For social or political topics:
A) Demonstrate that a Problem Actually Exists (offense, pt 1).
Goal: So youíve got a new ideaóso what?† What harm is there in the way things are done now?† Whatís wrong with just keeping things the way they are?† If itís not broken, we donít want to fix it.† Demonstrate that the problem is real.†
Give anecdotes and statistics about individuals harmed.† Show that the way things are done now harms many people, or if it only harms a few people, it harms them deeply.
B) Demonstrate the Cause of the Problem† (offense, pt 2).
Goal: Show that the problems are tied to the way things are now.†
Provide evidence that shows that the harm described in part A is caused by the †particular law, method, or attitude which the paper is arguing against.
Provide evidence that shows that although the plan presently used is reducing the problem, there remains a gap between results and the desired goal.††
C) Propose the new solution or plan and offer support (defense).†
Goal:† Introduce the new plan and offer support.† Rememberóthe solution the paper proposes must address the problems that the paper presented in Part A!
Provide evidence that the new plan has been tried in other countries, states, or cities and that it has shown positive results in treating the problem described in Part A.†
Show that the problem described in Part A has been treated successfully in a model school, experimental hospital, etc.† Hypothesize that the experimental plan may work on a larger scale.†
Show how a different but similar problem is successfully treated; propose that this treatment could be modified to address the problem described in Part A.††
Show that the new plan better fits with currently accepted theories or with investigatorís observations and therefore should better treat the problem described in Part A.††
For scientific or paranormal topics
A) Demonstrate Weakness in the Current Theory (offense).
Goal:† So youíve got a new ideaóso what?† Whatís wrong with the old idea?†† If itís not broken, we donít want to fix it.† Demonstrate that the current theory is broken.†
Strategy 1) Challenge the traditional evidence.
Show that previous investigators used faulty evidence.†
Show that previous investigators intentionally falsified evidence.
Show that traditionally used evidence canít be applied to this case.
Strategy 2) Challenge traditional scientistsí interpretation of the evidence; challenge the link between the evidence and their claims about the evidence.†
Show that previous investigators had preconceived ideas that warped their interpretation of the data.†
Show that traditional arguments are outdated.†
Show that traditional arguments donít really apply to this case.
B) Present the New Theory and its Evidence (defense).†
Goal:† Introduce the new theory and offer support.
Show how the current theory fails to explain the actual observations in the field or the laboratory.†
Present evidence from new areas that shows that traditionally accepted evidence may be an anomaly.†
Show that new evidence cannot be explained using the traditional theory.†
Show how certain evidence fits the new theory better than the old theory.†