Poland's Royalty
Written and researched by Margaret Odrowaz-Sypniewska

After the death of King Augustus II, "the Strong", the Electoral Seym chose Stanislaus Leszczynski as his successor. The supporters of the Saxon dynastry acclaimed August Frederick (1696-1763), the late king's son to take his place; and the latter candidate also won the support of Russia, which manifested it by sending its troops to Poland. The Grand Treasurer of the Crown, an antagonist, to the Saxon king-elect, removed the historical Polish regalia from the Wawel Castle Crown Treasury and hid them in one of the tombs of the Holy Cross Church in Warsaw, Poland. Augustus ordered his jeweler, Kohler, to make new insignia for him and his spouse.

The coronation of Augustus III took place in Cracow Cathedral on January 11, 1734. Afterwards, the precious stones were replaced with imitation gems. This crown is now in the National Museum, Warsaw, Poland.

The Royal Timeline

  • 850 ... The founding of the Piast dynasty in the Polonian realm. The Piast dynasty was named after a ploughman named Piast and his wife Rzepicha. The 12th century chronicler, Gallus Anonimus, stated that Siemowit was the father of Lestek, and Lestek was the father of Siemomyst.

  • 963-992 ... The reign of Mieszko I (930-992), ruler of the Polanians (D: 900).

    Mieszko I was the son of Siemomyst. He was probably born in Gniezno. Miezsko ruled the Polonians. He married (1)Dobrava (D: 977), the daughter of Czech prince, Boleslav I Premyslid (2) Oda. Dobrava arrived in Gniezno in 965 to marry Mieszko, and their marriage sealed an alliance between the Polanians and the Czechs. She was the mother of Boleslav Chrobry. Mieszko was buried in Poznan on the site of their modern Cathedral. The people of Mieszko's realm, the Polanians, later changed their name to Poland, from the Latin Polanie.

  • 996 ... The baptism of Mieszko I in the Prince's Chapel at Ostrok Lednicki: Introduction of Latin Christianity.

  • 972 ... at Cedynia (Zehde) near the River Oder, south of Szczecin, Miesko fought the Saxon Margrave, Hodo. After a few lost battles, he finally was victorious and secured western Pomerania.

  • 992-1025 ... The reign of Boleslaw I Chrobry (The Brave) (1967-1025), son of Mieszko I.

  • Mieszko II Lambert (990-1034), the eldest son of Boleslav Chrobry and Emnilda. He lost control of the realm in 1031 and fled abroad.

  • 1076-1079 ... Casimir I, Odnowiciel (The Restorer), (1016-1058), was the son of Mieszko II and Rycheza. He returned to Poland in 1039 and tried to rebuild Poland after wars. He made Kracow their new capital (until 1596). He was made Duke of Poland in 1039. Casimir married Dobronega, daughter of Vladimir I, Grand Duke of Kiev in 1041(?)

  • 1076-1079 ... Boleslaw II (1042-1081), Smialy (The Bold), (Casimir I/Dobronega1)was Duke of Poland in 1058. Boleslaw was crowned King of Poland in 1076, at Christmas, and reigned until 1079. His son was Mieszko (1069-1081).

    His younger brother, Wladislaw I Herman (1043-1102) was Duke of Poland in 1102. He married (1) Judith (1056-1085), daughter of Wratislaw (?-1108), Duke of Svatopolk, Grand Duke of Kiev.

  • 1079 ... The Bishop Stanislaw of Cracow (1030-1079) is murdered by King Boleslaw Smialy. Stanislaw is canonized in 1253, and is Poland's second saint after St. Wojciech.

  • Boleslaw III, Krzywousty("Wry-Mouth") (1085-1138). (2) married Judith (1047-1100), daughter of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor in 1089(?).
    Wladislaw's daughter by Judith (Henry III's daughter) died in 1112. She was married to Iaroslav, Prince of Vladimir (D: 1123)

  • Zbigniew (son of Judith, his first wife) sought help from Heirich V of Germany after his brother, Wladyslaw Herman drove him out of Poland. Later he was blinded (in 1112) and thrown into the dungeon and died soon after (at the hand of his brother).

    .....His sister, Swatawa (?-1126) married Wratislaw I, King of Bohemia (1032-1092)

    .....His youngest brother was Mieszko (1045-1065).

  • 1138-1295 ... The Piast realm is fragmented between Boleslaw III's sons:

  • Wladislaw II, Wygnaiec (The Exile), (1105-1159)(Boleslaw III3, Wladislaw I2, Casimir I1), received Silesa and the "Senioral" territory as his inheritance. He was the Duke of Crakow and Silesia 1138-1146. Wladislaw married Agnes (1111-1157), daughter of Leopold III, Duke of Austria.

    Their line became the Dukes of Silesia.

  • Rixa (1116-1155) (Boleslaw III3, Wladislaw I2, Casimir I 13, Wladislaw I2, Casimir I 1), Duke of Mazovia in 1138; Duke of Cracow in 1146. Boleslaw IV married Vierchoslava, daughter of Vsevolod, Prince of Novgorod in 1137.

  • Mieszko III , Stary (1126-1202) (Boleslaw III3, Wladislaw I2, Casimir I1), Duke of Greater Poland in 1138; Duke of Cracow from 1173-1177 and 1200-1202. Mieszko married (1) Elizabeth(D: after 1150), daughter of Almus, Duke of Hungary in 1136?.(2)Eudoxia, daughter of Izyaslav II, Grand Duke of Kiev in 1151/1154.

    Children of Mieszko III

    Children of Mieszko's first wife, Elizabeth:

    1. Otto, Duke of Poznan in 1177 (D:1194). Otto married Wyszeslawa, daughter of Wladimir, Prince of Galicia after 1184.

    Children of his second wife, Eudoxia::

    2. Boleslaw (1159-1195), Duke of Kuiavia, married
    3. Mieszko, Duke of Kalisz (D:1193)
    4. Wladislaw III (1161/7-1231), Duke of Cracow from 1202-1206. Wladislaw married Lucy, daughter of Iaromar, Duke of Rugen, before 1195.
    5. Anastasia(D:1187) married Bogislaw I, Duke of Pomerania in 1177.

  • Henry (Boleslaw III3, Wladislaw I2, Casimir I 1), Duke of Sandomir, died in 1166

  • Casimir II (1138-1194)(Boleslaw III 3, Wladislaw I 2, Casimir I1), Duke of Cracow in 1177. Casimir married (1) in 1163 to ?(2) in 1185, to Helen (D: 1202/6), daughter of Rostislav, Grand Duke of Kiev.

    Children of Casimir II

    Casimir II's first wife bore him:

    1. a daughter, who married Vsevolod III in 1178. Vsevolod was the Prince of Chernigov and Grand Duke of Kiev (D; 1212)

    Casimir II's second wife bore him:

    2. Leszek I (1186/7-1227), "The White", Duke of Cracow in 1194-1199 and 1202. Leszek married Gzzymislawa (D: 1258), daughter of Ingvar, Prince of Luck.
    3. Conrad I (1187/8-1247), Duke of Mazovia and Kuiavia. Conrad married Agatha (D:after1247), daughter of Sviatoslav, Prince of Vladimir Vol. in 1207.

    ****This line will be continued on another link*****

  • Henryk Brodaty, "the Bearded." (1165/70-1238) was the son of a Silesian Prince, Boleslaw the Tall. He later married Hedwig who was made St. Hedwig.

  • 1295 ... Cornation of Przemyst II, son of Prince Przemysl I of Poznan and Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Pobozny. Przemyst brings on the Restoration of the Polish Kingdom. He married (1) Ludgarda- whom it is rumored he killed for not producing an heir (2) ....

  • Wladyslaw Lokietek (1260-1333) reuntied Poland in 1329. Wladyslaw IV7 (Casimir I6, Conrad I5, Casimir II4, Boleslaw III3, Wladislaw I Herman2, Casimir I1dragon of the Vistula.

  • 1320 ... Coronation of Lokietek

    The Szczerbiec or Notched Sword used for Cornations

    The Polish cornation sword was first used by Lokietek. It was called Szczerbiec, after a sword notched by Boleslaw Chrobry at Kiev in 1018.

  • 1339-1305 ... Union of Poland under Waclaw II (1271-1305) of the Czech Premyslid Dynasty. He was the King of Bohenmia before seizing Poland.

  • 1306-1333 ... Reign of Wladyslaw II of Lokietek(1260-1333), son of Boleslaw III, "Wry-Mouth"(SEE ABOVE)

  • 1331, September ... Poland's first major battle with the Teutonic Knights.

    The Royal Cathedral on Wawel Hill

  • 1333-1370 ... Reign of Kazimierz III (1310-1370) (Wladislaw IV7, Casimir I6, Conrad I5, Casimir II4, Boleslaw III3, Wladyslaw I2, Casimir I1), Casimir the Great (1310-1370), King of Poland. He married (1) Anne (1309-1339), daughter of Gedymin, Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1325. (2) Adelaide, daughter of Henry II, Landgrave of Hesse (D:1371) in 1341. They were divorced in 1356. (3) Hedwig(D:1390), daughter of Henry V, Duke of Sagan in 1363. This was her first marriage.

  • 1342 ... Ludwik of Hungary (1326-1382) becomes King of Poland (as Ludwig Wegierski). He was the son of Charles Robert of Anjou and Wladyslaw Lokietek's daughter, Elizabeth.

  • 1370 ... Death of Casimir the Great. He names Ludwik Wegierski as his heir.

  • 1377 ... Jagiello rules Lithuania

  • 1385 ... Union of Krewo: Betrothal of Jadwiga (1372-1399) and Jagiello (1350-1434).

  • 1386-1434 ... Reign of Wladyslaw Jagiello, king of Poland (1424-1444) and Hungary.

  • 1410, July ... The Battle of Grunwald-Tannenburg. Jagiellon's army fights the Teutonic Knights.

  • 1434-1444 ... Reign of Wladyslaw Warneczyk, king of Poland and Hungary.

  • 1440 ... Kazmierz Jagiellonczyck becomes the Grand Duke of Lithuania. His wife is Elizabeth of Habsburg. She is named "Mother of Kings>" They have six sons and seven daughters.

  • 1445 ... Incorporation of Royal Prussia.

  • 1447 ... Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk, becomes King of Poland.

  • 1454 ... Thirteen Years War (1454-1466) with a victory over the Teutonic Knights.

  • 1471-1516 ... Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk is King of Bohemia.

  • 1490-1516 ... Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk is King of Hungary.

  • 1492 ... Jan Olbracht (1456-1501) son of Kasimoerz Jagiellonczynk, becomes King of Poland.

  • 1492 ... Aleksander (1461-1505), 4th son of Kazimierz Jagiellonczynk, ruled Lithuania as Grand Duke. He married , in 1495, to Helena, duaghter of a Musvovite tsar

  • 1501 ... Alesander becomes King of Poland.

  • 1506-1548 ... Reign of Zygmunt I Stary, fifth son of Kazimierz Jagielloncynk.

  • 1519-1521 ... Grand Master, Albrecht von Hollenzollen, closes down the Teutonic Knights.

  • 1548-1572 ... Reign of Zygmunt II August

  • Jan Casimir was elected king after his half-brother, Wladyslaw IV (1595-1648) died in 1648. John (Jan) ruled during twenty (20) years of war and civil turmoil. He abdicated from the throne, exhausted, in 1668. He died in France in 1672.

    Zygmunt III Waza (1566-1632) (Jan's father) was the son of King John III of Sweden. He was elected king of Poland in 1587. He inherited the Swedish throne in 1592, but he was deposed because of his strong Roman Catholic views (by this time Sweden was Protestant). In Poland, he wanted to rule as an absolute monarch which brought him into conflict with the gentry.

    King Zygmunt's mother, Katarzyna Jagiellonka, was Polish and taught him in the Catholic faith.

  • 1669 ... Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki (1640-1673) ie King of Poland. Michal is the son of Jeremi Wisniowiecki.

  • 1674 ...Jan III Sobieski (1629-1696) is King of Poland. He is the son of Jakub Sobieski, and the grandson of Hetman Zolkiewski. In 1668, Jan was Grand Hetman. He was known as a patron of the Arts.

  • 1697 ... August II, "the Strong," (1670-1733) is the ruler of Saxony first, then Poland. He was of the Wettin Dynasty. He ruled Poland from 1697-1704 and again from 1710-1733.

  • 1704 ... Stanislaw Leszcynski (1677-1766) was King of Poland until 1709. He was re-elected, by the Swedes, from 1733-1736. He was a enlightened patron of the Arts. He moved to France and received the duchy of Lorraine from King Louis XV.

  • 1733 ... August III (1696-1763) was the son of August II.

  • Stanislaw August Poniatowski (1732-1798) was elected king after the death of King August II of the Saxon Dynasty.


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