A DISCUSSION OF SOME NEOPAGAN RELIGIONS AND THEIR ETHICS
This essay consists of my own opinions and general information paraphrased from multiple sources, except where specifically quoted or cited. I am by no means an authority on Pagan religions, only a casual scholar. If you feel I have made an error or misrepresentation, or if you have a suggestion for a website or resource to include, please email me at Jolandra6@yahoo.com with suggestions or corrections, preferably with sources I can use to verify such.
Definition of terms
I'll try to define terms as I go along, but there are some words I need to define for the sake of communication, so that everyone knows my meaning when I refer to them.
The first term I must define is ethics. I believe everyone here has a good concept of its meaning, but I just want to make sure we're all using the word the same way in order to ensure communication. Ethics comes from the Greek ēthos, meaning character.1 The dictionary defines ethic as a rule or standard governing the conduct of a person or persons,1 or the science of human duty. 2 This differs from the term moral in that the word moral indicates a value judgment.1 If I say something is moral then I am saying that it is the right thing to do, whereas if I say it is ethical than I am simply saying that it is within the rules of the society, without placing a judgment on those rules.
The definition of Pagan is a little stickier, for many reasons. First of all because there are so many definitions, secondly because the definitions used by self-identified Pagans are not always the definitions found in the dictionary, and finally because neither the Pagans' definitions nor the dictionary's always resemble the word's origins. So let's begin at the beginning, shall we? The Roman Paganus had roughly the same usage as the word hick today. It meant someone who lived in the country or in a small village, a rustic. 2 Since any change in the character of a society takes time to filter down to rural areas, the Paganus were the last people still practicing pre-Christian religions when Christianity had converted the rest of the society. 2 In the northern parts of Europe the word Heathen (one who lives in the heath, or country) underwent a similar evolution, and is used today to identify Pagans practicing pre-Christian Scandinavian, Norse or Germanic religions. With the growth in power of the Christian church which denied the validity of other Gods the words came to mean someone without the religion, then someone without any religion. You can still find this "atheist" definition in both dictionaries and common usage by non-Pagans.
Today the word Pagan is used by those who self-identify with any of thousands of religions, both pre-Christian and recent. By itself, Paganism is rarely used to define a single religion; the most commonly accepted usage by Pagans is as an umbrella term to identify a large group of separate, independent religions. In fact, Pagan religions are so diverse that the only way to define the term so that it includes all of them is to say that a Pagan is anyone who self-identifies as a Pagan. Any attempt to isolate defining characteristics results in excluding a large number of Pagans. One example is the common definition of a Pagan religion as one that is not one of the monotheistic Levantine religions, such as Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Ba'hai or Zoroastrism. This definition is commonly used by Pagans as the most descriptive, but there are a large number of Pagans that reject its use because it both reinforces the "us vs. them" divisiveness between Levantine and Pagan organizations, and it leaves out a number of self-identified "ChristoPagans" who worship Christian or Jewish deities through Pagan ritual and symbolism and "MesoPagans" who follow a Pagan religion that has been heavily influenced by Christian symbolism (i.e. Santeria). So truly the only means of understanding Paganism is to understand a number of different Pagan religions.
Since Pagan religions are so diverse, there is no single statement of ethics that can possibly be made to apply to all of them. Furthermore, since so many Pagan religions rely on subjective, individualized ethics and there is rarely a centralized church or authority to issue doctrine, there will often be a marked difference in ethical beliefs and interpretations within each religion itself. Many rely on a broad ethical statement, and then each individual must, through personal introspection and communion with deity, choose how to interpret and apply it in their lives. In short, nothing should be taken as universal to all Pagan religions, or even universal within each Pagan religion. What this article does is outline a few examples of documented Pagan religions and examples of what some members of those Pagan religions define as their ethics. I have included at the end of each section a short list of resources (both print and internet) for those who desire to research further on their own.
In the interest of saving space, most of the internet links actually lead to lists of other informational links on the religion. I have only included informational links where the site is not mentioned on the link sites, or where the informational resource is particularly recommended. The lists are not meant to be comprehensive, merely introductory. Please be aware that not all books or websites out there are reputable, and someone new to a religion may misdirect you to a website or book that gives misleading or inaccurate information on a religion. This list contains sources recommended to me by experienced practitioners of the individual religions as accurately portraying the beliefs and practices. There are many practitioners of the religion that do not agree that these are the best sources, and there are many excellent texts and websites out there that are not included on this list. My recommendation would be to read everything, question what you read, and find primary sources to confirm any facts. Questions are the obligation of the thinking mind.
General Pagan Resources
Drawing Down the Moon by Margot Adler, ISBN: 014019536X. This Book gives general information on the history of the Pagan movement in America, with descriptions of some of the larger groups as of the 1980's.
Pagans and Christians by Gus Dizerega, P.H.D. ISBN ISBN: 1567182283. This is an excellent book for anyone seeking to understand the essential difference in philosophy and thinking between NeoPagans and Christians.
http://www.ecauldron.com This website contains descriptions, links and articles on various Pagan religions and includes a message board if you wish to ask more questions of actual practitioners.
http://www.swordnshield.com is an excellent website full of information on various Pagan Reconstructionist religions.
I begin with Wicca partly because it tends to be the non-Pagan's first contact with Paganism, but primarily because the ethical statements of the Wiccan religion are often mistaken for something all Pagans believe and follow. For background purposes, Wicca is a religion based on the form of a witchcraft religion first made public by Gerald Gardner in England in the 1950's. It is duotheistic, honoring a God and a Goddess, and the symbolism is agricultural, cycling around the growth and harvest seasons of plants and animals. The witchcraft aspect includes the casting of spells in a combination of Hermetic and folk magic (traditionally the folk magic found in the British Isles and Western Europe). The religion's rituals and hierarchy (initiatory degree system) are similar in structure to that of many lodge groups of the late 19th century, including the Masons and Golden Dawn. There have been many denominations or "traditions" of Wicca formed, as theological and liturgical splits occurred in the original group. Recently, primarily due to the books from Llwellyn publishers by authors such as Silver Ravenwolf and Scott Cunningham, a looser, informal and personalized form of Wicca has come into popularity. These "neowiccans" (new wiccans) often take spiritual and ritual practices from a wide range of cultures and combine them into their own personal religion that bears little resemblance (other than the name) to traditional Wicca. The ethical basis of Wicca is defined by two concepts: The Wiccan Rede, and the Law of Multiple Return.
The Wiccan Rede
The definition of "rede" is wise advice or council.1 It is not, therefore a set law, but it is accepted by most Wiccans as part of their ethics. The Rede Of The Wiccae was originally published as a 26-couplet poem by Lady Gwen (Gwynne) Thompson in the magazine Green Egg in 1975.3 The shorter statement of ethics, ” An ye harm none, do what ye will" was originally meant to apply only to the use of magic, 4 but has evolved into a positive philosophy of living for many Wiccans. There are many interpretations of the Rede as an ethical statement. Most Wiccans will acknowledge that it is impossible to actually "Harm None", as the acts of eating, drinking, and breathing require the destruction of certain life forms. They generally deal with this contradiction in one of two ways: First, they may concentrate on the first part of the Rede, "Harm None" and while recognizing it as an impossibility, treat it as an ideal of ethical behavior and try to do as little harm as possible in order to accomplish their goals; or second (and less common), they may concentrate on the second half of the Rede, "do what ye will" and believe that if you follow your true will (i.e. do not do what you know is wrong, do not fail to do what you know is right) then you will automatically do the least amount of harm possible. Each individual Wiccan must come to their own understanding of the Rede and its application in their life.
The Law of Multiple Return
This law is often called "The Law of Three" or "The Rule of Three". It also appeared in the Rede Poem as originally published, as the line "Mind the Threefold Law ye should – three times bad and three times good." 5 It is an application to the physical laws of cause and effect which states that everything you do or say (in particular the energy you emanate) will come back to you "threefold". Hence, if your thoughts, actions and energy towards others are negative, then negative things will happen to you, and likewise with positive energy. This is, of course a Westernized, simplified interpretation of the Eastern concept of Karma, but it does encourage the individual to take personal responsibility for the results of their words and actions.
There are other ethical concepts, such as pacifism, Vegetarianism, and environmental activism that are often embraced by Wiccans, but they are not an integral part of all traditions.
Triumph of the Moon by Ronald Hutton ISBN: 0192854496. This is a scholarly look at the evolution of witchcraft and the Wiccan religion in the British Isles.
The Witch's Bible Complete by Janet and Stewart Farrar ISBN: 0919345921. The Farrars were of the Alexandrian Wicca tradition and quite accurately portray Wiccan beliefs and practices, including rituals and symbolism for Sabbats.
Witchcraft Today and The Meaning of Witchcraft by Gerald Gardner, the founder of Wicca. These are both out of print but are often available on Ebay and in bookstores as a set.
Wicca: Old Religion In The New Milennium ISBN: 0722532717 And Principles Of Wicca by Vivianne Crowley. Excellent, highly recommended beginners books.
The Spiral Dance by Starhawk ISBN: 0062516329 is an exploration of Wicca from the feminist viewpoint. A powerful book for those who wish to touch their feminine element through Wicca.
http://www.witchvox.com The Witch's Voice is a vast, respected source for articles, information and networking for Wiccans and NeoPagan witches.
http://www.pagan.drak.net/sheathomas/ The Wiccan Rede Project is an exploration of the origins and interpretations of the Wiccan Rede, the guiding ethical statement of the religion.
Many groups self-identify as Druid, whether they be Christian, Atheist or NeoPagan.
NeoPagan Druidry or Druidism is a revival of the religious beliefs or practices of the pre-Christian Celtic and Indo-European cultures. The original Druids consisted of the Priest class of the Celtic culture. They were divided into three grades: The bards were the keepers of the lore, the Ovates were the diviners and prophesiers, and the Druids were the counselors and judges, equal in authority to the ruling class. 6 Since they taught by oral tradition comparatively little is known about them today. Modern Druids rely on Archeological research, surviving Celtic mythology, and the writings of classical authors that came in contact with the Celtic Civilization to understand the Celtic culture. Due to the lack of actual teachings of the Druids, there is a wide range of interpretation amongst the many diverse self-identified Druid organizations.
Ar n'Draiocht Fein
One of the largest Druid organizations in the U.S. is the Ar n'Draiocht Fein (arn re-ocht fane), meaning "our own Druidry" (ADF for short).7 ADF describes itself as a "Pan-Indo-European" organization of Polytheistic nature-worshippers. 8 There is a great deal of independence and flexibility amongst individual groups (called Groves) of ADF as to their exact beliefs or ethics. ADF members are encouraged to be aware of how actions impact those around them (including nature) and this fosters an awareness and respect for both community and the environment. They believe that all living things (including the biosphere of the earth itself) are divine. Their website sets out other examples of their ethical beliefs: "We believe that human beings were meant to lead lives filled with joy, love, pleasure, beauty and humor;" "We believe that human interdependence implies community service;" and "We believe that people have the ability to solve their current problems, both personal and public, and to create a better world..." 9
The Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids
The order of Bards, Ovates and Druids is an English organization which traces its origins to 1717.10 It is not specifically NeoPagan but is heavily influenced by Celtic mythology and Wiccan symbolism. The Order does not have a set religious structure so membership consists of followers of a wide range of religions. The only specific ethical statement they offer is: "Druidry encourages us to love widely and deeply. It fosters: Love of the Land, the Earth, the Wild, reverence for Nature; Love of Peace; Love of Beauty; Love of Justice; Love of Story and Myth; Love of History and Reverence for the Ancestors; Love of Trees; Love of Stones; Love of Truth; Love of Animals; Love of the Body; Love of the Sun, Moon, Stars & Sky; Love of Each Other; Love of Life." 11 Individual Druids incorporate these concepts into their personal religious beliefs.
There are other NeoPagan Druid Groups whose beliefs closely resemble each other, in that they believe in the sacredness of life and nature as well as respect for individuals and their religious beliefs. Druids tend to be more active politically and environmentally than some other Pagan groups.
http://www.ADF.org The website for Ar n'draiocht Fein, the largest Druid organization in the U.S.
http://druidry.org The order of Bards, Ovates and Druids
http://www.geocities.com/nemetongwynvyd Trefn Gwyddoniad is a Druidic group following a Welsh ritual structure who trace their presence in the US back to 1792.
http://www.siliconglen.com/scotfaq/2_8.html The IMBAS mailing list is devoted to Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism
http://www.keltria.org/ The Henge of Keltria web site
Asatru is one of the Reconstructionist religions, meaning that they literally attempt to reconstruct as accurately as possible the religious practices and beliefs of an ancient culture. In most Reconstructionist religions, there is an emphasis on historical accuracy in practice, and while personal gnosis or non-native additions to the religions are accepted, they are expected to identify such and not present the later material as historically accurate.
Asatru is the reconstruction of the religious practices of the pre-Christian Germanic and Northern European cultures. They tend to be very strict in their efforts to preserve the historical and cultural accuracy of their modern practice. In the interest of that ideal they usually refer to themselves as "Heathen," rather than Pagan. They are proud to be able to tract their religion to original archeological texts, such as the Norse Sagas and Eddas. At its historical peak Asatru spread over all Northern Europe, and Sweden continued to be ruled by a Heathen king until as late as 1085 CE. 12
Modern Asatru find their ethical structure in the ancient texts and sagas. There are many rules for living, parables, and examples of conduct by the heroes and gods of the sagas. In the late 1970's, the founder of the British "Odinic Rite" set out Nine Noble Virtues for Asatru to live by (presumably derived from parts of the ancient texts). These virtues, as set out by the Indiana Asatru Council in 1994 are: Courage, Truth, Honor, Fidelity, Hospitality, Discipline, Industriousness, Self-Reliance, and Perseverance. 13 While the virtues have been accepted as a guiding ethical statement by many Asatru groups, the historical validity of them is widely contested. The stricter Asatru only accept those virtues described in the Eddas and Sagas (i.e. Honor, Hospitality) as their religious ethics, although they may choose to follow the rest out of social, rather than religious motivations. In Asatru there is a great importance placed on family and community, as each individual's honor can affect that of those associated with him/her. Of utmost importance, of course, is communion with and honoring the Gods.
In the early part of the 20th Century, the Nationalist Socialist Party in Germany under Adolf Hitler stole symbolism of the Asatru religion and grafted them on to their racist beliefs. The meanings of the symbols were twisted and changed to fit a political agenda. The Asatru religion is one that emphasizes courage, honor and national/community pride, but the major Asatru organizations in no way tolerate racism.14 Modern Neo-Nazi and other racist groups continue to hide behind Asatru symbols in order to gain legal validity as a "religious" movement, and thus encourage false stereotypes on the practitioners of Asatru.
The Poetic Edda and The Prose Edda are the holy books of Asatru, and are available in many different translations.
The Agricola and the Germania by Corneleius Tacitus Translated by Harold B. Mattingly, out of print, but still available in some used bookshops or ebay.
Sagas of the Icelanders by Jane Smiley, the Sagas are another important source of information on the ancient practices.
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/4178/asatru/asalink.html is a website with links to many major organizations and smaller kindreds as well as articles and information pages.
Kemet means roughly "Black Earth" and was the word used by ancient Egyptians to describe their land. Modern Kemetics seek to reconstruct the religious beliefs and philosophies of the ancient Egyptians and adapt them to modern civilization.
Not everyone using Egyptian symbolism in their religious rites is Kemetic. For example there are Tamerans, people who mix traditional Wicca with Egyptian deities or symbolism; there are Egyptian Pagans such as the organization "Fellowship of Isis" who believes that all goddesses are manifestations of the Egyptian Goddess Isis;15 and there are also Setians, who honor the God Set, seen by some as a deity of chaos or evil, by others one of individuality and expansion of the mind.16 While all these are Egyptian in appearance, they usually acknowledge being new interpretations of the ancient structure.
Kemetics use ancient texts and archeological research to determine how religion was actually practiced in Ancient Egypt, and attempt to reconstruct it. The major division in Kemeticism is between the polytheistic Kemetics and the Kemetic Orthodoxy, which is monolatrous.
The Orthodoxy define their monolatry as somewhere between Polytheism and Monotheism. "A monolatrous religion professes one divine force (Netjer in the Kemetic language, meaning "divine power") that is in turn comprised of other separate, yet interlinked aspects, like a team can be defined both as one entity (the sum of its parts) and by individual members themselves." 17 They are one of the few Pagan religions with a single authority figure, the Nisut-bity(t), or Nisut. The Nisut is seen much like the ancient Pharaohs, as the physical incarnation of a God, specifically Heru (Horus) and is honored as divine.17 The religious practices revolve around formal ritual, personal daily devotions, and ancestor devotions.
Kemetics who aren't part of the Kemetic Orthodoxy often worship as individuals or smaller groups instead of as one organized body of worshipers. There are individual "cults" who are devoted to one God/ess or another within the faith. There is some room for personal gnosis and interpretation in Kemetic Reconstructionism, provided that it is not mis-identified as authentic ancient practice. 18
Both the Kemetic Reconstructionists and the Kemetic Orthodoxy believe in the concept of "ma'at" as part of both their religious and secular lives. According to Siegfried Morenz in his book Egyptian Religion: "Maat is right order in nature and society, as established by the act of creation, and hence means, according to the context, what is right, what is correct, law, order, justice and truth. This state of righteousness needs to be preserved or established, in great matters as in small. Maat is therefore not only right order but also the object of human activity. Maat is both the task which man sets himself and also, as righteousness, the promise and reward which await him on fulfilling it" 19 Ma'at is a word that is almost untranslatable, but works out roughly to mean balance, order, justice, and truth. The mythology says that ma'at came into being at the creation of the universe, and there has been a struggle ever since, on every level of existence to maintain ma'at. The cohesion of the universe, order of the natural world, and relationships between all living things depend on ma'at. Both priests and judges were considered her servants.
Ma'at was also a Goddess of ancient Egypt, who serves as the judge of souls in the Egyptian underworld. While Kemetics have concepts with at least a surface similarity to sin, judgment and afterlife, they do not have an equivalent to the Christian Hell. Kemetics believed that the prosperity and morality depended on the actions of the individual. Actions that were considered "against ma'at" often had immediate consequences, but could also prevent an individual from entering the afterlife. When a Kemetic dies they believe they are sent to the "Halls of Ma'ati" (translated roughly as the Halls of double, or intensified ma'at).21 There the individual's heart would be placed on a scale opposite the ostrich feather worn by Ma'at as her symbol. They then made forty-two confessions to forty-two Gods concerning how they had lived their lives. 20 Depending on the truth of the confessions, their heart would grow heavy or light. If it were heavier than the feather it would be eaten by a demon and the individual died a final death. If it weighed the same or was lighter than the feather, they were allowed to proceed to the afterlife. The forty-two confessions have many translations, and some have been adapted to fit our lives today. Others are still applicable today and cover issues such as honesty, fairness, correct religious and family behavior, work ethic, etc. 20
http://www.kemetonline.com/links2/Kemetic_Websites/ Kemet online has a list of other websites with articles and information on Kemetic Reconstructionism
http://www.kemet.org/home.html is the home page for Kemetic Orthodoxy
http://www.hethert.org/reading.htm has an extensive reading list on Kemeticism
http://www.inkemetic.org/index.htm - International Order of Kemetics
Hellensismos is also known as Greek or Hellenic Reconstructionism. They attempt to reconstruct the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Greek cultures. Primary sources of information used in re-creating the rites include both modern archeological and anthropological research on Greek cultures and historical authors such as Homer and Hesiod. There is some room for personal gnosis and interpretation, provided that it is identified as such and not as authentic historical practice. There is a heavy emphasis on historical accuracy, while acknowledging that some practices must be adjusted to be spiritually relevant today.
It is important to note that, like the Kemetics, not everyone who includes Greek Gods or symbolism into their religion is a Hellenic Reconstructionist. There are many eclectic Wiccans who have incorporated areas of Hellenismos into their worship without concern for the historical or cultural accuracy of what they do. Since Hellenes believe in Orthopraxy (right practice) as opposed to Orthodoxy (right belief) they sometimes view the eclectic approach as impious and disrespectful to the Gods themselves and highly object to attempts to adapt the symbolism of the Greek Gods to Wiccan ritual forms, or to make them more "politically correct".
It is difficult to make any general statements about Hellenismos because the religious practices of the Hellenes varied widely by region and patron God/ess. The Hellenics are generally polytheistic, and primarily worship the twelve Olympian Gods (Zeus, Hera, Athena, Hephaistos, Apollo, Artemis, Demeter, Dionysos, Hermes, Ares, Poseidon and Aphrodite) while honoring other Gods, heroes and beings present in Greek mythology.22 There were also many mystery cults outside of mainstream religious practice, the most famous of which were the Eleusinian and the Orphic. The religious ethics of the Hellenismos were/are based wholly on the worship of the Gods. The concept of Eusebeia, or Piety emphasizes correct religious observance as necessary for the health and prosperity of both the individual and the community. 23
The religion is thought to have been based on prayer and petition to the gods, and there is very little evidence that the ancient Greeks used any form of actual magic in their religious rites. Very few modern Hellenics incorporate "spells" and other NeoPagan magical practices into their religion, but there is nothing disallowing it. Since cultural life is so entwined with religious practice, social ethics vary widely, since standards of behavior could depend on the deities one worships and the Greek school of philosophy one ascribes to. One of the best-known set of ethical guidelines embraced by modern Hellenics is the Delphic Maxims. These were phrases carved around the doorway of the temple at Delphi. The three famous Maxims are: "know thyself", "nothing too much", and "give surety, get ruin" 24 An example of how this advice has been incorporated into modern practice can be found in a statement of ethics of the Reconstructionist organization Hellenion: "know thyself, nothing in excess, and respect for oneself, others, and the gods." 25
The Odyssey and The Iliad by Homer, available in many translations
Theogony, Works and Days by Hesiod, available in many translations
http://www.hellenismos.org/ Is an Italian Hellenismos organization with plenty of English information.
http://sannion.bravepages.com/ Sainnon's Sanctuary. A personal website with many essays on Hellenic Rconstructionism.
The one statement I hear more than any other when discussing how to portray Pagan religions is that there is nothing that applies to all Pagan religions. There is no single book or person, or opinion that can serve as an authority on or in Paganism. The examples I have given are a scant handful compared to the enormous variety in existence. Many are religions of one, and are difficult to even put into words. The followers of Pagan religions are sometimes in conflict, but that is to be expected considering the wide range of beliefs and ethics found between them. They are unique individual faith systems, and I believe we need to take the effort to avoid homogenization when attempting to join together and form a greater Pagan community. I for one am in agreement that we should not be willing to sacrifice that individuality for the sake of public opinion.
Man and His Symbols by C.G. Jung. Many Pagans believe in the Gods as Archetypes, rather than actual beings.
http://www.novaroma.org/religio_romana/ I did not have time to include Religio Romana (Roman Reconstructionism) in this essay, but here is a link to a Roman organization.
www.imbas.org is an excellent site on Celtic Reconstructionism (a different religion than Druidry)
http://www.religioustolerance.org/santeri.htm is an introductory page on the Caribbean religion of Santeria.
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
2 Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.
3 Thomas, Shea. The Wiccan Rede Project.
4 Gardner, Gerald. The Meaning of Witchcraft. Aquarian Press. 1971; London.
5 Thompson, Lady Gwen and Adriana Porter. "Rede Of The Wiccae." As published in Shea Thomas's The Wiccan Rede Project. http://www.pagan.drak.net/sheathomas. 2000. Green Egg Magazine, 1975.
6 The Druid Grove. "Bards, Ovates and Druids". http://druidry.org/obod/text/OBOD.html
7 Bonewitz, Isaac. "What Is ADF?" 1999; http://www.adf.org/identity/what-is-adf.html.
9 Bonewitz, Isaac. "What Do NeoPagan Druids Believe?" 1998: http://www.adf.org/identity/beliefs.html.
10 The Druid Grove. "Frequently Asked Questions." http://druidry.org/obod/text/OBOD.html
13 Elder Haxton. Indiana Asatru Council. 1994: http://www.pagansunite.com/article.php?sid=240
14 Heathens Against Hate: http://angelfire.com/on/Wodensharrow/hah.html
15 The Fellowship of Isis: www.fellowshipofisis.com
16 The Temple of Set: www.xeper.org/
17 The House of Netjer. "What is Kemetic Orthodoxy?" http://www.kemet.org/kemexp1.html
18 Thomas, Denise. "Kemeticism." International Order of Kemetics website: http://www.inkemetic.org/index.htm
19 Morenz, Siegfried Egyptian Religion. Cornell University Press. 1992: Thomas, Denise. "Kemeticism." International Order of Kemetics Website: http://www.inkemetic.org/index.htm
20 The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Trans. by Sir E.A. Wallis Budge. Appendix. No. 10477, Sheet 22: http://www.lysator.liu.se/(a2)/~drokk/BoD/tcond.html
21 Seawright, Caroline. "Ma'at, Goddess of Truth, Balance, Order..." Tour Egypt: the Official Site of: The Ministry of Tourism of Egypt; The Egyptian Tourist Authority. http://touregypt.net/godsofegypt/maat2.htm
22 Campbell, Drew. "About Hellenismos: Some Frequently Asked Questions". http://www.nomos-arkhaios.org/faq.htm.
23 Mikalson, Jon D. Athenian Popular Religion. University of North Carolina Press. 1983: Chapel Hill/London. From Drew Campbell: "Eusebeia: Principles of Hellenic Piety" http://www.nomos-arkhaios.org/eusebeia.htm
24 Translation found on http://www.swan.ac.uk/classics/staff/ter/grst/What's%20what%20Things/delphic_maxims.htm the site mentions that "surety" referred to a practice of pledging one's self as surety for a bet or loan, if one could not fulfill the obligation they would become the slave of the other.
25 Hellenion Mission Statement found at http://www.hellenion.org/mission_statement.html
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