Nina's Coffee Cafe, and Common Good Books, owned by Garrison Keillor, also are located at this address. The building was originally built as the Blair Flats, was converted to a residential hotel and was renamed the Albion Hotel in 1893, then was renamed the Angus Hotel in 1911, and subsequently has been redeveloped by Minneapolis developer Ray Harris and renamed the Blair Arcade. The structure was built, at a cost of $300,000, as an apartment building with storefronts on the first floor. It was commissioned by Frank P. Blair, who was the secretary of the St. Paul Improvement Company. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Henry A. Castle, a member of the church since 1885, Margaret (Mrs. H. A.) Castle, a member of the church since 1885, Helen S. Castle, members of the church since 1890, Mary J. Castle, a member of the church since 1890, Rukard Hurd, a member of the church since 1890, Kate (Mrs. R.) Hurd, a member of the church since 1890, and Charles G. Johnson, a member of the church since 1887, all resided at this address. The American Jewish Year Book for 1907 indicates that Isaac L. Rypins resided at this address. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Henry Hutchinson, Robert Porter Lewis, and Thomas Wesley Stumm all resided at this address in 1907. The book of Minnesotans: a biographical dictionary of leading living men of Minnesota, edited by Albert Nelson Marquis, indicates that Henry Russell Curtis, Warren Arthur Dennis, and James Potter Elmer all resided at this address in 1907. The 1909 University of Minnesota Catalogue indicates that Alexander J. Stone, M.D., L.L.D., a professor of the diseases of women, and Walter R. Ramsey, M.D., a clinical instructor in the diseases of children, both resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Charles Terry Miller (1835-1910,) the husband of Martha A. H. Miller, who was born in Illinois to parents born in the United States and who died of arteriosclerosis, resided at this address in 1910. The 1910-1911 Directory of the University of Minnesota indicates that Dr. E. R. Bray resided at this address and officed at the Lowry Arcade. In 1911, Thomas Lowry, president of the St. Paul Street Railway Company, bought the elegant and prestigious building. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Elmer K. Miller (1876-1913,) the single son of Martha A. H. Miller, who was born in Minnesota to parents born in the United States and who died of laceration of the brain, resided at this address in 1913. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Julia Hubbard McGill (1871-1913,) the wife of Charles H. McGill, who was born in Minnesota to parents born in Canada and in the United States and who died of cardiac dilatation, resided at this address in 1913. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that William Robert Mingaye (1822-1914,) the husband of Sarah Mingaye, who was born in England to parents also born in England and who died of asthenia senility, resided at this address in 1914. The 1916 city directory indicates that the residents at this address were Mrs. K. McK. Beals, C. A. Bettingen, H. E. Bigelow, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. Leavitt Corning, Miss Eleanor Crawford, Dr. Bronson Crothers, A. L. Cunningham, Mrs. Lee Eisenberg, her daughter, J. B. Emerson, his daughter, R. C. Flanagan, the Misses Flynn, Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Goodell, Mr. and Mrs. W. B. Hastings, Mrs. E. M. Hall, Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Haupt, Mr. and Mrs. P. M. Hennessy, Mr. and Mrs. Rukard Hurd, Howard Kahn, Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Konantz, Dr. C. F. Konantz, Mr. and Mrs. T. W. Kennedy, Dr. and Mrs. C. L. Larsen, Thomas E. Ludington, C. H. McGill, Miss K. F. McIntyre, L. V. Madsen, J. E. Markham and his daughter, Mrs. C. T. Miller, Mrs. J. E. Moore. Mr. and Mrs. C. P. Nash, Miss Josephine Norval, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Owens, Dr. B. F. Paxton, T. A. Phillips, Mrs. K. K. Porterfield, Mrs. Julia Robertson, Miss Mildred Robertson, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Ryckman, Mrs. William Sauntry, Dr. and Mrs. C. E. Smith, Jr., Dr. J. C. Staley, Jr., C. F. Whaley, H. E. Whaley, the Misses Whaley, and Rev. and Mrs. P. P. Womer. Thomas Lowry sold the hotel in 1918. The 1918 city directory indicates that the residents at this address were Mrs. K. McM. Beals, C. A. Bettingen, H. E. Bigelow, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. Leavitt Corning, Miss Eleanor Crawford, Dr. Bronson Crothers, A. L. Cunningham, Miss E. F. Deem, the Misses Flynn, G. H. Goodell, Miss Irene Gault, M. B. Gilman, Dr. A. R. Hall, Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Haupt, Mrs. P. M. Hennessey, Mr. and Mrs. Rukard Hurd, Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Konantz, Dr. C. F. Konantz, Mr. and Mrs. T. W. Kennedy, T. E. Ludington, C. H. McGill, J. E. Markham and his daughter, R. J. Matthews, E. E. Meier, Miss Josephine Norval, Mrs. F. T. Parlin, Dr. B. F. Paxton, T. A. Phillips, Charles Porterfield, Mrs. K. K. T. Porterfield, Dr. J. C. Staley, Dr. J. H. Stewart, Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Strohm, Mrs. Mary Van Slyke, Miss Mary Wadden, Mr. and Mrs. George Warner, Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Watrous, C. F. Whaley, H. E. Whaley, and the Misses Whaley. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board indicate that Rukard Hurd (1858- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Major in the Engineer Reserve Corps, who was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, moved to Minnesota in 1890, was a consulting engineer and Director of Mines for the State of Minnesota Tax Commission after the completion of service, and was married to Kate H. Hurd, resided at this address. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board indicate that Henry McNiel Burchard (1898- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Private First Class in Battery D of the 59th Field Artillery, who was born in Marshall, Minnesota, had blue eyes, brown hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 7" tall, was a student at induction, was a clerk employed by the National City Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at this address. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#7071) indicate that Edmund Durment (1894- ,) a 1917 enlistee and a Wagoner in the Medical Department, who was born in St. Paul, had blue eyes, light hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 11 1/2" tall, was a chauffeur at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including the Meuse-Argonne offensive, was unemployed after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his mother, Mrs. E. S. Durment, at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Jno. S. Abbott, a physician officing at 846 Lowry Building, Alice G. Auran, a clerk employed by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, James B. Beals, a salesman employed by Kalman Matteson & Wood, investment bankers, Kate Beals, the widow of James B. Beals, John E. Burchard, the president of J. E. Burchard Company, Leavitt Corning, the president and treasurer of Corning Inc. and publisher of Corning's Quarterly (Razoo,) Helen I. Cratsenberg, the widow of Alva A. Cratsenberg, Florence Davenport, the widow of Rufus Davenport, Mary J. Davis, a statistician employed by the State Dairy & Food Department, Caroline B. Day, the widow of David Day, Herbert Doersch, a steward, Herbert B. Dorsch, a steward employed by the St. Paul Athletic Club, Mrs. E. Drake, William Egeland, a farm lands and city property agent who officed at the Pioneer Building, Jennie Eisenberg, the widow of Lee Eisenberg, and Jacob Firestone, a real estate agent who officed at the Globe Building, all resided at this address, that Bertha L. Anderson, a teacher at the Ames School, Harriet C. Auran, a stenographer employed by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, Meriam A. Burch, the principal of Lincoln School, Anna F. Corcoran, a teacher at the Central High School, Jesse M. Dixon, a contractor who officed at the Central Bank Building, and Julie B. Eisenberg, a teacher at the Cleveland School, all boarded at this address, and that Mabel M. Dass, a clerk employed by the Canadian Government Agency, Florence Davenport, a clerk employed by the General Utilities Company, and Alice Day, a reporter employed by the Daily News, all roomed at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Annie D. Freeman (1841-1923,) a widowed client of lawyer William Oppenheimer, who was born in Canada to parents born in England and who died of bronchopneumonia, resided at this address in 1924. The 1924 city directory indicates that C. A. Stickney, Jr., Mrs. K. McM. Beals, Miss Minna Segnitz, Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Firestone, Dr. and Mrs. T. D. Tuttle, Mrs. Frederick Sibley, Dr. and Mrs. C. W. Jones, Miss Grace McHale, Mrs. Henry Hutchinson, Mrs. Clara Hoyt, Mrs, J. B. Beals, Mr. and Mrs. M. C. Blanchett, Miss Bernice Blanchett, M. B. Carpenter, Fred M. Clarke, Mr. and Mrs. P. R. Colson, Mrs. Mary Cunningham, Mr. and Mrs. Louis Becker, Miss Mable Dass, Mrs. Florence Daven, Mrs. M. J. Davis, Mrs. David Day and her daughter, Bion Dodge, Mrs. C. O. Eisendrath, Mrs. Elizabeth Forman and her daughter, Mr. and Mrs. F. M. Fraser and their daughter, E. M. Frankel, Max Frankel, Mrs. Anna D. Freeman, Mr. and Mrs. F. M. Fryburg, Miss Prudence Greenleaf, Miss M. A. Grimm, Dr. A. R. Hall, George Harrison, Mrs. C. C. Haupt, Mrs. Elmer Hayek, Mrs. Henrietta Jacobi, Mr. L. M. Jacobi, Miss Anna Kuhl, Dr. O. A. Lentz, L. M. Jacobi, Mr. and Mrs. Leavitt Corning, D. J. McKenzie, Dr. and Mrs. T. J. Maloney, Mrs. J. E. Moore, Miss Mae Moore, Mrs. A. S. Pope, Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Segers, Miss Agnes Senkler, A. H. Stees, Dr. Alex Stewart, Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Stickney, Charles Stickney, Jr., Miss Edna Taylor, Mrs. Adele Waller, Mr. and Mrs. George Warner, Horace Warner, Charles Whaley, Miss Helen Whaley, and Mr. and Mrs. Gus Weise all resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mary E. Ives (1856-1926,) the wife of Gideon Ives, who was born in Minnesota to parents born in the United States and who died of a cerebral hemorrhage, resided at this address in 1926. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Virginia Hollins Stees (1839-1926,) the widowed mother of A. H. Stees, who was born in Pennsylvania to parents born in England and in the United States and who died of hypostatic pneumonia and myocarditis, resided at this address in 1926. The 1930 city directory indicates that the residents of the apartment building located at this address were John H. Anderson, Mrs. Jane Armstrong, Mrs. Catherine Beals, the widow of James B. Beals, Mrs. Anna K. Blaine, Elfie Brodeen, a stenographer at Central High School, Miriam A. Burch, the principal at Eastern Heights School, Mrs. Mable D. Carpenter, the widow of Blanchard Carpenter, Irven Choate, a salesman, Leavitt Corning, the president-secretary of Corning, Inc., and his wife, Margaret Corning, Mrs. Mary Cunningham, Luther S. Cushing, the president of Cushing & Driscoll, Inc., and his wife, Mary Cushing, Mrs. Florence Davenport, a teacher at Marshall Junior High School, Albert "Al" Davidson, a clerk employed by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, Jane Dodd, Bion Dodge, a lawyer located at the Pioneer Building, Agnes E. Doherty, a teacher at Central High School, Fred M. Fraser, a special accountant employed by the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha RailRoad, John Giesen, a teacher, Mrs. Anne Gray, Andrew E. Hager, the manager of the Angus Hotel, and his wife, Bertha Hager, Alex R. Hall, a physician located at the Miller Hospital Clinic, and his wife, Maude Hall, Alice Hasson, the widow of Edgar C. E. Hasson, Robert H. Hasson, a department manager employed by Gordon & Ferguson, James B. Hewitt and his wife, Mary Hewitt, Mrs. Mathilda Hutchinson, the widow of Henry Hutchinson, Charles W. Johnson, Emma Johnson, Charles W. Jones and his wife, Alice D. Jones, Herbert P. Keller, a partner with Bruce J. Broady in the law firm of Keller, Broady & Chapin, located at the Merchants Bank Building, and his wife, Carrie J. Keller, Lillian M. Knott, a teacher, Leone Knox, a teacher at the Douglas School, Bessie E. Kubach, a teacher at Roosevelt Junior High School, Clara D. Lebies, primary supervisor at the Irving School, Albert F. Leigh, resident manager employed by the Robinson-Jenkins-Osborn Company, and his wife, Elizabeth Leigh, John Leigh, an attendant, Dugald J. McKenzie, a registrar employed by the Federal Land Bank, Laura McLeod, Vernon A. Mewhorter, a clerk, Mrs. Helen Meyer, a stenographer, Marie F. Moreland, a teacher at Johnson High School, Mrs. Charlotte Norton, the widow of Eric Norton, Donlan J. O'Neil, a switchtender employed by the St. Paul Union Depot, Mrs. Victoria Peterson, Mrs. Augusta S. Pope, Clarence Robertson, a manager employed by the Electro-Motive Company, Otto Sander, Frank E. Schmauss, the news editor for the St. Paul Pioneer Press, Agnes Senkler, Harry V. Shepherd, a teacher at the St. Paul Vocational School, his wife, Helen Shepherd, Frank Shoop, a printer with a shop 313 Jackson Street, Mrs. Constance Sibley, the widow of Frederick Sibley, Benjamin W. Sneil, a traveling salesman, his wife, Rose Sneil, Blanche I. Steele, a teacher at the Gorman School, Alexander Stewart, a physician of the diseases of children who officed at 350 St. Peter Street, Anthony T. Tomasek, a dentist who officed at 158 West Seventh Street, his wife, Alice Tomasek, Mrs. Clara Ware, the widow of Howard F. Ware, George Warner, an assistant merchandise manager employed by Finch, Van Slyck & McConville, his wife, Lillian Ware, Richard M. Washington, a reporter employed by the St. Paul Daily News, Edward A. Whitaker and his wife, Frances Whitaker, Lucille Wilkerson, a teacher at Johnson High School, and Simon Zeff, a grocer with a store at 509 West University Avenue. The 1930 city directory indicates that Adolph Konantz, a Christian Science practitioner, and his wife, Jennie Konantz, resided at apartment #1 of 672 Summit Avenue. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that Richard M. Washington, who attended the school from 1911 until 1914 and who was a Seaman Second Class in the Naval Reserve Force at the Great Lakes Training Station during World War I, resided at this address. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the Alexander Sales Group, Amoco Public Affairs, Belloc Boy Inc., Bungedarrel Bunge Esq., Cathedral Hill Strategies, the Estetica Salon & Day Spa, Hooker & Company, In Sight Solutions Group, Inc., Local Color Art Supply Inc., Martas European Skin Care Center, James R. McDonough, Engineer, Minnesota Petroleum Council 86, Minnesota Association for Children's Mental Health, Mortgage Bankers Association of Minnesota, Ninas Coffe Cafe, the Public Employees Pension Service Association, and the Wavo Corporation were located at this address and that John Bellus, Kathie M. Bellus, Matthew J. Bird, Victor Alfred Bloomfield, Michael P. Caron, Michelle F. Caron, James W. Conciding, Donald Diddams, Nicholas J. Ellison, Kevin T. Fenton, Peter Warren Fish, Richard Bruce Flatz, Shannon M. Flynn, Carolyn Dee Forman, James L. Forman, Elizabeth Caroline Gale, Oliver Gerbl, Sara Glynn, Jason S. Green, Andrew Greenberg, Edward Gundel, Michael Holie, Mark Ronal Johnson, Timothy W. Jorissen, Margaret Therese Kyne, Diane L. Lacasse, Amadeo Lasansky, Leonardo Lasansky, Bayard Lilly, Kip L. Lilly, Rev. JoBeth Beth Marshall, Matthew I. Marshall, Don M. Mason, Louise Marion McDonagh, Jim Robert McDonaugh, Fred Thomas McGrath, Jr., Cheryl C. Medintz, Lynn Mig, Patricia Lucille Mitchell, Richard Kevin Molnar, M. Morris, Justin Robb Newhall, Elmer Lawrence Pierre, Jr., Michelle Joy Rookey, Ann G. Ryan, James Joseph Ryan, Ellen F. Shaffer, Elsa Gail Shapiro, Marie Antoint Sorg, Michael E. Sorg, Janos E. Takacs, Marta Erzebet Takacs, Dianne Lacasse Tannehill, Robert Charles Tannehill, Eric J. Volden, Ysidro Zarraga, and David B. Zucco all resided at this address. Robert Porter Lewis (1835-1934,) the son of Reverend David Lewis and Elizabeth Williams Porter Lewis, was born in Lewisville, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was educated at Elders Ridge Academy, was educated at Washington College, graduated from Jefferson College in 1856, studied law and admitted to the practice of law in 1859, moved to Minnesota in 1859, was engaged in law, real estate and loans, married Charlotte H. Marvin in 1866, was the secretary of the St. Paul & Duluth RailRoad, was a member of the firm of Gaston & Lewis, was the president of the Robert P. Lewis Company, a real estate firm, was known as the "dean of St. Paul real estate men," and officed at the Sherman Block. Alexander J. Stone was one of the founders of the St. Paul Medical Preparatory School in 1871, was a professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and medical jurisprudence, married Helen Sewall, was the second vice president of the American Medical Association in 1883, was a Minnesota Medical Society delegate to the 1885 annual meeting of the American Medical Society convention, was the surgeon in attendance upon United States Senator Cushman K. Davis during his illness in 1900, was rumored to be the recipient of the Democratic nomination as candidate representing Minnesota's Fourth District in the U. S. Congress in 1900, was the Surgeon General for Minnesota in 1901, was a brigadier general in 1901, was the president of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States in 1901, was the president of the American Medical Editors Association in 1901 and 1902, was a member of the faculty of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Hamline University in 1903, was a member of the faculty of the College of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Minnesota in 1908, was a noted advocate for a more harmonious relationship between physicians and pharmacists in 1908, and resided in Stillwater, Minnesota, in 1919. Thomas E. Ludington was a partner, with Charles P. Noyes, Winthrop G. Noyes, C. Reinold Noyes, and William W. Cutler, in Noyes Brothers & Cutler. James Russell Eckman was the author of Alexander J. Stone, M.D., L.L.D in 1941. Walter R. Ramsey was a Canadian by birth, was the author of the article "Pericarditis in Children" in the Transactions of the Minnesota State Medical Association in 1904, was a member of the American Pediatric Society, was promoted from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor by the University of Minnesota in 1915, was a World War I veteran, resided at 214 South Grotto in 1920, was the founder of the St. Paul Children's Hospital in 1923, presented the paper "Effect of Intranatal Care Upon the Infant" to the American Child Health Association and the Child Hygiene Section of the American Public Health Association in 1929, was the author of a history of the manufacture, trade, and nutrient values of pemmican entitled, "Pembina and Pemmican" in the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and was the author of the article "Children and Sex" in The Farmer's Wife in 1939. Adolph Konantz, the son of Paul Konantz and Wilhelmina Schultheis Konantz, was born in Quincy, Illinois, was in a saddlery and harness business in St. Paul, was a deacon of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church in 1906, was the treasurer of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church from 1903 until 1907, and was the first reader of the Church of Christ Scientist of St. Paul in 1907 and 1908. William Robert Mingaye, the son of Rev. George Mingaye and Mary Webb Giraud Mingaye, was christened in Kennett, Cambridge, England, emigrated to Canada, was collector of Customs in Kingston, Winnipeg, Canada, married Sarah Jane Rowe (1831- ) of Newmarket, Ontario, Canada, in 1854, was admitted to practice as a attorney and solicitor in Upper Canada by a private bill in the Canadian legislative assembly in 1857, and died in Minnesota. George Mingaye (1789-1879) was born in 1789 in Thetford, Norfolk, England, received his bachelors and masters degrees from Bury & Caius College, Cambridge, England, was rector of Kennett, Cambridge, of Wistow, Hunts., of Wilby, Suffolk, and of West Barkwith, and died in Bury St. Edmunds, West Suffolk, England. Mary Webb Giraud (1796-1887) was born in Sunbury, Middlesex, England, the daughter of Admiral Richard Herve' Giraud, British Royal Navy, and Francis Anne Byng. William Robert Mingaye and Sarah Jane Rowe Mingaye had three children, William Herve' Mingaye (1855- ,) Mary Evellyn Mingaye (1858- ,) and Edward Giraud Mingaye (1859-1860.) Isaac Louis Rypins (1862-1951,) the son of Israel Rypins, was born in Poland, emigrated to the United States as a boy, was educated in elementary schools in Poland, in Berlin, in New York City, graduated from the high school of Cincinnati, Ohio, graduated from the University of Cincinnati Law School, graduated in theology from the Hebrew Union College, was a rabbi at Evansville, Indiana, from 1889 until 1899, resided at 763 Holly Avenue, and was the rabbi at the Mount Zion Hebrew Congregation from 1899 to 1921, having succeeded Rabbi Emanuel Hess and having been succeeded by Rabbi Jacob Meyerowiz. Isaac L. Rypins was an 1889 graduate of the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, Ohio. Rabbi Isaac L. Rypins was a member of the Board of Governors of the Educational League in 1905, was a member of the executive committee of the Central Conference of American Rabbis in 1910, and was a member of the executive committee of the Alumni Association of the Hebrew Union College in 1921. In 1906, Rabbi Isaac L. Rypins wrote the Board of Special Inquiry at Ellis Island, New York, on behalf of Hocher Bodner, a Rumanian immigrant, at the request of Bodner's St. Paul cousins, Harry Chifer and David Moskovich, promising that the cousins would care for Hocher Bodner and his family. Mount Zion Temple Rabbi Isaac Rypins openly opposed Zionism and when Henrietta Szold, the founder of Hadassah in 1912, wanted to include a stop at Mount Zion on her speaking tour in 1913, he convinced the congregation's board to reject her appearance. Mrs. I. L. Rypins was the third vice-president of the Woman's Welfare League of St. Paul in 1891. Warren Arthur Dennis (1869- ,) the son of Jesse Dennis and Annie Dennis, was born at Sharon, Wisconsin, was educated in the public schools of Sharon, Wisconsin, graduated from the Sharon, Wisconsin, high school in 1885, graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1891, graduated from the College of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Minnesota in 1896, interned at St. Luke's Hospital from 1905 until 1906, interned at the City and County Hospital in St. Paul from 1896 until 1897, did post graduate work at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, did post graduate work at Vienna, Austria, was a physician, entered into the practice of medicine at St. Paul, 1896, was a surgeon with the 15th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry during the Spanish-American War, was a member of the Minnesota Academy of Medicine, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was a member of the Minnesota State Medical Association, was a member of the American Medical Association, was unmarried, and officed at the Lowry Arcade. Henry Russell Curtis (1858-1927,) the son of Colonel Henry Curtis III (1834- ) and Lucy Reed Osborn Curtis, was born at Rock Island, Illinois, was educated in the public schools of Rock Island, Illinois, attended Allen's English and Classical School, West Newton, Massachusetts, attended the Woburn, Massachusetts, Academy, attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Boston, Massachusetts, attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, from 1878 until 1881, left on account of an incident involving the hazing of a lower classman, was initially a civil engineer on the Union Pacific RailRoad, was engaged since 1882 in stationery and printing business, first sold stationary on a commision basis, married Margaret Elizabeth Parker (1856-1905) at Perth Amboy, New Jersey, in 1883, was a manufacturing stationer and printer, incorporated the Curtis Printing Company in 1886, was the president of the Curtis Printing Company, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, officed at 355 Minnesota Street in 1907, and died in the Timor Sea. The Curtis Printing Company moved to Hartford, Connecticut, in 1922, retained George M. Bouge of the Leffingwell-Ream Company in 1922, and is now Curtis 1000. In 1911, Henry Russell Curtis introduced a lightweight strong mailing envelope, the "Curtis Fibre," which was widely adopted by bankers and lawyers for mailing bulky items. Henry Hutchinson (1849-1910,) the son of John Hutchinson and Isabella/Isabelle Patterson Hutchinson, was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was educated in the public schools of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, came to Minnesota in 1859, attended the Northfield, Minnesota, public schools, graduated from the academic department of Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, graduated from Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, in 1874, practiced medicine at Northfield, Minnesota, from 1874 until 1878, married Matilda McCurdy of New York at Red Wing, Minnesota, in 1875, moved to St. Paul, engaged in post-graduate work in Paris hospitals in l887 and in 1890, wrote an article on colchicum poisoning in 1887 in The Minnesota Medical Monthly, engaged in post-graduate work in New York homeopathic hospitals in 1904, was sent by the Orinoco Company, Ltd., to Venezuela in 1897 to verify the report of engineers on iron deposits in that country, was a professor of theory and practice of medicine in the Medical School at the University of Minnesota for five years, was appointed a member of the State Board of Health in 1894, was a vice president of the State Board of Health for five years, was the president of the State Board of Health for two years, was a member of the board of directors of the Minnesota Anti-Tubercular Association, was a member of the State Institute of Homeopathy, was a member of the American Institute of Homeopathy, was a member of the American Public Health Association, was a member of the Minnesota State Board of Health, was a member of the board of directors and the first vice president of the Edison Electric Light Company of St. Paul, was a Republican, was a member of the House of Hope Church, officed at the Germania Life Building, and died in Algiers, Africa. Thomas Wesley Stumm (1872-1914) the son of Thomas Stumm and Mary Stumm, was born in Illinois, studied at Ewing College, Illinois, graduated from Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana, in 1897, graduated with a medical degree from the Rush Medical College, Chicago, Illinois, in 1901, interned at the Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, from 1901 until 1903, did post-graduate work in Vienna, Austria, from 1903 until 1904, was a physician, was on the medical staff of St. Luke's Hospital, was on the medical staff of St. Joseph's Hospital, was on the medical staff of the St. Paul City Hospital, was a fellow in the American Medical Association, moved to St. Paul in 1904, was the president of the Ramsey County Medical Association in 1912, was a member of the Minnesota Academy of Medicine, was a clinical instructor in medicine at the University of Minnesota in 1912, officed at the Lowry Arcade in 1907, and died of heart disease in Vienna, Austria. Bronson Crothers (1884-1959) was born in Elmira, New York, the son of Samuel McChord Crothers (1857-1927,) a Unitarian minister, and Louisa Bronson Crothers, grew up in St. Paul, then moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, graduated from Harvard College and Harvard Medical School in 1909, did his residency at the Massachusetts General Hospital and at the Children's Hospital in Boston, began a private practice in St. Paul, then joined the Massachusetts General Hospital unit of the British Army Medical Corps in 1915, was cited for gallant and distinguished service, returned to St. Paul and married Alice Ames (1889-1976,) the daughter of Charles Wilberforce Ames (1855-1921) and Mary Lesley Ames (1853-1929,) then joined the U. S. Army Medical Corps in 1917, studied at the New York Neurological Institute upon discharge, was appointed neurologist at Children's Hospital in Boston and to the faculty at the Harvard Medical School, was credited with publishing at least 56 papers and books on child neurology, was president of the Boston Society for Neurology and Psychiatry in 1940, was the president of the American Pediatric Society in 1950 and 1951, was the president of the Academy of Cerebral Palsy in 1951, survived an airplane crash into Boston Harbor and saved several fellow passengers, was selected to receive the Howland Award, but died of spinal muscular atrophy prior to its receipt. Bronson Crothers and Marian C. Putnam were the authors of Birth injuries of the central nervous system: Part II--Cord birth injuries, published by The Williams & Wilkins Company in 1927. In 1932, Bronson Crothers, M.D., was the chair of the Subcommittee on Psychology and Psychiatry of the White House Conference on Child Health and Protection and the author of its reort Psychology and Psychiatry in Pediatrics: The Problem, published in New York and London by The Century Company. In 1937, Bronson Crothers, M.D., was the author of A Pediatrician in Search of Mental Hygiene, a philosophical study of the position of the pediatrician in the physical and psychological care of the individual, published in New York by The Commonwealth Fund. Bronson Crothers and Richmond S. Paine were the authors of The natural history of cerebral palsy, published by the Harvard University Press in 1959. There is a Bronson Crothers Associate Professorship of Neurology and a Bronson Crothers Distinguished Professorship of Neurology at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. Gideon Sprague Ives (1846-1927) was born in Dickinson, Franklin County, New York, served with the 15th New York Regiment, Company H, during the American Civil War, graduated from the University of Michigan Law School in 1871, moved to Minnesota in 1871, married Mary Elizabeth Swift, initially resided in St. Peter, Minnesota, was St. Peter, Minnesota, city clerk, was St. Peter, Minnesota, city attorney, was Nicollet County county attorney, was a Republican, served in the Minnesota State Senate representing Nicollet County (District 17) from 1887 to 1891, was Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota from 1891 to 1892, was president of the Minnesota Historical Society, moved to St. Paul in 1903, and was a federal referee in bankruptcy in St. Paul after 1910. St. Paul business firms that appeared before Gideon S. Ives as referee were the Handy Bag Company in 1920 and 1921, Schurmeier Motor Car Company in 1911, the Sharood Shoe Corporation in 1911, the Bristol-Maher-Klein Company from 1916 through 1918, and the N. J. Eisendrath Company from 1914 until 1915. Mrs. L. J. Shields was the sister of Henry McNiel Burchard. Leavitt Corning (1870-1935) was born in St. Paul, graduated from St. Paul elementary schools, graduated from the St. Paul Central High School in 1889, was a former newspaper apprentice in the advertising departments of the St. Paul Dispatch and the Morning Pioneer Press, was the founder and head of the Corning Advertising Agency/Corning-Firestone Advertising Agency, Inc., was a Republican, was the Seventh Ward St. Paul alderman from 1908 until 1914, and was a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives representing Ramsey County (District 40) from 1915 until 1921. Leavitt Corning was a delegate from the Fourth Congressional District to the 1920 Republican Party Convention in Chicago and was pledged to General Leonard Wood. Leavitt Corning also was a delegate from the Fourth Congressional District to the 1916 Republican Party Convention. In 1915, Leavitt Corning was the author of The men and products of Saint Paul "the star city of the North star state", together with 3rd annual Saint Paul almanack for 1915. In 1924, Leavitt Corning was the secretary of the Committee of Republicans Opposing Socialism that circulated campaign literature that attacked Oscar E. Keller when he acknowledged the he was a Nonpartisan League candidate for Congress. In 1919, Corning, Inc., was the compiler and publisher of A Report to the members of the Ten Thousand Lakes of Minnesota Association. In 1920, Corning Inc. was an advertising firm located at 89 Fourth Street East and its officers were Leavitt Corning, president and treasurer, Allan L. Firestone, vice president, and Lloyd R. Gates, secretary. Leavitt Corning was the father of Leavitt Corning, Jr., and Charles Townsend Corning II. William Sauntry (1847-1914) was a lumber baron, was a first cousin to Bing Crosby, and built a Queen Anne and Eastlake style mansion in Stillwater, Minnesota, in 1881. The William Sauntry & Company of Stillwater, Minnesota, the successor in the 1890's to the Sauntry & Tozer logging operating in the 1880's, both were affiliates of the Weyerhaeuser Lumber Company. Sauntry made a fortune operating the Ann River Logging Company, another Weyerhaeuser affiliate, but then attempted to make another fortune in mining, lost his initial fortune by 1914, and committed suicide with a handgun. Florence Bodley Davenport, the wife of Rufus Davenport and the daughter of Charles O. Bodley and Frances Price Curd Bodley, was a descendant of Revolutionary War soldier Lieut. Col. Abraham Hunt. Florence Bodley Davenport was the author of The ancestry, kindred, and descendants of Catherine Hunt Curd, wife of John Boyle Tilford. Augusta Sibley Pope, the wife of Douglas Pope and the daughter of Henry Hastings Sibley and Sarah Jane Steele Sibley, was a descendant of Revolutionary War soldier Col. Ebenezer Sproat. Augusta Sibley Pope (1844-1932) is buried in the cemetery plot at Oakland Cemetery of her father, Henry Hastings Sibley (1811-1891,) along with her mother, Sarah J. Sibley, Gussie S. Pope (1876-1896,) Abbie Potts McIntyre (1854-1933,) Theodore Schwan Abbott (1889-1948,) Sally Rugg Santini (1937-2001,) Elbert A. Young (1848-1936,) Sarah J. Young (1854-1925,) Samantha Lynn Rugg (1989-1989,) Henry Sibley Young (1877-1898,) Elbert A. Young, Jr. (1882-1938,) George Culver Rugg, Jr. (1903-1962,) Katherine Mahler Rugg (1902-1984,) Michael Culver Rugg (1929-1993,) and Ann Hannigan Rugg (1923-2000.) Luther S. Cushing, the son of a prominent Massachusetts judge, Luther Stearns Cushing (1803-1856,) was the manager of the Boston & Northwest Real Estate Company in St. Paul and maintained ties between St. Paul and Boston throughout his life. Miriam A. Burch is buried at Oak Hill Cemetery in Excelsior, Minnesota. Herbert P. Keller also was the president of the Ramsey County Bar Association, was a St. Paul assemblyman in 1909, was a mayor of St. Paul from 1914 to 1916, and was a Ramsey County Commissioner in 1927. Keller Golf Course in Ramsey County is named for Herbert Keller, who oversaw the purchase of 94.6 acres of farmland for $42,600 and the building of an 18 hole golf course and a clubhouse for an additional $108,121.38, which opened in 1929, was eventually played by heavyweight boxing champ Joe Louis, gangster John Dillinger, and professional golfers Walter Hagen, Byron Nelson, Ben Hogan, Gene Sarazen, Ted Rhodes, Sam Snead, Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Lee Trevino, Patty Berg, and Kathy Whitworth, was the venue for the PGA Championship in 1932 and 1954, the Western Open in 1949, and the St. Paul Open annually between 1930 and 1968. The National City Company of New York, an investment house, was created in 1911, was a security affiliate of National City Bank to engage in high profit activities that were not within the express corporate authority of a national bank, and had branch offices with a private wire system in 31 different cities by 1922. The hotel changed ownership several times and began the deterioration that led to its closure in 1971. The Hebrew Union College is the third oldest modern rabbinical seminary in the world, is the oldest in America, is an exponent of Reform or Progressive Judaism, was founded by Isaac M. Wise in 1875, in Cincinnati, Ohio, and was chartered separate from the Union of American Hebrew Congregations under the laws of Ohio. In 1875, Thomas Lowry started the Minneapolis Street Railway, which later became the Twin Cities Rapid Transit Company. The Twin Cities Line had over 1,100 streetcars at its peak, operating on 523 miles of track that went from Stillwater, Minnesota, White Bear Lake, Minnesota, and the Wildwood Amusement Park, owned by TCRT, in the east, through St. Paul and Como Park, into Minneapolis, out to Lake Harriet, then Hopkins, Minnesota, and all the way out west to Excelsior, Minnesota, and Deephaven, Minnesota, on the shores of Lake Minnetonka, where a fleet of yellow "trolley boats" serviced the vast lake, the numerous docks along the shore, and the TCRT-owned Big Island Amusement Park. Ray Harris developed the Calhoun Square retail complex and has been involved in various attempts to redevelop the Minneapolis Sears Store property on Lake Street. The St. Paul Street Railway Company, along with the Minneapolis Street Railway Company, the Minneapolis & St. Paul Suburban Railroad Company, the Minneapolis & St. Paul Suburban Railway Company, the Minneapolis, Lyndale & Minnetonka Railway Company, the Transit Supply Company, the Minnetonka & White Bear Navigation Company, and the Rapid Transit Real Estate Corporation all were merged into the Twin City Rapid Transit Company. The St. Paul Union Depot was designed by Charles Sumner Frost, was started in 1917 and was completed in 1923, and provided passenger and freight railroad services for St. Paul, serving some 282 trains and 20,000 passengers daily from its railroad platforms adjoining 18 railroad tracks. The St. Paul Union Depot replaced an earlier depot that was located closer to the river and suffered two fires before its replacement. The first depot building was completed in 1881, and combined the services of several different railroads into one building, yielding the name "union," and had its peak year in 1888, handling eight million passengers and 150 trains daily. The successor Union Depot was owned by the St. Paul Union Depot Company, a Minnesota corporation that was owned in equal shares by the nine railroads that served St. Paul at the height of passenger rail service, and that had an independent management, and was reponsible for the depot headhouse, connecting bridge, and concourse, adjoining trakage, platforms, umbrella sheds, and switching locomotives. Each railroad serving the depot was charged a facility fee to offset debt service, operations and maintenance. Passenger rail service was discontinued to the Depot in 1971 and thereafter the assets of the St. Paul Union Depot Company were liquidated. The headhouse (depot facade and entrance building) was sold to a private developer and walled off from the bridge and concourse, which was sold to the U. S. Postal Service. The headhouse is an austere neo-classical design with a Tuscan colonade. The bridge contains a relatively unique building feature in the Twin Cities, a ceiling consisting of a series of transverse barrle vaults using the Guastavino thin-tile herringbone vaulting system. The St. Paul Union Depot Company owned considerable adjoining trackage because eight of the 18 rail lines serving the depot were stub tracks accessible only from the East, with the remaining 10 rail lines through rails, and because rail ownership patterns and trackage rights cause many passenger trains to use only the stub tracks, requiring the use of a triangle railroad track "wye" system south south east of the depot, over the former swamp land ("grand marais") of the outlet of Phalen Creek and Trout Brook into the Mississippi River. In 1881, the St. Paul Union Depot Company employed 31 persons, one depot master, two ticket agents, two clerks, one baggage agent, three checkmen, six truckmen, one passenger agent, two policemen, one matron, one janitor, one assistant janitor, two car clerks, one assistant car clerk, one yard foreman, and six switchmen. In 1885, the St. Paul Union Depot Company employed 85 persons, one secretary, one car clerk, one bookkeeper, two ticket agents, three ticket clerks, one passenger agent, one watchman, one policeman, five gatemen, four mail agents, four janitors, two matrons, one emigration agent, two stationary engineers, one stoker, one baggage agent, six checkmen, two clerks, 13 truckmen, one yard master, nine switchmen, two engineers, two firemen, four brakemen, one maintenance foreman, ten laborers, one team driver, two carpenters, and one rail road supply employee. Florence Bodley Davenport ( -1930,) Andrew E. Hager ( -1932,) Augusta Sibley Pope ( -1932,) Albert Davidson ( -1933,) Bion A. Dodge ( -1934,) Leavitt Corning ( -1935,) Herbert P. Keller ( -1935,) Anne Gray ( -1936,) Luther S. Cushing ( -1937,) Alice Ohr Hasson ( -1937,) Miriam A. Burch ( -1939,) James Byrd Hewitt ( -1939,) Jane Elizabeth Margaret Dodd ( -1942,) Constance Sibley ( -1951,) Clara M. Ware ( -1952,) and Agnes I. Senkler ( -1952) all died in Ramsey County. Bertha Pauline Hager (1880-1967) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Rutter, and died in Ramsey County. Mary G. Hewitt (1872-1968) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Gulbrandson, and died in Ramsey County. Mary G. Hewitt (1871-1958) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of McMasters, and died in Ramsey County. Leone Patricia Knox (1894-1985) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Regan, and died in Polk County, Minnesota. Elizabeth Leigh (1885-1969) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Wall, and died in Koochiching County, Minnesota. John L. Leigh (1913-1969) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Leavitt, and died in Ramsey County. Laura McLeod ( -1943) died in Nicollet County, Minnesota. Vernon A. Mewhorter (1886-1956) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Higgins, and died in Goodhue County, Minnesota. Helen C. Meyer (1898-1985) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Sweeney, and died in Ramsey County. Charlotte Norton (1871-1962) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. Victoria B. Peterson (1892-1975) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Johnson, and died in Ramsey County. Harry V. Shepherd ( -1941) died in Washington County, Minnesota. Alex Wilson Stewart ( -1938) died in Hennepin County. Anthony Thomas Tomasek (1892-1983) was born in Minnesota and died in Hennepin County. George Warner (1870-1955) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Schauer, and died in Ramsey County. George S. Warner (1878-1965) was born in Minnesota and died in Ramsey County. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mrs. A. J. Gray and Judge and Mrs. H. R. Brill all resided at the former nearby 155 North Western Avenue and that Mr. and Mrs. F. F. Griffin and their daughter resided at the former nearby 154 North Western Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Judge and Mrs. H. R. Brill, Mrs. J. Dunham, and Mrs. A. J. Gray all resided at the former nearby 155 Western Avenue North and that Mr. and Mrs. F. F. Griffin and their daughter resided at the former nearby 154 North Western Avenue. The 1916 and 1918 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. A. F. Vogt, their daughter, and C. F. Vogt all resided at the former nearby 158 Western Avenue North. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#3381) indicate that Horace Austin LeDow (1896- ,) a 1917 enlistee and an Electrician Second Class in United States Navy, who was born in St. Paul, had blue eyes, light brown hair, and a ruddy complexion, was 5' 8" tall, weighed 148 lbs., was an electrician employed by the Tri-State Telephone & Telegraph Company after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his father, E. A. LeDow, at the nearby former 158 North Western Avenue. The 1930 city directory indicates that Martin J. Taylor, a carpenter, his wife, Myrtle Taylor, and Mrs. Myrtle J. Howe resided at the former nearby 158 Western Avenue North, that the residents of the Rosenholtz Apartments apartment building located at 155 Western Avenue North were Patrick Loughren and his wife, Isabella Loughren (Apartment #1,) Patrick H. Spellman and his wife, Mary Spellman (Apartment #2,) and Mrs. Annie Rosenholtz, the widow of Meyer H. Rosenholtz (Apartment #3,) that Lee Wagoner, a laborer, and his wife, Marie Wagoner, resided at the former nearby 154 Western Avenue North, and that the residents of the Rosenholtz Apartments apartment building located at 153 Western Avenue North were Clare H. Barber, a U. S. agent, and his wife, Elizabeth Barber, (Apartment #4,) Alice M. Nelson, a teacher at Mechanic Arts High School (Apartment #5,) Mrs. Elizabeth McNally, the widow of James F. McNally and the office manager of O'Donnell Shoe Corporation (Apartment #6,) John R. Hawley, a traveling freight agent employed by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RailRoad, and his wife, Margaret Hawley (Apartment #7,) Joseph M. Russell (Apartment #8,) and Mrs. Ina Vreeland, the widow of Wade H. Vreeland, George W. Vreeland, the secretary-salesmanager of Shine-O Corp., and Leola Vreeland, a clerk employed by the North West Jobbers Credit Bureau (Apartment #9.) The 1930 city directory also indicates that R. Carlson, a helper, resided at The Angus. Mr. and Mrs. Meyer Rosenholtz resided at 819 Portland Avenue in 1914, 1918, and 1924. The St. Paul Children's Hospital started as a temporary, 16-bed hospital in a small 10-room house located at the corner of Smith Street and Walnut Street, relocated to the new hospital at 3ll Pleasant Street in 1927, and was the first children's hospital west of Chicago. From the start, it was apparent that the Children's Hospital could not be self-supporting and it had an endowment fund established with surplus monies from its building fund to help those families who could not pay. The Children's Hospital Association was founded in 1933 and established the CHA Free Bed Fund. The Junior League of St. Paul, an organization of women active in philanthropy, helped to raise start up funds for the hospital which provided free care during the Great Depression years. Eventually the Children's Hospital Association developed the guild fundraisers system of financial support. In 1973, the current Children's Hospital was built for $14 million on land that became available when two adult hospitals merged to become United Hospital. In 1994, Children's Hospital of St. Paul separated completely from United Hospital and merged with Minneapolis Children's Medical Center. There are 3,315 employees at Children's Hospital St. Paul, including 1,436 Registered Nurses, 30 LPNs, 148 Nursing Assistants, 35 Pediatric RN specialists, and 25 neonatal specialists. Annie Rosenholtz ( -1933,) Margaret Hawley ( -1936,) and Martin J. Taylor ( -1940) died in Ramsey County. Alice M. Nelson (1882-1968) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Stavem, and died in Ramsey County. John R. Hawley ( -1938) died in Hennepin County. Ina Vreeland (1876-1964) was born outside of Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Wallace, and died in Ramsey County. [See note on Warren A. Dennis for 657 Goodrich Avenue.] [See note on the Northern Pacific RailRoad for 432 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Hermann Kretz for 579 Summit Avenue.] [See note on Herbert P. Keller for 767 East Sixth Street.] [See note for Tri-State Telegraph & Telephone Company for 596 Portland Avenue.] [See note for Leavitt Corning and his family for 1 Crocus Hill.] [See note on the Mechanic Arts High School for 656 Portland Avenue.] [See the note for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RailRoad.] [See the note for the St. Paul Union Depot.] [See note on James P. Elmer for 586 Lincoln Avenue.] [See note on Charles Clarence Haupt for 676 Summit Avenue.]

151-153-155 Western Avenue North: Former Creelman Apartments; Built in 1917. The structure is a three story, 28075 square foot, multi-family apartment building. The 1920 city directory indicates that Charles L. Clark, a physician and surgeon who officed at the Lowry Building, resided at 151 Western Avenue North, that Howard R. Culbertson, a civil engineer employed by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, roomed at 151 Western Avenue North, and that Maurice N. Dustin, an engineer employed by P. J. Kalman Company, resided at 151 Western Avenue North. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mrs. S. P. Cleaver and her daughter, Miss Hilda Petry, and Mrs. Auguste Schmidt and her daughter all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the residents of the apartment building located at this address were Marie M. Trumbull, a teacher at the Grant School (Apartment #10,) Mrs. Margaret Cogin, the widow of William H. Cogin, (Apartment #11,) Mrs. Evelyn O'Connell (Apartment #12,) Irene Kennedy, a stenographer for J. W. Mitchell, (Apartment #15,) Ethel H. Hartman, a photographer with the North West Photographic Studios, (Apartment #16,) Thomas W. Edenhofer, a painter, and his wife, Margaret Edenhofer, (Apartment #18,) Eloise L. Calihan, the secretary-treasurer of the Bemidji Townsite & Improvement Company, (Apartment #19,) Robert Watson and his wife, Margaret Watson (Apartment #20,) and Margaret Kleiner, a bookkeeper for Cinderella Cosmetics, (Apartment #21,) with Apartments #13, #14, and #17 vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Grid Multimedia Inc. and MSP Grid Magazine were both located at 151 Western Avenue, that Leslie Adele Anderson, Ailesba Jamal Fizer, Zina Bethann Fizer, John Flynn, Nancy S. Hanway, Janet Marie Holen, Patrice Kirchberg, Jean L. Vaudrin, and Margie Ellen Vaudrin all resided at 151 Western Avenue, that Zulma N. Davila, Theresa M. Helland, Jeff Hemminger, and Christine N. Szydowski all resided at 153 Western Avenue, and that Heidi Ann Russ and T. Cole both resided at 155 Western Avenue. The current owner of record of the property is Jeffery A. Austin, who is located at 457 Seventh Street West. In 2003, Daniel Scott was a financial supporter of the Randy Kelly for St. Paul Mayor campaign and resided at 153 Western Avenue North, Unit #4. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Gustave Von Goetzen resided at the former nearby 148 North Western Avenue, that Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Gribben and William C. Gribben all resided at the former nearby 147 North Western Avenue, and that Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Power and C. M. Power all resided at the former nearby 137 North Western Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Gustave Von Goetzen resided at the former nearby 148 Western Avenue North, that Mrs. G. W. Armstrong, Mrs. T. W. Coleman, Mrs. E. M. Spaulding, G. C. Armstrong, W. N. Armstrong, and J. D. Armstrong all resided at the former nearby 147 Western Avenue North, and that Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Power, their daughter, and C. M. Power all resided at the former nearby 137 Western Avenue North. James Bolt resided at the nearby former 154 Western Avenue North in 1907. The 1916 city directory indicates that Miss Della H. O'Leary resided at the former nearby 148 Western Avenue North and that Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Creelman resided at the former nearby 147 Western Avenue North. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#29296) indicate that Guy H. Clark (1898- ,) a 1917 emlistee and a Private in the U. S. Marine Corps, who was born in White Bear, Minnesota, had blue eyes, light brown hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 9 1/4" tall, was a collector at induction, served in the American Expeditionary Force in France, including Aisne, Chateau Thierry, the Aisne-Marne Offensive, Marbache, the St. Mihiel Offensive, the Muese-Argonne Offensive, Champagne, and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, received a machine gun bullet wound to the left hip on June 6. 1918, at Bois de Belleau, received the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism near Blanc Mont Ridge, France, on October 8, 1918, received the Croix de Guerre for bravery near Blanc Mont Ridge, France, on October 5, 1918, was a clerk employed by Lindeke, Warner & Sons after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided with his father, Dr. Charles L. Clark, at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Abram B. Creelman, a bookkeeper employed by J. R. Beggs & Company, resided at 155 North Western Avenue, that Elsie W. Douglas, a stenographer employed by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, and Ethel R. Douglas, a stenographer employed by the Northern Pacific RailRoad, both boarded at 153 North Western Avenue, and that Winifred Douglas, the widow of Samuel Douglas, resided at 153 North Western Avenue. The 1920 city directory indicates that Bessie Anderson, a cook at the Angus Hotel, Serena Charlson, a cook at the Angus Hotel, Grace Conroy, a waiter, and Margaret Fisher, a laundress employed by the Angus Hotel, all roomed at the former nearby 147 Western Avenue North. The 1930 city directory indicates that the Angus Hotel Employees Home was located at the former nearby 147 Western Avenue and Mrs. Mary Bywater was its matron. James Bolt (1858- ,) the son of Nicholas Bolt and Anna Boesch Bolt, was born in Lichtensteig, Switzerland, was educated in the primary school and high school of Lichtensteig, Switzerland, attended the cantonal school at Lansanne, Switzerland, attended a banking school for three years, initially was employed by his father for one year, emigrated to the United States in 1879, initially settled in New York, was employed as a bookkeeper and cashier from 1879 until 1886, moved to St. Paul in 1886, was employed by several banks, then was employed by Mannheimer Brothers, a dry goods merchant, for seven years, was engaged in the real estate business from 1896 until 1904, then was a member of Bolt Brothers from 1904 until 1906, then was a solo real estate and loan agent, officed at 117 East Fourth Street in 1907, and was a member of the St. Paul Real Estate Board. Blanc Mont ridge is the summit of the rolling Champagne, the greatest killing ground of the French Army in the First World War. When, in 1918, it became clear that the French Army was unable to take the German position, the mission to take Blanc Mont ridge was given to the doughboys and Marines of the AEF's Second Division, with the Texas and Oklahoma National Guardsmen of the 36th Division in reserve, or 54,000 men in total, under the command of French Fourth Army Commander Henri Gouraud, the one-armed hero of the Gallipoli campaign and the Marne defense. After a bloody two-hour initial assault on October 3, 1918, all four infantry regiments of the Second Division were atop the ridge, but separated, partly surrounded and subject to counterattacks. In the next two days, American units filled in for the slower battered French units and secured the initial gains at the ridge. The Battle for Blanc Mont Ridge, October 3-27, 1918, was a vicious battle that cost America over 7,800 men, killed and wounded, but has been largely forgotten. [See note on John Milton Armstrong and George Washington Armstrong for 223-229 Eagle Parkway.] [See note on the Northern Pacific RailRoad.]

136 Western Avenue North: Former Western Apartments; Built in 1919. The structure is a three story, 20320 square foot, multi-family apartment building. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1885 and 1887 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Hood resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Helen Bigelow, the widow of George L. Bigelow, Alice Brown, the widow of Wilson C. Brown, and Elsie Eiken, the widow of Andr Eiken, all resided at this address and that William A. Eiken, a credit manager employed by Cardozo & Brothers, Inc., boarded at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. F. M. Hayes, Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Hopkins, Dr. and Mrs. W. K. Johnson, Mrs. M. B. Pond, Mr. and Mrs. G. L. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Thwing, and Dr. and Mrs. R. B. Wilson all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the Dorothy H. Elliott circulating library was located at this address and that the residents of the apartment building located at this address were Mrs. Irene C. Ingemann, an operator for the McKibbin, Driscoll & Dorsey Company, (Apartment #B,) John L. Vaughn (Apartment #101,) Walter A. Link, a chauffeur, and his wife, Corinne Link, (Apartment #102,) Fred M. Clark (Apartment #103,) Alice Prendergast, a teacher at Mechanic Arts High School (Apartment #105,) Peter L. Hanson, a shipping clerk with Pan-Am Wall Paper & Paint Company, and his wife, Gladys Hanson, (Apartment #106,) Charles F. Brown, a driver for the Railway Express Agency, and his wife, Susan Brown, (Apartment #107,) Ronald H. Rines, the assistant secretary-manager of the St. Paul office of the Twin City Building & Loan Association, and his wife, Mabel Rines (Apartment #108,) William J. Hopkins, a salesman, and his wife, Barbara B. Hopkins, (Apartment #201,) Mrs. M. Alice Brown, the widow of Wilson C. Brown, (Apartment #202,) Jennie M. Moore (Apartment #203,) Beatrix I. Peet, a teacher at the Mounds Park School (Apartment #204,) Katherine M. Sanderson (Apartment #205,) Zoe T. Hood, a teacher at the Maria Sanford Junior High School, (Apartment #206,) Jennie E. Hedin, a teacher at the Longfellow School, (Apartment #207,) Lavina A. Westerson (Apartment #208,) Charles M. Baker, a steward for the Great Northern RailRoad, and his wife, Corinne Baker, (Apartment #301,) Grace L. Robinson, a teacher at McKinley School (Apartment #302,) Grace E. Glover, a clerk employed by the U. S. Internal Revenue Service, (Apartment #303,) Jennette D. Hoogesteger, a partner in the law firm Manahan, Hoogesteger & Manahan, located at the Minnesota Building, (Apartment #304,) Warren A. Gorton, a merchandise manager, and his wife, Katherine Gorton, (Apartment #307,) and Julius A. Larkin, a clerk employed by the Great Northern RailRoad, and his wife, Lydia Larkin (Apartment #308,) with Apartments #104, #305, and #306 vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Atomic Acupuncture Inc. and Pearson Consulting Group Ltd. were both located at this address and that Paul Franz Albers, Caitlin Lainey Boyd, T. Cole, John Edward Daugherty, Kathleen Dixon, Kellard Dunks, Kelly J. Dunks, Kim Ferrel, Nolan Frank, James Henry, Rose Renee Hobot, Dorothy A. Johnson, Paul W. Johnson, Bill Kramer, Nicholas Lanzatella, James H. Leinfelder, Nick Maki, Heather E. Matson, Nanci Jane Nelson, Ross B. Nelson, Eugenia M. Rogers, James Silas Rogers, Darrell Dean Rosenthal, Lorraine Rosenthal, S. Schaffer, M. Schmidt, Suzanne Shaffer, Kenneth J. Tomes, and Peter Yamashiro all resided at this address. McKibbin & Company was established in 1888 by Joseph McKibbin, Henry Hasenwinkle, Henry E. Whaley, and Arthur Driscoll and was a wholesaler and manufacturer of hats, caps, gloves, furs, overcoats, leather jackets and sheep lined coats. William Dorsey became a partner in the firm in 1901 and the name of the firm changed to McKibbin, Driscoll & Dorsey Inc. The company was last listed in the 1933 St. Paul City Directory as a hat manufacturer. The McKibbin family continued to live in St. Paul after the store closed. Joseph Chambers McKibbin (1856-1931,) the son of William McKibbin and Jane Brackenridge McKibbin, moved to Minnesota in the mid- to late 1870's to accompany his brother, William McKibbin, an attorney and Presbyterian minister, who pastored a church in St. Paul. Mary McKibbin Scully was a sibling of Joseph C. McKibbin. Joseph McKibbin, the president of McKibbin, Driscoll & Dorsey, manufacturers of hats, caps, gloves and overcoats, and his wife, Mary D. McKibbin, resided at 549 Grand Hill. Joseph C. McKibbin and his wife, Mary D. McKibbin, had three children, Allison McKibbin (Mrs. Charles) Bigelow, Anne McKibbin, and Joseph C. McKibbin, Jr. (1893-1931.) Charles Henry Bigelow, II (1866-1945,) who was born in St. Paul, was educated at Williams College (1883-1887,) first married Florence Fairchild at St. Paul in 1896, and the couple had one son, Donald Bigelow (1896-1974,) and subsequently married Allison McKibbin Bigelow (1881-1970.) Joseph C. McKibbin, Jr. ( -1931,) married Dorothy Ann Scarritt (1897-1985) in 1927 in Kansas City, Jackson County, Missouri, and the couple had one child, Kevin McKibbin, before Joe McKibbin died of Hodgkin's disease. Kevin McKibbin (1930-2010,) was born in St. Paul, moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico, grew up and attended Santa Fe, New Mexico, High School, enlisted in the Army, was a veteran of the Korean War, married Mary Gower "M.G." Thompson, a childhood and family friend from Kansas City, continued with college, received a degree in Geology from the University of New Mexico, worked for a short time as a land surveyor in Albuquerque, New Mexico, then worked for the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, then was employed by the National Park Service in 1964 in Utah, Arizona, Arkansas, and, eventually, back to New Mexico, spent 11 years at Bandelier National Monument, retired from the National Park Service in 1988, initially lived in White Rock, New Mexico, then moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and died of Lewy Body dementia and diabetes in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Twin City Building and Loan Association was established in 1923 in Minneapolis, reportedly organized by a life insurance man who thought the savings business would feed his life business. The membership fee was $2 per share, and investors in the savings and loan association were promised to receive dividends at a rate of seven percent. It competed with savings and loans that were set up by real estate investors established savings and loans as affiliated business ventures to drive up their profits. In 1924, the Twin City Building & Loan Association established a St. Paul office and had $50,000 in assets. By 1925, it grew nearly fivefold and prompted it to move to larger facilities in both cities. It suffered during the Great Depression, but the mid-1930's introduction of a government insurance program for S&Ls proved to be a catalyst for growth in the industry and in the Minnesota operation. It received a federal charter in 1936 as the Twin City Federal Savings and Loan Association, with assets of $3.5 million in 1936 and $10 million in 1939. By 1943, Twin City Federal was the seventh largest savings and loan in the nation and had over $20 million in assets. In 1960, Twin City Federal had about 26 percent of total assets held by the state's savings institutions. However, by 1985, Twin City Federal was among the various savings and loan that were on the verge of collapse. Twin City Federal hired William A. Cooper, its current chairman of the board, as its chief executive officer. In addition to streamlining operations and cutting expenses, Cooper sought additional capital and Twin City Federal went public in 1986 under the name of TCF Banking and Savings, F.A. (TCF Bank.) Despite Cooper's changes, TCF's future was still in the balance in 1990, but by the end of 1991, TCF had reduced its nonperforming assets to $87.3 million, down from $156 million at the end of 1986. In the 1990's, the company expanded banking into Michigan through the acquisitions of First Federal Savings Bank of Oakland County and Great Lakes National Bank and the early 2000's saw the acquisition of Winthrop Resources Corporation and the expansion of leasing operations nation-wide. The current owner of record of the property is Cashill Spaulding Properties I, located at 616 Lincoln Avenue. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad for 280 Maple Street.] [See note for the Railway Express Agency for 248 Banfil Street.]

135 Western Avenue North: Former Tazewell Apartments; Built in 1918; Prairie School in style. The brick structure contains three condominium units. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Charles Miller resided at this address in 1891. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that the Tazewell Apartments were located at this address beginning in 1919. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#6796) indicate that Teresa G. Cannon (1883- ,) a 1918 enlistee and a Reserve Nurse in the Army Nurse Corps, who was born in Howard County, Iowa, was stationed in France, was a school nurse employed by the City of St. Paul, Division of Hygiene, after the completion of service, and was unmarried, resided at this address. The records of the 1919-1920 Minnesota World War I Soldier's Bonus Board (#16344) indicate that Lawrence J. Krause (1892- ,) a 1918 enlistee and a Private in the Students Army Training Corps of Purdue University, who was born in Two Rivers, Wisconsin, moved to Minnesota in 1915, had blue eyes, brown hair, and a fair complexion, was 5' 10" tall, was a salesman at induction, was an automobile salesman employed by the Twin City Motor Car Company after the completion of service, and was married, resided with his wife, Eula W. Krause, at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Charles M. Babcock, the Commissioner of the Minnesota State Highway Department, resided at this address and that Effie Brodeen, a teacher at Central High School, Katherine T. Cannon, a stenographer employed by Hubert H. White, Tessie G. Cannon, a nurse employed by the public schools, Mary M. Connolly, a teacher at the Hill School, and Katherine Egan, a stenographer employed by the State Securities Commission, all boarded at this address, that Grace E. Cochran, a teacher at Central High School, roomed at this address, and that Floyd A. Creech, a salesman, Alf G. Dahl, a department manager employed by the Emporium, and Nora C. Egan, a teacher at the Jefferson School, all resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. E. M. O'Neil and Mr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Wauchape all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the Louis Poses Grocery and the Tazewell Beauty Shop were located at this address and that the residents of the apartment building located at this address were Ernest J. Birnstengel, a janitor for the Tazewell Apartments, and his wife, Della Birnstengel (Apartment #B,) John Callahan, the manager of the Gately Clothing Company, and his wife, Irene Callahan (Apartment #101,) Jessie W. Anderson, the manager of the Tazewell Apartments (Apartment #102,) Marguerite B. Breen, the educational director for the Minnesota Public Health Association, and Nellie Breen, the widow of Thomas Breen (Apartment #103,) Louis Poses, proprietor of a grocery located at this address and his wife, Bessie Poses (Apartment #104,) Elizabeth M. Kemmer, a teacher at the Groveland Park School (Apartment #105,) Louise A. Detmar, a stenographer for the Hartford Accident & Indemnity Company (Apartment #108,) Vera Gaudian, a stenographer employed by Bannons Inc. (Apartment #109,) Sidney Kline, a manager employed by the Twin City Motor Car Company, and his wife, Ethel Kline (Apartment #112,) Charles B. King, a bookkeeper employed by the Robinson, Cary & Sands Company (Apartment #115,) Frederick W. Wagner (Apartment #201,) Thomas J. Adie, a sales agent, and his wife, Ada E. Adie (Apartment #202,) Leone Cosgrove, a teacher (Apartment #205,) Mrs. Ellen Flanigan, the widow of Michael J. Flanigan (Apartment #206,) Mae Moore, a buyer employed by the E. E. Atkinson Company, and Evangeline J. Trewartha (Apartment #208,) Amelia M. La Voie, a teacher at the Mill Street school (Apartment #212,) John W. Egan (Apartment #214,) Lester L. Jesmer, secretary-treasurer of Jesmer Brothers Inc. (Apartment #301,) Esther L. Murphy, a teacher at the Adams School (Apartment #302,) Louise E. Lietzau, an assistant art supervisor at the Irving School (Apartment #304,) Emmett A. Raymond, a teacher at the Mechanic Arts High School, and his wife, Geraldine F. Raymond (Apartment #305,) Edward A. Knapp (Apartment #309,) and Albert M. Smith (Apartment #314,) with Apartments #106, #110, #114, #203, #204, #209, #210, #215, #303, #306, #308, #310, #312, and #315 vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Theressa A. Burns resided at this address. The Miller burial plot at Oakland Cemetery includes the graves of Charles M. Miller (1847-1900,) Ebenezer Miller (1822-1865,) Clinton C. Miller (1854-1913,) Lucia A. Miller (1825-1911,) and Lucia M. Miller (1850-1911.) Mrs. Michael J. Kelly was the daughter of Charles Miller. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Charles Merritt Babcock (1871-1936) was born in Sherburne County, Minnesota, the son of Willard L. Babcock and Sarepta George Babcock, attended the University of Minnesota, returned to Elk River, Minnesota, during the 1893 financial panic and worked in his father's general store, eventually became president of the Elk River, Minnesota, bank, was appointed to the state highway commission in 1909, and when the Minnesota Highway Commission was abolished in 1917 and the Minnesota State Department of Highways authorized, was commissioner of highways from 1917 until 1932, was active in the American Road Builders Association, the American Association of State Highway Officials, and the National Safety Council, represented the United States at the Pan American Congress of Highways in 1925 and 1929, and died in Elk River, Minnesota. In 1894, Babcock married Anna H. Burrell (1873- ,) daughter of pioneer settlers Kingsley Hiram Burrell (1850-1936) and Ellen Heath Burrell. The Charles M. Babcock Memorial Association erected a monument commemorating Babcock's work as highway commissioner in 1947. Babcock had a one-third interest in a crop farm in Cavalier County, North Dakota, from 1917 until 1938. The Minnesota State Patrol was created in 1929, when Charles M. Babcock, the Commissioner of Highways, appointed Earl Brown, previously the sheriff of Hennepin County, as the Chief of the Highway Patrol, with eight initial troopers. This school graduated the first 35 members of the Minnesota Highway Patrol. Kingsley H. Burrell was a probate court judge in Sherburne County, Minnesota, in 1890. Marguerite B. Breen was the author of the paper "Discovery of Paroidin" in The American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 29, No. 2 (1929.) The Twin City Motor Car Company was incorporated before 1909 by Fred Joerns, William Thiem, and Edward A. Thiem. The Twin City Motor Car Company sold Essex and Hudson motor cars in 1924. The Essex was a brand of automobile produced by the Essex Motors Company from 1918 to 1922 and by the Hudson Motor Company between 1922 and 1932. The Essex was considered an affordably priced small car. In 1933, the Essex model was replaced by the Terraplane model. The Hudson Motor Car Company was financed by J. L. Hudson, a founder of Hudson's Department Store in Detroit, and operated from 1909 to 1954. Hudson was "acquired" by Nash-Kelvinator, the makers of Nash and Rambler automobiles, in 1954, and then became the American Motors Corporation. Unit #205 is a 503 square foot, two room, one bathroom condominium, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $65,000, and is currently owned by Margaret Moynagh and Michael J. Moynagh, who reside in Woodbury, Minnesota. Unit #208 is a 527 square foot, two room, one bathroom condominium, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2001 at a sale price of $48,000, and is currently owned by Theressa A. Burns, who resides at 385 Laurel Avenue. Unit #302 is a 676 square foot, three room, one bathroom condominium, and is currently owned by Elizabeth T. Byrne, who resides in Arlington, Texas. [See note on the Mechanic Arts High School for 656 Portland Avenue.]

134 Western Avenue North: The Salon For You is located at this address. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Spa & Salon was located at this address. The 1885 and 1887 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. T. S. Letz and their daughter all resided at the former nearby 132 North Western Avenue. The 1920 city directory indicates that Gertrude Barker, a marker employed by C. C. Campbell, boarded at the former nearby 130 Western Avenue North and that Ross W. Brown, a plumber, resided at the nearby former 132 North Western Avenue.

286 Laurel Avenue: Laurel Terrace/Riley's Row; Built in 1888 (1887 according to Larry Millett;) Victorian row house/Romanesque Revival in style; William Willcox and Clarence Johnston, architects. The structure is a two story, 3397 square foot, 11 room, three bedroom, three bathroom, brick house. The building is brick, sandstone and limestone, with clustered columns of polished granite, gargoyles, sculpted griffins and nymphs, foliate designs on its keystones and arches, gables decorated with hex-signs and geometric patterns, and a corner tower with a conical roof, a finial, and Gothic dormers. Larry Millett indicates that uunlike most Victorian buildings, this structure has a strong horizontal emphasis, with each story having a different design element. Its first owner, William C. Riley, operated the Northern News Company, a local telegraph firm. In 1894, Louisa McQuillan, the grandmother of F. Scott Fitzgerald, resided at this address. The book of Minnesotans: a biographical dictionary of leading living men of Minnesota, edited by Albert Nelson Marquis, indicates that Paul Doty resided at this address in 1907. F. Scott Fitzgerald's family lived at this address from 1908-1909. The 1916 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Paul Doty resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. G. Foster resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that William B. Collett, a conductor, and his wife, Katherine M. Collett, resided at this address. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Mary Theresa Hampl and Terrence J. Williams both resided at this address. The current owners of record of the property are Patricia Hampl and Terrence J. Williams. Patricia Hampl is a Regents Professor in the Department of English at the University of Minnesota, has a B.A. from the University of Minnesota and a M.F.A. from the University of Iowa, was Benedict Distinguished Visiting Professor of Literature at Carleton College in 1987, Emens Distinguished Professor at Ball State University in 1989, Distinguished Visiting Professor of Writing at the University of Iowa in 1994, resident fellow at the Bellagio Study Center of the Rockefeller Foundation in Bellagio, Italy, in 1991, and is the author of The Silken Chamber, Beacon Press, 2002, I Could Tell You Stories: Sojourns in the Land of Memory, W. W. Norton and Company, 1999, Virgin Time, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1992, Spillville, Milkweed Editions, 1987, Resort and Other Poems, New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1983, A Romantic Education New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1981, and Woman Before an Aquarium, Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1978. Mr. & Mrs. Terrence J. Williams, writers, were contributors to the Democratic National Committee in 2004. [See the note for Paul Aaron Doty for 427 Portland Avenue.]

288 Laurel Avenue: Former Laurel Terrace; Built in 1888. The structure is a three condominium unit brick structure. Unit #1 is a one story, 907 square foot, six room, two bedroom, two bathroom, condominium unit which was last sold in 1995 with a sale price of $24,600, and for which the current owner of record is Lori A. Belair. Unit #2 is a one story, 1258 square foot, four room, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit which was last sold in 2003 with a sale price of $219,900, and for which the current owner of record is Tara Fahey. Unit #3 is a one story, 1033 square foot, four room, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit which was last sold in 2004 with a sale price of $205,000, and for which the current owner of record is Polly Pampusch. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Charles D. McKey resided at this address in 1890. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Mrs. Mary Antoinette Forepaugh resided at this address in 1892. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Edith Forepaugh (1878-1908,) the single daughter of Mary A. Forepaugh, who was born in the United States to parents also born in the United States and who died of acute nephritis, resided at this address in 1908. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. R. H. Finch resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Charles Joseph Belair, Rose Ann Belair, and Tara Fahey all resided at this address. Joseph Lybrandt Forepaugh (1834-1892) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, moved to St. Paul in 1858, engaged in the wholesale and retail dry goods business, and later was a manufacturer of shoes. Mary Rosenthal, who resided at this address in 2004, the Program Director for the Phillips Partnership, was a contributor to the Howard Dean for President campaign in 2004. [See note on Joseph L. Forepaugh for 276 South Exchange Street]

290 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1888. The structure is a two story, 3700 square foot, 11 room, three bedroom, three bathroom, brick house. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Mary L. Scott, a member of the church since 1891, resided at this address. The 1916 and 1918 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Young resided at this address. In 1916, Edward Blake Young was a member of the Minnesota Historical Society and resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Andrew Paul Sherwood, Elizabeth Ann Sherwood, Daniel Edward Videen, and Darrel Edward Videen all resided at this address. Edward Blake Young (1864-1927,) the son of Edward James Young, a clergyman, and Mary Clap Blake Young, was born in Newton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, was a member of the Executive Board of the Minnesota Historical Society, married Violet Lee Dousman Young (1875-1940,) and died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is Frances P. Ahlfs. Frances Ahlfs was a financial supporter of the Friends of the St. Paul Public Library in 2003. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius Riley and their daughter resided at the former nearby 291 North Western Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius Riley, their daughter, and W. C. Riley all resided at the former nearby 291 Laurel Avenue. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that William Crawford Riley resided at the former nearby 291 Laurel Avenue in 1907. The 1916 and 1918 city directories indicate that W. C. Riley and Mrs. Katherine Riley resided at the former nearby 291 Laurel Avenue. The 1930 city directory indicates that the former nearby 291 Laurel Avenue was vacant. William Crawford Riley (1851- ,) the son of Cornelius Riley and Catherine Riley, was born in St. Paul, was educated in the public schools of St Paul, was first employed as a telegraph operator, later succeeded his father as proprietor of the Northern Railway News Company, was a member of the Minnesota Territorial Pioneers, and officed at the Endicott Building in 1907. William C. Riley was the author of The Official Northern Pacific Railroad Guide. Cornelius Riley (1836- ,) was born in Ireland, emigrated to Quebec, Canada, in 1850, initially was employed in a Montreal, Quebec, Canada, hotel, moved to St. Paul in 1855, was the head steward of the Winslow Hotel, on the corner of Third Street and Fort Road/Seventh Street, was the head steward for the Winslow Hotel in St. Anthony/Minneapolis, Minnesota, was employed by the International Hotel in 1861, went to Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1861, returned to St. Paul in 1862, was employed by the Park Place Hotel, then was employed by the Metropolitan Hotel, then established the first news stands in St. Paul, at the Park Place Hotel, the International Hotel, the Metropolitan Hotel, and the Merchants Hotel, then began selling books, fruit, and newspapers on the railroads and at the Union Depot, then invested in real estate on Nina Avenue in 1870.

292 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1888. The structure is a two story, 3700 square foot, 11 room, three bedroom, three bathroom, brick house. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. The 1939 St. Paul Academy Alumni Directory indicates that George W. Dennis (1908- ,) who attended the school from 1919 until 1922, and who married Katherine Gorham, resided at this address. George W. Dennis (1908-1974) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Orman, and died in Ramsey County, Minnesota. Katherine Eldora Dennis (1905-1983) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Nixon, and died in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The current owners of record of the property are the trustees for Clarence R. Fitz and Donna L. Fitz.

294-296 Laurel Avenue: Riley Row/Laurel Terrace Apartments; Built in 1901 (1888 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Romanesque Revival in style; Willcox & Johnston, architects. The structure is a three story, 5716 square foot, multifamily apartment building. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Daniel A. Robertson (1813-1895,) of Scottish extraction who died of senility, and his wife resided at this address in 1895. In 1908, Louisa McQuillan, the grandmother of F. Scott Fitzgerald, resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Roy S. Clark, an auto mechanic with Farrell & Clark, and his wife, Frances E. Clark, resided at 294 Laurel Avenue. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Christopher J. Durose, Julie Durose, Jill E. Gierke, Faina Makarova, and Fred James Shank all resided at this address. Daniel Alexander Robertson (1813-1895) was born in either in Pictou, Nova Scotia, Canada, or Philadelphis, Pennsylvania, was admitted to the practice of law in New York in 1839, was the editor of the Cincinnati Enquirer, was the U. S. marshal for Ohio from 1844 to 1848, where he waged a significant effort against currency counterfeiters, was a delegate to the Ohio state constitutional convention in 1850, moved to Minnesota later in 1850, established the Minnesota Democrat, was the chairman of the building committee of the Minnesota Historical Society in the mid-1850's, was a colonel in the state militia in 1858, was a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives representing Ramsey County (District 2) from 1859 to 1860, was Mayor of St. Paul in 1859 and 1860, succeeding Norman Wolfred Kittson, was a member of the St. Paul board of education from 1862 to 1869, was Ramsey County sheriff from 1863 until 1871, founded the State Horticultural Society in 1866, assisted Oliver Kelley to organize the first Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry in Minnesota in 1868, and died in St. Paul, leaving a widow and six children. Daniel A. Robertson was a signatory of a newspaper advertisement in the New Era, a newspaper aimed at New York's workers, seeking to rally protestors of banking incorporations during the Panic of 1837. In 1853, Daniel A. Robertson and Illinois politician Stephen A. Douglas were partners in purchasing the eventual townsite of Superior, Wisconsin, betting that it would be a significant railroad town in the event of a northern route for a rail connection to the Pacific. In 1857, Daniel Robertson was one of the proprietors of the company that platted Mankato, Minnesota, the county seat of Blue Earth County, with Samuel Leech, Robert Kennedy, John Castner, William Hartshorn, Justus C. Ramsey, Parsons K. Johnson, and John S. Hinckley. In 1858, Daniel A. Robertson, a former St. Paul newspaperman and the founder of the Minnesota Democrat, with Hermann Trott, a land agent for the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad Company, contributed to a book about Minnesota that was published by Eduard Pelz and was circulated to prospective immigrants in Germany. Robertson had sold the Minnesota Democrat in 1853 to David Olmsted and the paper then merged with the Minnesota Pioneer in 1855, with the name changed to the Pioneer and Democrat until 1861, when it regained its old name. In 1866, Colonel Daniel A. Robertson helped organize the Minnesota Fruit Growers Association and became its first president. Also in 1868, Colonel Daniel A. Robertson started a fruit farm and nursery on Summit Avenue, offering bedding plants, flowers, plants in pots, bouquets and fruit plants for sale. In 1868, the name of the Minnesota Fruit Growers Association was changed to the Minnesota Horticultural Society and, in 1873, the current name, the Minnesota State Horticultural Society, was adopted. In 1869, Colonel Daniel A. Robertson was elected the first Professor of Agriculture at the Agricultural College and Experimental Farm at the University of Minnesota, but no one enrolled in the agriculture program that year, resigned in 1870, and he was succeeded in 1872 by Dalston P. Strange. Robertson accumulated a substantial personal book collection, which he donated to the University of Minnesota. Robertson influenced Oliver Kelley to include as objectives of the Grange the protection of its members from corporations and the encouragement of cooperative buying and selling by its members. Daniel A. Robertson was a grandfather of Xandra Robertson Kalman, who was a close St. Paul friend of F. Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda Fitzgerald, regularly swimming and playing golf with Zelda Fitzgerald at Dellwood, Minnesota, on White Bear Lake, in 1921. Oliver H. Kelley (1826-1913,) a founder of the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry, the Grange, in 1867, also was involved in the founding of the Minnesota Fruit Growers' Association, later renamed the Minnesota Horticultural Society, and was elected to the Society's first executive committee. The Grange, the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, is the nation's oldest national agricultural organization. In 1867, in a small Washington, D.C., building that housed the office of William Saunders, the Superintendent of Propagating Gardens in the Department of Agriculture, the Order of Patrons of Husbandry was established by Aaron B. Grosh, William M. Ireland, Oliver H. Kelley, Francis McDowell, William Saunders, John R. Thompson, and John Trimble. The Grange was intended to unite private citizens in improving the economic and social position of the nation's farm population. William Saunders, a horticulturist and landscape architect, was the first National Master of the Grange, serving from 1867 to 1873. William A. Steel, a native of western Pennsylvania, is the current president of the Grange. Oliver H. Kelley was born in Boston, worked briefly as a reporter with the Chicago Tribune in 1847, received training to become a telegrapher in Peoria, Illinois, and worked as a telegrapher in Bloomington/Muscatine, Iowa, in 1848, married Lucy Earll (1831-1851) in 1849 and moved to Minnesota, founded the Benton County Agricultural Society in 1852 and married a local school teacher, Temperance Baldwin Lane, helped form the Minnesota Territorial Agricultural Society, became the agricultural editor for the Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, Frontiersman, became a sales agent for the William Plant Company of St. Louis, a farm machinery manufacturer, began developing the town of Northwood, Benton County, Minnesota, in 1855, lost his real estate interests during the Panic of 1857, became an agent of Col. D. A. Robertson's Nursery & Seed Store in St. Paul in 1864, tours the Southern states in 1866 to report to the Department of Agriculture on the status of Southern agriculture after the Civil War, was appointed clerk in the Post Office Department in Washington, D. C. in 1867, became the associate editor of the Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, Sentinel in 1868, moved to Washington to devote full-time to organizing the Grange in 1870, published his Origin and Progress of the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry and moved to Louisville, Kentucky, in 1875, engaged in real estate speculation in northwestern Florida in 1878 after losing interest in the Grange, regained interest in the Grange in 1890, and died in Washington, D.C. Alexandra "Xandra" Kalman was a witness to Charles Lindbergh's historic landing in Paris on May 21, 1927, joining the throngs gathered at Le Bourget to greet him while she was vacationing in Paris with her husband, Collie O. Kalman. The current owner of record of the property is Fred Shank, who lives in Apartment #5. [See note on Norman Wolfred William Kittson for 225 Summit Avenue.] [See note Willcox for 813 Fairmount Avenue.] [See note on Johnston for 476 Summit Avenue.]

295 Laurel Avenue: Riley/Andrews House; Built in 1887 (1880 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Queen Anne in style; Abraham M. Radcliff, architect. The structure is a two story, 3136 square foot, ten room, six bedroom, three bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick duplex/double house, with a detached garage. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Ingles and Mrs. A. D. Stebbins all resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that Gen. and Mrs. C. C. Andrews resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Dr. and Mrs. E. T. F. Richards resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Chantell Marie Bless and Paul R. Bless resided at this address. The property was last sold in 1994 with a sale price of $227,500. The current owners of record of the property are Reid B. McLean and M. Brigid McDonough. M. Brigid McDonough, an attorney at Briggs & Morgan, was a contributor to the Howard Dean for President campaign, to the John Edwards for President campaign, and to the John Kerry for President campaign in 2004. Reid B. McLean, the Director of Presentations for the Minnesota Orchestra, was a contributor to the Howard Dean for President campaign in 2004. M. Brigid McDonough and Reid B. McLean were financial supporters of Minnesota Public Radio in 2005. [See note on General Christopher C. Andrews for 650 Summit Avenue] [See note on Abraham M. Radcliffe for 245 Summit Avenue.]

297 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1880. The structure is a two story, 3133 square foot, ten room, five bedroom, four bathroom, brick house, with a detached garage. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. E. McWilliams resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. William G. Graves resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that this address was vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that John C. Birk and Raye J. Birk both resided at this address. The property was last sold in 2002 with a sale price of $407,500. The current owners of record of the property are Candace A. Birk and Raye J. Birk. Raye J. Birk was a 1965 graduate of Northwestern University.

301 Laurel Avenue: General E. Villiers Appleby House; Built in 1890 (1884 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Eastlake in style. The structure is a two story, 2692 square foot, eight room, four bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with two attached garages. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1885 and 1887 city directories indicate that Major and Mrs. C. J. Allen resided at this address. In 1897, according to the Journal of the proceedings of the fortieth annual convention of the Diocese of Minnesota, the Venerable T. H. M. V. Appleby resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Jane S. C. Guiteau (1824-1907,) the wife of Kendrick N. Guiteau, who was born in the United States to parents also born in the United States and who died of old age and a gouty heart, resided at this address in 1907. The 1916 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. M. W. Griggs resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Arthur A. Allie, a sign painter, his wife, Marjorie E. Allie, and Mrs. Marjorie E. Allie, a lodgings keeper, all resided at this address. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Susan Marie Moore and Douglas Mark Winn both resided at this address. Mrs. T. E. W. Villiers Appleby, Cornelia Day Wilder (1868-1903,) was the daughter of St. Paul businessman and philanthropist Amherst H. Wilder (1828-1894) and his wife, Fanny Spencer Wilder (1837-1903.) Wilder was one of Saint Paul's pioneer businessmen, came to the city in 1859 from Lewis, New York, and accumulated a fortune from diversified interests included trading, freight and stage coach transportation, railroading, lumbering, banking, insurance, real estate and merchandising. In 1895, Cornelia Day Wilder married Dr. T. E. W. Villiers Appleby (1868-1924,) a physician whom she met while serving as a volunteer clerk at the St. Paul Free Dispensary, who signed an antenuptial contract wherein he renounced the bulk of any claim to the Wilder family fortune. The New York Times of January 21, 1914, reported that the antenuptial agreement between Thomas Ernest Villiers Appleby and Cornelia Day Wilder, made in Philadelphia, provided him with a $10,000 annuity if he remained unmarried should she predecease him, that upon her death, he unsuccessfully litigated between 1903 and 1910 to overturn the terms of the will, and eventually settled with the executors by commuting the annuity for a $140,000 lump sum payment. T. E. W. Villiers/E. Villiers Appleby (1868- ,) the son of Archdeacon Thomas Henry Montague Villiers Appleby (1843-1927) of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Minnesota, and Esther Mary Lett Appleby (1844/1846-1940,) was born either in London, England, or in Saint Pancras, Middlesex, England, was privately educated until 1886, attended Shattuck Military School, Faribault, Minnesota, from 1886 until 1890, was trained as a doctor at the University of Minnesota Medical School, interned at the City & County Hospital in St. Paul from 1894 and 1895, was a lecturer and clinical instructor in ophthalmology at the University of Minnesota Medical School, was in general practice in St. Paul from 1895 until 1898, was the chief of the eye clinic at the St. Paul Free Dispensary, married Cornelia Day Wilder (1868-1903,) the daughter of Amherst H. Wilder, in Philadelphia in 1897, was an ophthalmologist at St. Luke's Hospital, matriculated from the University of Berlin, Germany, in 1898, was a volunteer assistant professor at Professor Hirschberg's Eye Clinic and at the eye department of the Charity Hospital of Berlin, Germany, from 1898 until 1900, practiced as an oculist for a time, was the author of the paper "Magnetic Foreign Bodies In the Eye" in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1901, officed at the Lowry Arcade in 1903, was a member of the American Medical Association, was a member of the Minnesota Medical Society, was a member of the Ramsey County Medical Society, was a member of the Berlin Ophthalmological Society, was a member of the Chicago Athletic Club, was a member of the Minnesota Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, resided at 226 Summit Avenue in 1907, moved to London in 1909, and died in England. The 1909 University of Minnesota Catalogue indicates that E. Villiers Appleby, M.D., a clinical instructor in ophthalmology, resided at the Minnesota Club. E. Villiers Appleby signed a prenuptial agreement before marrying Cornelia Wilder waiving any interest in her considerable personal fortune, which included a provision for $10,000 annual payments to him after her death if he remained a widower, and unsuccessfully challenged the prenuptial agreement in In Re Estate of Cornelia Day Wilder Appleby 100 Minn. 408 (1907.) The New York Times in 1914 also reported that Dr. Appleby occupied himself gambling in Monte Carlo after 1903, sued Baroness May de Pallandt, an American who had previously divorced a titled Dutchman, with whom he had cohabitated intermittently until 1910, in London for $20,455 due on two bills of exchange he had given her from the commuted lump sum annuity proceeds from Cornelia Day Wilder Appleby's estate, but after Baroness de Pallandt countersued, both sides ultimately withdrew their suits. In 1902, T. E. W. Villiers Appleby prevailed in a $3,000 malicious prosecution lawsuit brought by Simon Aramowsky relating to a child treated by Dr. Appleby. Cornelia Appleby died from complications following surgery. Thomas Henry Montague Villiers Appleby, the son of Thomas Appleby and Lady L. M. Villiers Appleby, was born in Regent's Park, England, was educated at King's College, London, and Exeter College, was Oxon scholar to St. Augustine's College, Canterbury, England, received a master's degree in 1866, was ordained a deacon in 1865 and a priest in 1866, came to America in 1866, married Esther Mary Lett (1844-1940) in 1867, received a medical degree from the University of Minnesota in 1877, received a doctor of divinity degree from the Seabury Divinity School in 1900, received a law degree from St. John's College in Maryland in 1901, was an Episcopalian rector at Clarksburg, Ontario, from 1866 to 1876, was an Episcopalian rector at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, from 1876 to 1881, was adopted into the Ojibway Tribe as Shu-na-we-whah-doon (Silver Tongue) in 1877, was an Episcopalian vicar at St. Vincent, Minnesota, from 1881 until 1888, was a probate and county judge from 1884 until 1888, became the Episcopalian archdeacon for Minnesota in 1888, for North Dakota in 1898, and for Duluth, Minnesota, in 1899, resided in Duluth, Minnesota, was deputy to the Episcopalian general convention from 1892 to 1898, was appointed the general superintendent of Episcopal Indian missions in 1900, and eventually resided in Tacoma, Washington. In 1898, Amherst Wilder was the president, Thomas Henry Montague Villiers Appleby was the secretary, and Victor M. Watkins was the treasurer of the Breck Mission and Farm School. Thomas Henry Montague Villiers Appleby, Archdeacon of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Minnesota, was in attendance during the final hours of U. S. Senator Cushman Kellogg Davis in 1900. Fanny Spencer Wilder and Cornelia Day Wilder Appleby were heirs of Mary Spencer Howard ( -1898) of Catskill, New York. Our Little World, a work of fiction by Rudolph Lindau describing the adventures of an expatriate in Yokohama in the 1850's and published in 1889 in Saint Paul by Price McGill, was translated by Cornelia Day Wilder. Kendrick N. Guiteau (1821-1918) was born in New York, the son of Rev. Norman Guiteau (1787-1843,) pastor of the Baptist Church of Trenton, Oneida, New York, and Frances Chesboro Babcock Guiteau (1794-1888,) was a church warden of St. Peter's Church, Cazenovia, New York, in 1844, was employed as a merchant in 1850 in Madison County, New York, was employed as a life insurance agent in 1880 in Dakota County, Minnesota, and was buried in 1918 in Corinthian Cemetery, Empire Township, Dakota County, Minnesota. Kendrick N. Guiteau married Jane S. Childs (1823- ) in 1850 in Cazenovia, New York, and the couple had one child, Frances C. Guiteau (1852- .) The property was last sold in 2001 with a sale price of $379,900. The current owners of record of the property are Susan M. Moore and Douglas M. Winn.

307 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1882; Eastlake in style. The structure is a two story, 2422 square foot, nine room, four bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, frame house, with a detached garage. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. D. McKey resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. C. P. McKey resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that William H. Fobes resided at this address in 1906. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Gertrude (Mrs. W. H.) Fobes, a member of the church since 1890, resided at this address. The 1916 and 1918 city directories indicate that Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Janes resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Lucy Lincoln, the widow of Edward E. Lincoln, Mrs. Addie G. Olson, a dressmaker, Sarah Scrutvold, a dressmaker, and Marie L. Mohr, a stenographer employed by Tubbesing & Nelson, all resided at this address. L. H. Tubbesing was the president of Tubbesing & Nelson, a fruit merchant. William Huntington Fobes married Gertrude Allen Kirk (1875-1920,) a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution, in 1905 and the couple had four children, Robert Kirk Fobes, William Huntington Fobes, Jr., Mary Elizabeth Fobes, and Gertrude Allen Fobes. William Huntington Fobes was an associate member of the American Museum of Natural History in 1919. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Michaela I. Northrop and Seth A. Northrop resided at this address. William H. Fobes ( -1932) died in Ramsey County. William Huntington Fobes (1910-1992) was born in Minnesota, had a mother with a maiden name of Kirk, and died in Ramsey County. The property was last sold in 1994 with a sale price of $260,000. The current owner of record of the property is Barbara E. Horlbeck of Baltimore, Maryland. The 1920 city directory indicates that Vivian Brodeen, a teacher at Mechanic Arts High School, boarded at the former nearby 312 Laurel Avenue. [See note on William H. Fobes for 2 Crocus Hill.] [See the note for Louis H. Tubbesing for 211 Earl Street.]

313 Laurel Avenue: Nathaniel Pitt Langford, Jr., House; Built in 1908 (1880 according to Ramsey County property tax records;) Eastlake in style. The structure is a two story, 2422 square foot, eight room, four bedroom, one bathroom, two half-bathroom, frame house, with an attached garage. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. James McKenna and Miss Blanche McKenna all resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. James McKenna and their daughter all resided at this address. The 1918 city directory indicates that Mrs. W. C. Read resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John Goff resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that Mrs. Lillian D. Goff and Thomas B. Bailey, a salesman with the Great Northern RailRoad News Service, resided at this address. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Geya Ganguly and Keya P. Ganguly resided at this address. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The property was last sold in 1998 with a sale price of $270,000. The current owners of record of the property are Timothy A. Brennan and Keya Ganguly. Timothy Brennan was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, received a bachelor's degree in English and history from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1987, worked for the National Organization for Women and for Iranian and Nicaraguan political prisoner defense groups in New York City, previously was an Assistant and an Associate Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, is currently a Professor of English and of Cultural Studies and Comparative Literature at the University of Minnesota, and is the author of At Home in the World: Cosmopolitan Now, Harvard University Press, 1997, and Salman Rushdie and the Third World: Myths of the Nation, Macmillan, 1989. Keya Ganguly received a B.A. in English from Lady Shri Ram College, Delhi University, in 1979, a B.A. in Journalism and Mass Communication from Temple University in 1983, and a Ph.D. in Communications from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign in 1990, is an Associate Professor of Cultural Studies and Comparative Literature at the University of Minnesota, and is the author of States of Exception: Everyday Life and Postcolonial Identity, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2001. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.] [See the Note on Nathaniel Pitt Langford and his family for 306 South Exchange Street.]

319 Laurel Avenue: The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Erik J. Johnson resided at this address.

325 Laurel Avenue: Former Neill Apartments; Built in 1906 (1962 according to Ramsey County property tax records.) The structure is a seven story, 69560 square foot, multifamily (elderly highrise) apartment building. The 1930 city directory indicates that the Neill School was located at this address. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that the Neill School was located at this address from 1871 to 1934 and the Girl's Vocational School from 1942 to 1944. Henry R. Morgan, who resided at 1407 Grand Avenue, was the principal of the Neill School in 1930. The structure was razed in 1962 and the Neill Apartments were established in 1964 according to the Minnesota Historical Society. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were Lamont Albert, Deborah Lynn Anderson, Doug Banta, Brian Paul Barker, Pearline Barker, Honorine Bifumoh, Zackrious Bud Blakey, Charles Bradford, Jamnies Michael Brokel, Leann Kar Burich, Rita Butoyi, Leo Charboneau, Ben Claxton, Mildred Camilia Connolly, Dorothy Crawford, Delphanie Daniels, Mike George Danveaux, Princella Davis, Samuel Lee Davis, Vincent Weber Dethmers, Russell J. Doherty, Clementine J. Edwards, Augustus Eubanks, Stephen James Fisch, Greg E. Foley, Mario Foster, C. Gamradt, Williamni David Glasgow, Fannie Mae Hamilton, Craig Timothy Harris, Karen Anne Hatzinger, William Thomas Hendel, Margaret Elaine Isabel, Daria J. Jmill, Ellery Karl Johnson, Jr., Mike Jones, Marilyn F. Josephs, William Josephs, Susan Kamish, Prter Lawrence Kaudy, Jamal Rassol Khoshnaw, John Michael Knoepfle, Katie Laroque, Keith Laroque, Jane Lasuk, Janet Louise Lee, Charlene Ann Longley, Mark Lowinger, Jeff Matiatos, Barbara Matthews, Suzannah Caruthers McCarthy, Patrick K. McNeill, Marian Louise Milner, David Scott Minge, Linda Diane Moga, Patrick J. Moga, Daniel Myles, Joan H. Norton, Carol Olson, Mary Jane Olson, Stanley H. Oslund, Robert Lewarne Parker, Lessie Patterson, George Paul, Kurt Scott Pawlak, Ortan Nels Pederson, Thomas Vernon Parkers, Anthony Lee Prottsman, Debbie Pueschner, Rick John Raciti, Lynn Marie Rassett, Jennifer Rebartchek, Augustine J. Richard, Charlotte Richard, Ethel M. Ross, Richard Benjamin Schneider, Teresa Sexton, Justine B. Sonders, Alfred A. Stier, Rebecca Stier, James Tart, Christine Eirceal Thomas, Chuan Tsung, Camille Washington, Dave T. Wilford, Ida Mae Williams, Josephine Williams, Ruth Williams, and Larry L. Woken. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The current owner of record of the property is the St. Paul Public Housing Agency. The St. Paul Public Housing Agency has been an independent governmental unit since 1977. Its historical roots are in the Housing and Redevelopment Authority of the City of Saint Paul (HRA,) a unit of the City of Saint Paul that was established by the Minnesota State Legislature in 1947. The St. Paul HRA's initial goal was to remove slums and construct low income housing in Saint Paul. Unlike many public housing programs, Saint Paul has never used hi-rise buildings for family housing. During the 1950's and 1960's, family public housing in Saint Paul took the form of townhouse style developments. In the early 1970's, the St. Paul HRA began administering a federal rent subsidy program for eligible low income households living in privately owned housing. The St. Paul Public Housing Agency is governed by a Board of Commissioners. W. Andrew Boss is the Chair of the St. Paul Public Housing Agency and Jon Gutzmann is the Executive Director of the St. Paul Public Housing Agency. [See note on Edward Duffield Neill for 513 Portland Avenue.]

355 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1987. The structure is a two story, 2812 square foot, seven room, three bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with an attached garage. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Jo Anne Hill and Robert N. Hill both resided at this address. The property was last sold in 1997 with a sale price of $289,100. The current owners of record of the property are the trustees for Joanne G. K. Hill and Robert N. Hill.

358 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1934. The structure is a two story, 1878 square foot, seven room, three bedroom, one bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with a one car attached garage and a basement garage. The carriage house at this address is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Marjorie C. Merryman resided at this address. The property was last sold in 2003 with a sale price of $500,000. The current owner of record of the property is Marjorie Merryman. Marjorie Merryman is the Harry Drake Professor of Humanities and Fine Arts and Music Department Chair at Macalester College, where she teaches theory, orchestration, composition, and directs the Women's Choir. As a composer, Merryman has been commissioned by the New England Philharmonic, The St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, The Pro Arte Chamber Orchestra, and The American Guild of Organists and her catalogue includes orchestral, choral, vocal and chamber music, and an opera. Marjorie Merryman has taught at Harvard, MIT, and New England Conservatory, and was on the faculty of Boston University School for the Arts for 23 years. Marjorie Merryman, a professor at Macalester College, was a contributor to the John Kerry for President campaign and to the Democratic National Committee in 2004.

361 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1988. The structure is a two story, 2400 square foot, six room, three bedroom, two bathroom, one half-bathroom, brick house, with an attached garage. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Diane C. Skrien and Ken A. Skrien resided at this address. The property was last sold in 2000 with a sale price of $384,900. The current owners of record of the property are Diane C. Skrien and Kenneth A. Skrien. Minnesota Historical Society records indicate that Samuel Appleton resided at the nearby former 366 Laurel Avenue from 1885 to 1887. The 1884-1885 city directory indicates that Samuel Appleton was a lawyer who officed at the 42 Gilfillan Block and resided at 122 Virginia Avenue. The 1885 city directory indicates that S. Appleton and his daughter both resided at the former nearby 366 Laurel Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that S. Appleton and Mrs. F. G. Bartlett both resided at the former nearby 366 Laurel Avenue. The Junior Pioneer Association of Ramsey County indicates that the Barnard Select School for Boys was located at the former nearby 366 Laurel Avenue in 1889. The 1930 city directory indicates that John C. Carroll, a driver for the Standard Laundry Company, his wife, Florence Carroll, and M. Ward Harrison, a station operator for the Sinclair Refining Company, and his wife, Florence M. Harrison, all resided at the former nearby 366 Laurel Avenue. Samuel Appleton (1841-1925,) was born in Boston, the son of Samuel A. Appleton and Julia Webster Appleton (1818- ) and the grandson of Daniel Webster, attended Yale University, served in the Union Army under Gen. Abercrombie, married Mary Ernestine Abercrombie (1846-1869,) the daughter of General James J. Abercrombie, in Philadelphia in 1863, then married Anna Maybin Jones (1843- ) in 1872 when he resided in Chicago, and was an editor of the West Publishing Company for 35 years. In 1880, in Chicago, the Appleton household was comprised of Samuel Appleton, a lawyer, Anna M. Appleton (1846- ,) his wife, born in Massachusetts of parents born in Massachusetts, Mary Appleton (1865- ,) his daughter and a student, born in Massachusetts, Samuel Appleton (1869- ,) his son and a student, born in Massachusetts, Fletchie Appleton (1874- ,) his daughter and a student, born in Illinois, Ester Appleton (1876- ,) his daughter, born in Illinois, Anna Appleton (1879- ,) his daughter, born in Illinois, Hariette Johns (1858- ,) an ummarried female household member born in Massachusetts of parents born in Massachusetts, Mary Gallagher (1859- ,) an ummarried female domestic servant born in Ireland of parents born in Ireland, Kate Gallagher (1860- ,) an ummarried female domestic servant born in Ireland of parents born in Ireland, and Carrie Streblow (1848- ,) an ummarried female domestic servant born in Prussia of parents born in Prussia. In 1900, the Appleton household in St. Paul was comprised of Samuel Appleton, a lawyer and a widower, Fletcher W. Appleton (1873- ,) his son, Cooper E. Appleton (1875- ,) his daughter, Anna S. Appleton (1879- ,) his daughter, Robert E. Appleton (1882- ,) his son, Kate Rutey (1878- ,) and Mary Kennedy (1879- .) In 1910, the Appleton household in St. Paul was comprised of Samuel Appleton, an editor, Anna Appleton (1876- ,) his daughter, and Mary Kindall (1853- .) In 1920, the Porterfield household in St. Paul was comprised of Katherine Porterfield (1871- ,) head of household, James K. Porterfield (1898- ,) her son, Kenneth H. Bayliss (1894- ,) a lodger, Dabney Huller (1884- ,) a lodger, Julley Huller (1894- ,) a lodger, John D. Briggs (1886- ,) a lodger, Thomas Holyoke (1867- ,) Samuel Appleton (1842- ,) a lodger, James Emer (1858- ,) a lodger, Katharine Emer (1868- ,) a lodger, Donald Stewart (1895- ,) a lodger, Clara Stewart (1855- ,) a lodger, and James E. Markham (1858- .) [See the note for the Junior Pioneer Association of Ramsey County for 535 Grand Hill.]

369 Laurel Avenue: Former Laurel Apartments; Built in 1920 (1919 according to Ramsey County property tax records.) The structure is a three story, 22011 square foot, multifamily apartment house. The 1920 city directory indicates that Hendrie A. Bilben, a clerk employed by the Great Northern RailRoad, Bessie B. Bradley, a clerk employed by the Pioneer Company, Cecilia L. Bradley, a clerk employed by the Pioneer Company, Dorothy Bradley, a machine operator, and Maude Clum all boarded at this address and that Robinson Bosworth, a physician who officed at the Lowry Building, Warren H. Campbell, a clerk employed at the Emporium, Kitt M. Clum, Edwin Ehlers, assistant cashier employed by the Peoples Bank of St. Paul, and Ellen M. Farrell, a stenographer employed by Weyerhauser Forest Products, all resided at this address. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. John Brahtz, Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Lewis, Dr. and Mrs. G. H. Parmenter, Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Ryan, and Miss Katherine Wood, all resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that the residents of the apartment building located at this address were George Barich, a janitor, and his wife, Veronica Barich (Apartment #B,) Warren J. Fretz, the inspector in charge of the U. S. Department of Agriculture Bureau of Animal Industry, and his wife, Ruby Fretz (Apartment #101,) Frank E. White (Apartment #102,) William F. Walker (Apartment #103,) Edward Adler, Jr., a salesman (Apartment #104,) Hanna C. Olson, assistant secretary of the Elvgren Paint Supply Company (Apartment #106,) Edward A. Knutsen, a station assistant for the Atlas Gas & Oil Company, and his wife, Ida A. Knutsen (Apartment #107,) Philip A. Cowan, a cashier with R. B. Boak Company, and his wife, Rachel D. Cowan (Apartment #201,) Emma V. Derham (Apartment #202,) Mildred Thomson (Apartment #204,) L. Gertrude McConnon, a public stenographer (Apartment #206,) Elsie M. Crossman, a teacher at the Douglas School (Apartment #207,) Jean A. Smith (Apartment #208,) Wilhelmina Randall, a teacher at the Franklin School (Apartment #301,) Hildur E. Johnson, a stenographer (Apartment #302,) Caroline A. McAllister, the secretary to Harold C. Kerr (Apartment #304,) Frederick Pollard, a butler employed at 421 Summit Avenue, and his wife, Augustine Pollard (Apartment #307,) and Genevieve K. Spangenberg (Apartment #308,) with Apartments #105, #108, #203, #205, #303, #305, and #306 vacant. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were Nicole Christine Collins, Edward D. Dykhuizen, Karen Everstine, Jean Gregory, Kari Jo Guida, Tom H. Little, Jessica A. Mauer, Jamie McCarthy, Helen Genevieve Roberts, Tina M. Rosenthal, Delores E. Schaffer, Douglas A. Schaffer, Daniel Edward Schilling, Dan Schilling-Lin, Yao Schilling-Lin, Nels Matthew Solem, Trisha Steenerson, and Kelsey A. White. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The Elvgren Paint Supply Company was located at 139 East Seventh Street (formerly 137-139 Eighth Street) and is now the site of Alary's Bar, a hangout frequented by fans of the Chicago Bears Football team. St. Paul pin-up artist Gillette "Gil" Elvgren (1914-1980,) the "Norman Rockwell of cheesecake," was the son of Alex Elvgren and Goldie Elvgren, the operators of Elvgren's paint store, and created billboard, poster and magazine illustrations featured on Brown & Bigelow calendars for nearly 30 years. The Elvgren paint store in downtown St. Paul was said to have sported Gil Elvgren's signature replica in a neon sign in front of the store. The property was last sold in 1994 with a sale price of $944,999. The current owner of record of the property is Cashill Spaulding Properties I, located at 616 Lincoln Avenue. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Nanny Hadlich (1830-1924,) the widowed mother of Mrs. Julius Perlt, who was born in Germany to parents born in Germany and who died of arteriosclerosis, resided at the nearby former 379 Laurel Avenue in 1924. [See note on the Great Northern RailRoad.]

384 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1950. The structure is a two story, 8064 square foot, multi-family apartment building. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that Sams Market & Meat was located at this address and that the residents at this address were Gurdip S. Abwal, Donald Graham Clark, Jr., Amy Hinz, Evan Kennedy, John David Schwieters, Charles Senkler, Tome Soles, Jonathan Walker, Erich Wegner, and Jon Wegner. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. The current owner of record of the property is the 384 Laurel Partnership, located in Edina, Minnesota.

385 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1918. The structure is a brick condominium building. Unit 2 is a 780 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $134,900, and is currently owned by Lou A. Huckbody. Unit 9 is a 540 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1995 at a sale price of $32,500, and is currently owned by Christine M. Topic. Unit 10 is a 672 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $97,500, and is currently owned by Kathleen M. Hauge and Steven W. Hauge. Unit 106 is a 511 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Philip R. Morton. Unit 107 is a 504 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1994 at a sale price of $25,500, and is currently owned by Dennis W. Crumbe, Jr, who resides at 2058 Pathways Drive. Unit 108 is a 527 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1993 at a sale price of $29,900, and is currently owned by Jamie J. Delton. Unit 109 is a 708 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1996 at a sale price of $33,000, and is currently owned by Philip M. Guthrie. Unit 110 is a 672 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $140,000, and is currently owned by Rhonda L. Frost. Unit 111 is a 514 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1993 at a sale price of $42,000, and is currently owned by Frank Merriman, who resides in Eden Prairie, Minnesota. Unit 206 is a 511 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1994 at a sale price of $30,500, and is currently owned by Maren K. Anderson. Unit 207 is a 504 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Kevin H. O'Brien. Unit 209 is a 708 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2004 at a sale price of $155,000, and is currently owned by Jennifer L. Rodoni. Unit 210 is a 672 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1999 at a sale price of $74,900, and is currently owned by Anne M. Huntley. Unit 211 is a 614 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $114,400, and is currently owned by Emily J. Wennerlind. Unit 306 is a 511 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1998 at a sale price of $39,900, and is currently owned by Dorien L. Bjork. Unit 307 is a 504 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1994 at a sale price of $22,900, and is currently owned by Janet S. Whaley, who resides at 255 Kellogg Boulevard East. Unit 308 is a 527 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $95,900, and is currently owned by G. Zachariah White. Unit 309 is a 708 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1997 at a sale price of $48,900, and is currently owned by Randall J. Schafer. Unit 310 is a 672 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $125,000, and is currently owned by Erik A. Jensen. Unit 311 is a 614 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1996 at a sale price of $45,000, and is currently owned by Paul I. Kemp. In 1997, Frank Fly was associated with the Cerro Gordo community in Cottage Grove, Oregon, and resided at Unit 111. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were Emily Barclay, Sara E. Bertelsen, Theressa Agnes Burns, Jamie J. Delton, Kate Jane Devaan, Nathan L. Forrester, Andrew J. Halling, Paul I. Kemp, Regan B. McCormack, Kevin Harry Obrien, Krysta Lee Purmalietis, Jennifer L. Rodoni, Randy Joseph Schafer, Rupert A. Schafer, Evangeline K. Simmons, Timothy D. Stanley, Daphne Vandenheuvel, David Vandenheuvel, and Emily Jean Wennerlind and that That Computer Guy was located at this address. G. Zachariah White, M. F. A., is associated with Argosy University and the Twin City Minnesota School of Professional Psychology. The 1906 Jubilee Manual of the House of Hope Presbyterian Church indicates that Dr. Charles E. Lee and Mary C. (Mrs. C. E.) Lee, members of the church since 1881, resided at the nearby former 386 Laurel Avenue.

388 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1950. The structure is a two story, 8064 square foot, multi-family apartment building. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. T. T. Alexander, W. C. Read, Frank A. Mannen, and Buckner A. Wallingford all resided at this address. Oakland Cemetery Association records indicate that Thomas T. Fauntleroy resided at this address in 1893. Little Sketches of Big Folks indicates that Grant Van Sant resided at this address in 1907. The 1918 city directory indicates that W. L. Neville resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Holyoke Davis, a partner with Thomas G. Holyoke and Magnus Jemne in the architectural firm Holyoke, Jemne & Davis, resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that William Barnes, an auto mechanic, his wife, Louelle Barnes, and Mrs. Ida Hoffman, the widow of Samuel Hoffman, all resided at this address. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were David Brost, Greg Klancher, Christopher J. Labarre, Eric Mattson, Shannon Cara Mattson, Jeff McMahon, Dave Arthur Ogren, Michael Pankratz, Daniel W. Sasserberg, Alvin Clark Watts, and Julian Watts. This structure is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the historic Hill District. Frank A. Mannen (1867-1937,) the son of Thomas Hughes Mannen and Harriet Armstrong Mannen, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, grew up in Maysville, Kentucky, attended the White & Sykes School in Cincinnati, Ohio, married Elizabeth Whiteman Morgan in 1887, initially was engaged in real estate in St. Paul and in Superior, Wisconsin, was the Minnesota state agent of the Fireman's Fund Insurance Company of San Francisco in Minneapolis in 1905, joined Marsh & McLennan in 1909, moved to New York in 1916, became a senior vice president of Marsh & McLennan, resided in Larchmont, New York, since 1921, was a member of the Larchmont Yacht Club, was a member of the Downtown Association, was a member of the Kentucky Society, and died in Larchmont, New York. Buckner A. Wallingford II, a descendant of Nicholas Wallingford and the son of Benjamin Wallingford and Prudence Elliott Wallingford, married Anna "Nannie" Longworth, the sister of Nicholas Longworth ( -1931,) who was the husband of Alice Roosevelt Longworth. Buckner A Wallingford II, Buckner A. Wallingford III, Nicholas Wallingford, and Landon Wallingford all were pallbearers during the funeral of Nicholas Longworth. Mrs. Buckner A. Wallingford was a member of the Summer colony at the Virginia Hot Springs in 1913 and in 1916. Buckner A. Wallingford II/III was an assistant professor of business at Columbia University in 1971, was the author of the article "An Inter-Temporal Approach to the Optimization of Dividend Policy with Pre-Determined Investments" in The Journal of Finance in 1972, and was an associate professor of business at Columbia University in 1973. Thomas T. Fauntleroy (1823-1906) was born in Winchester, Virginia, the second son of Colonel Thomas Turner and Ann Magdalene Magill Fauntleroy, was educated at Benjamin Hallowell High School in Alexandria, Virginia, graduated from the University of Virginia in 1844, began the private practice of law in Winchester, Virginia, in 1847, was elected Commonwealth's Attorney in Frederick County, Virginia, in 1850, served in the Virginia legislature from 1857 to 1859 and again in 1877, became the Secretary of the Commonwealth in 1879, was elected to the Supreme Court of Appeals for a 12-year term in 1883, moved first to St. Paul, then moved to St. Louis, Missouri, died in St. Louis, Missouri, and was buried in Winchester, Virginia. Grant Van Sant (1872- ,) the son of Samuel R. Van Sant and Ruth Hall Van Sant, was born at Le Claire, Iowa, graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1895, received at bachelor of law degree from the University of Minnesota in 1896, attended the Harvard Law School for one year, was a lawyer, practiced law at Morris, Minnesota, from 1897 until 1902, practiced law in St. Paul after 1902, married Marian Sanborn in 1904, was a member of Kennedy & Van Sant, lawyers, after 1905, was the attorney and was a member of the board of directors of the Johnson-Van Sant Company, farm mortgages, was the attorney and was a member of the board of directors of the Van Sant Company, farm lands, was the attorney and was a member of the board of directors of the Van Sant Towing Company, a Mississippi River navigation company, was a member of the St. Paul Commercial Club, was a member of the St. Paul Town & Country Club, was a member of the St. Paul Roosevelt Club, was a member of the St. Paul Lincoln Club, resided at Hackney, Minnesota, in 1916, and officed at the Globe Building in 1907. Samuel Rinnah Van Sant (1844-1936,) the son of John W. Van Sant and Lydia Anderson Van Sant, was born in Rock Island, Illinois, was educated in the common schools of Rock Island, Illinois, graduated from Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, served for three years in the Ninth Illinois Cavalry during the American Civil War, initially engaged in the boat building trade in Le Claire, Iowa, for four years, married Ruth Hall in 1868, was engaged in the steamboat towing business on Mississippi River and its tributaries, was the president of the Le Claire Navigation Company, was the president of the Van Sant & Musser Transfer Company, came to Minnesota in 1883, was a steamboat captain, was engaged in farm mortgage business in Minneapolis, was an officer and a member of the board of directors in a number of farm mortgage and steamboat companies, was a Republican, was a member Minnesota House of Representatives representing Winona County (District 15) from 1892 until 1897, was the speaker of the Minnesota House of Representatives in 1895, was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican gubernatorial nomination, was the Governor of Minnesota from 1901 until 1905, was engaged in farm mortgages, was a member of the Minneapolis Commercial Club, was a Mason, was a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was a member of the Knights of Pythias, was a member of the Red Men, was a member of the Modern Woodmen of America, was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, resided at the Hampshire Arms in 1907, officed at the Bank of Commerce Building in 1907, and died at Attica, Indiana. Frank Mannen (1867-1937) was the state agent for the Firemen's Fund Insurance Company in 1904, was the president of the Minnesota and North Dakota Fire Underwriters Association in 1905, was a member of the Executive Committee of the Minnesota Insurance Federation in 1915, was a senior vice president and member of the insurance brokerage firm of Marsh McLennan in New York City, New York, in the 1930's, and died at the Harkness Pavilion of the Presbyterian Medical Center, New York City, New York. The current owner of record of the property is 384 Laurel Partnership, located in Edina, Minnesota.

391 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1918. The structure is a brick condominium building. Unit 1 is a 686 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $96,000, and is currently owned by Jana Hrdinova and Ryan David King. Unit 101 is a 686 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1997 at a sale price of $50,500, and is currently owned by Aine C. McCormick. Unit 102 is a 676 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Frederick A. Mertz. Unit 103 is a 496 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Leigh Bristol Kagan. Unit 104 is a 464 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $92,400, and is currently owned by Martha C. Tierney. Unit 105 is a 503 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1998 at a sale price of $34,000, and is currently owned by Ann Davy. Unit 112 is a 614 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2002 at a sale price of $112,400, and is currently owned by Melissa R. Stirn. Unit 201 is a 686 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $136,000, and is currently owned by Caryl Kaler and Dan Kaler. Unit 202 is a 676 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1991 at a sale price of $42,000, and is currently owned by Mary A. Grant. Unit 203 is a 496 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Karen R. Schultz, who resides at 4655 Allendale Drive. Unit 204 is a 464 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1999 at a sale price of $40,000, and is currently owned by Susan Metzger, who resides at 1128 Grand Avenue. Unit 212 is a 614 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2004 at a sale price of $132,500, and is currently owned by Angela J. Nelson. Unit 301 is a 686 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by James C. Groskopf. Unit 303 is a 496 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 2003 at a sale price of $100,000, and is currently owned by Emily M. Foss. Unit 304 is a 464 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Daniel G. Washburn, who resides in Orlando, Florida. Unit 305 is a 503 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, and is currently owned by Charles L. Jackson, who resides at 448 Ashland Avenue. Unit 312 is a 614 square foot, one bedroom, one bathroom, condominium unit, with the last sale of the unit occurring in 1998 at a sale price of $61,150, and is currently owned by Catherine L. Ryan. Jana Hrdinova was a letter winner in women's tennis from the University of Minnesota in 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999. The 2007 Cole Reference Directory indicates that the residents at this address were Joe George Buckley, Deidre Anne Dalbertis, Pierre Dalbertis, Ann Elizabeth Davy, Emily M. Foss, Mary Ethel Grant, Anthony E. Greiner, Karen Gritzmacher, Shawn Gritzmacher, Jacob R. Jagdfeld, Yvonne Marie Johnsen, Leigh Kagan, Caryl Kaler, Dan Kaler, Cheryl E. Larose, William S. Larose, Aine Catherine McCormack, Rick Mertz, Steven Craig Molstad, Amy Sundell, and Jeanne Wang. Jana Hrdinova is a program assistant for the Center for Technology in Government, a program of the Research Foundation of State University of New York. Jana Hrdinova, originally from the Czech Republic, has a bachelors degree in International Relations in 2000 and a masters degree in Political Science in 2003 from the University of Minnesota, and worked for U.S. Senator Mark Dayton as deputy director for constituent services, concentrating predominantly on immigration issues. On July 28, 2007, Aine McCormick shared a sentimental voice mail from her grandmother, saved for four years after her death, on the American Public Media radio program Weekend America. Leigh Bristol-Kagan, MSW, LicSW, is a Sister Kenny Rehabilitation Institute social worker at United Hospital. Ann Davy was promoted in 2004 from Recreation Coordinator, to Parks and Recreation Supervisor for the City of Falcon Heights. Ann Davy (1978- ) ran in the Get In Gear 10K Women's race in Minneapolis and was the contact person as Programming Division Manager for the City of Minnetonka, Minnesota, for the Minnetonka Summer Festival Races in 2008. Melissa R. Stirn was a financial supporter of the YWCA in 2005. Melissa R. Stirn was a 1997 graduate of Gustavus Adolphus College and was a financial advisor at Ehlers & Associates in 2003. Melissa Stirn was a member of the Board of Directors of NARAL Pro-Choice Minnesota Foundation in 2005. Melissa Stirn (1975- ) competed in the 2000 Avon Running Twin Cities 5K. Dan Kaler was the superintendent of Independent School District 318 from 1990 until 1994, became the Secondary Education Director with the Rosemount-Apple Valley-Eagan school district in 1994, was the superintendent of the North St. Paul-Maplewood-Oakdale Schools, North St. Paul, Minnesota, in 2005, and was the superintendent of Schools in Ellsworth, Wisconsin, in 2006. Caryl Kaler retired from the North St. Paul-Maplewood-Oakdale School District after 31 years of service in 2006. Susan Metzger is a fashion designer with a shop at 1128 Grand Avenue.

394 Laurel Avenue: Built in 1887. The structure is a two story, 2562 square foot, four bedroom, two bathroom, stucco house, with a detached garage. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. T. Riley and Miss Libbie E. Bradley all resided at this address. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. T. Riley, Miss Libbie E. Bradley, and Miss Nancy Ferguson all resided at this address. The 1902 University of Minnesota Alumni Record indicates that William Winifred Woehler, a 1901 Dental School graduate, resided at this address. The 1903 city directory indicates that Alexander W. Botkin, chief clerk with the Northern Pacific RailRoad, and that Frederick Hein, a salesman with Noyes Brothers & Cutler, wholesale druggists, both roomed at this address. The 1916 and 1918 city directories indicate that Mrs. Jennie Conroy and her daughter resided at this address. The 1920 city directory indicates that Jennie Conroy, the widow of Frank M. Conroy, resided at this address. The 1930 city directory indicates that John T. Cook, a plasterer, and his wife, Violet Cook, resided at this address. Alexander W. Botkin resided in Helena, Montana in 1890 and 1891. Frederick Hein ( -1929) died in Ramsey County. The current owner of record of the property is Robert A. Buntz, Jr., who resides in Minneapolis. The 1885 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Norris and their daughter resided at the former nearby 398 Laurel Avenue. The 1887 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Thorne resided at the former nearby 398 Laurel Avenue. The 1920 city directory indicates that Gertrude Du Bal, a teacher at the Gorman School, Edward Du Boe, a secretary, Francis P. Du Boe, a chauffeur, Gertrude Du Boe, a teacher, and Thomas E. Du Boe, assistant to the president employed by the Clarkson Coal & Dock Company, all boarded at the former nearby 396 Laurel Avenue and that Elizabeth Du Boe, the widow of Thomas Du Boe, resided at the former nearby 396 Laurel Avenue. The 1924 city directory indicates that Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Boylan, Mrs. Jennie M. Conroy, and Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Lewis, all resided at the former nearby 396 Laurel Avenue. The 1930 city directory indicates that John J. Garrity and George M. Garrity resided at the former nearby 396 Laurel Avenue. [See note on the Northern Pacific RailRoad.]

Links

Capitol Hill/Cathedral Hill Architectural Hike Details and Route

Capitol Hill/Cathedral Hill Architectural Hike, Part 2

Summit Avenue Hikes - Architectural Style Notes

Back to the Thursday Night Hikes homepage

Information from the University of Minnesota, Northwest Architectural Archives, was used in this webpage.

Cass Gilbert chronology also was a source.

This webpage was last modified on July 27, 2011.