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( ( ( DuGBuG CAR CARE ) ) )



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**These are the things that I have did in all my past cars, to make it run better to get more MPG.
2003 Mazda Protege, 1996 Ford Ranger, 1995 Subaru Impreza 1.8L, 1990 Nissan 240sx, 1986 Nissan 200sx,
1982 Toyota corolla. Even a moped & lawn mower. The things I did that worked & things that did not work,
information I found & tips I was told about, all is put on this page.

 Keep in mind your car can only do so much. It is a matter of how old is your car, how it is set up & other factors
you need to consider before doing anything major to your car.

 Being of sound mind, the choice in the end is up to you to decide what to do.
If you don't know what to do about it always, ask a technician from your car manufacture!
Each car is different, some things that work on one car will not work on others.

 Before you do anything you need to see that the car has the support it needs.
I would start by getting the cars ECU checked for error codes, & find out what is wrong & fix it.
 If the engine not working right it will have a effect on the way the spark plugs & every thing works.
A good start also could be new spark plug wires. If the ones you have are old it will effect the way the
things work. Also a new gas cap could help.
If you have a leaky one some times it can make a error code pop up.
 Also be sure to have the throttle position sensor checked. If your car backfires badly when you turn
off the gas at mid & high rpm, it could be your throttle position sensor or some sensor
or even your muffler, or anything. That is why it is best to find what is wrong before you start fixing.

 If you drive the car, then after things get hot, the car starts to stall & die, then when you let it cool off a bit,
it runs better, it is not vapor lock, it is your fuel pump. This behavior will happen sometimes with fords.

 If your car backfires, you need to fix it. Backfires can give you valve damage, this is why you need to fix it!
Make sure the everything is running like it should,
this is a very important thing to check on older cars, because the chances are good that things are off with the sensors.
This is something that needs to be looked at.

 After you get every thing fixed & you change something on the car like a vortex generator or non resistor spark Plugs,
you need to reset the cars ECU.

TIMING BELT:***It has been said that you need to change the timing belt on cars at 100,000+ or 60,000+ miles.
But some say otherwise, ( *52,000! )
 Technicians may recommend that you replace the water pump during a timing belt job even if there is nothing wrong with it.
I would say that you may not have to change it until 100,000+ for sure, but you never know what will happen so at least you will know you have a new one in there. This is better than going in there again to put a new water pump in.
 So yes I would get a new water pump with the timing belt change!

 You may know that a timing belt is just a big piece of rubber. Over time it will stretch a bit, this messes with the timing
of the car. If your car feels like it is getting slow not like it used to drive & you are about due for a timing belt change I would
have it done now!

 Timing belts are used in two types of engines designated as "interference" and "non-interference".
If the timing belt breaks on a non-interference design, there is enough clearance between the pistons and valves to prevent damaging contact. An interference design does not have sufficient clearance between those parts and engine damage would happen from a broken timing belt.

 It is best to get it all done just to be sure! If that thing slips, or you leak oil out of the seals, your engine goes, & you will
have to get the parts from Japan at the worst costing you $1000's. It's like buying a new car again!

ABOUT OIL:***The main purpose of motor oil is to reduce friction by preventing direct metal to metal contact of
parts that are moving in relation to each other. This is referred as thick film lubrication, even though the oil films are
only 1/50th the thickness of a human hair!

 An important function of motor oil is to act as a coolant by transferring heat generated by combustion into the cooling
system of an engine. The lubricant must maintain it's integrity under high temperatures, or metal to metal contact of
moving parts could create enough heat to weld the high spots together, then tear apart and re-weld.
This process is called scuffing.

 With a Subaru engine oil is vital. The engine is flat in a Subaru & in time it wares the bottom part of the cylinders more
than the top. It has been designed to do less so now but it still does, but not as it could.
 Through experimentation, the engineers at Subaru discovered that a slightly barrel shaped piston produces less friction,
vibration and noise. The engineers then focused on improving the lower part of the piston that makes contact with the
cylinder wall. It was made shorter and thinner to reduce weight.
 But still, all in all you need a good oil. So there your best support in oil would be Synthetic oil or a good mineral oil.

The difference between synthetic and mineral oil? The base stock in mineral oil is distilled from the stew of
diverse molecules found in crude oil. Mineral oil is refined in the same cracking process that produces gasoline
and other refined products.
 Mineral oil base stock consists of medium sized hydrocarbon molecules, that are forced under pressure between
moving metal surfaces to provide a slippery lubrication film preventing metal to metal contact and eliminating friction.
 Mineral type oil tends to adhere well to metals better than most synthetic oils.

 Synthetic oil combine many low weight molecules into higher weight hydrocarbon molecules.
They are formulated with reduction of internal friction in mind and they are synthesized in labs, typically with the
manufacture of ethylene from crude petroleum or natural gas. Synthetics are more slippery than ordinary
regular mineral oils. Synthetics also have none of the wax which mineral oil cannot eliminate.
The pour point of many synthetics is -60.F degrees or lower, while mineral oil only pour until -40.F
At high heat synthetics are have better resistance to thermal breakdown, rather than to
degrade into vapor and sludge.

OIL DRAIN / CHANGE:***The best way I found to do a oil change is to run the car get things warm then
when you drain the oil be careful it is hot & full of nasty's!!  Let the oil drain for about 8 hours or over night,
this will give it time to get all the oil & gunk out.
( Remember your car has no oil in it! Don't even start it in the morning! Leave a note on the dash!)
 If you use the engine flush use it only if it really needs it. My Mazda really needed it, I had to do it 3 times.
It would be safer if you don't use it every oil change, just do it once or twice to clean the engine out, then
call it good from there. Use the flush to brake up the carbon, then let drain over night.
Oil is being made better these days depending what you get. Good oil & time makes for a good flush.

 When you put the new oil in the car you need to put some oil in the new oil filter before you instal it.
Keep adding oil, to get full as possible. Start up the car, let run then turn it off, 5 minutes later check your dipstick.
This will mix everything together & give you a better reading of how much oil is in the car.
You will notice the oil  is very clean & clear on the dipstick.
( If your car is burning oil I would not add any engine flush additive, it might make it worse, just do the over night. )
I would put in some stop smoke, it will help. Be sure to get rid of the oil the right way. Just find a place that will take it.

OIL ADDITIVES:***With a good Synthetic oil you don't really need an additive. An good Synthetic oil is an additive!
Additives might harm your engine in fact. There is a lot of work from people from engineering, chemistry & science
that put that oil together & there are the same for the people who make the additives.

 There is no telling how additives will react with the oil. It could alter the viscosity in a bad way.
The oil could be fighting with the additive for the same spot to lube the engine.
 It can make the oil foam more. It can do more harm.
 The additives have been tested with all kinds of oils before it made it out to the market. It is just a matter of what the
additive does in there with what oil, good or bad. So you just need to see that you get a good additive like I do.

 An good additive in a good mineral oil or cheap synthetic, works well.
But I would not put an additive in a good synthetic oil, that would be a waste.
 For me I look for an engine oil additive that sticks to the metal, just for the need for the oil to not be all in the oil pan.
For an auto I might, or might not use that type.

 Additives can be Chlorinated, or have Teflon or more in it.
I know that in my 1990 Nissan 240sx I had used Dura Lube additive in the engine & when I took it to the shop the
technician noticed the rust inside of the engine. It was that stuff being chlorinated that did the damage.
With heat it turned into a acid, that in return is bad on the gaskets moving parts etc.
 Look up the MSDS on the additive you want to use & look for Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, that is the one that is bad.
Look up every ingredient & see what it is what it does. Know what it is before it goes in your engine.

 I have also used Teflon additives before and I have found clumps in the bottom of my oil drain pan after I
changed my oil when using that stuff. Because teflon does not stick to metal until it things get up to 800 degrees,
it will be floating around like sand paper.
 And may your god help you if you put any Teflon additive in a Subaru transmission. "Teflon sand paper."
After time you will get a bad gear clash in 1st to 2th gear.
 The stuff can grind the copper spacers in there, causing the clash. It will cost you $1700 to fix.
It is not good in a Subaru or any car!

 I ran Lucas oil additive in the synthetic oil of my Subaru then after a time started to make more & more noise like:
tap, tap, tap, that was a bad sign. Valve trains do not like the taps, it's not good to run it that way.
It contains no harmful solvents but there was something bad happening with the oil mix.
 Other people say that it makes the oil foam more, so far I have not heard anything about it.
 But that explains the noise.
 I used it in my Mazda also, but I had no noise. In a way the car just didn't run right to me, but it turned out to be
my engine being bad. I was using Walmart type synthetic oil with it at the time, which brings up the fact of good
oil in a car. A cheap synthetic oil is good as long you use a good additive & that is the key an good additive.

 I used Hyperlube additive also with synthetic oil & noticed in time that it turned black fast.
I did not want sludge so I changed the oil with out Hyperlube in it. I am sure it was the fact that the Mazda engine
was not running right. All oil gets black faster in a bad running engine. I have used it before in my Ford, & Subaru
& it worked good, no black!. And for me this is the additive I would use the most.
Just for the fact they say it will help stop foaming & it sticks to the metal.
 The only ? is how much to use? You do not want too little, or you do not want too much.
For me I would start with 1/2 of it in 4 qts of oil, then go up from there.

 I have also used Marvel Mystery Oil additive in my oil on my 1986 Nissan 200sx, but found it watered down the oil,
the engine sounded funny & ran a bit hot. Thinking about it that stuff was kind of watery, so
I would not put much in your engine. It might be good to put in the oil, but not in 10w 30 oil.
I would use a heavier oil like a 20w 50 oil or a mix for winter like 2 qt's of 20w 50 & 2 qt's of 10w 40.
This would make a 15w 45 ( - ) the additive you put in there oil.
 But note I would not put it in an engine. It is the fact it has Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
& in time will turn in to an acid in the engine.

 Also in my 86 Nissan I used Dura Lube additive for my transmission, it did not seem to do anything.
But seeing now what it did to my 1990 Nissan 240sx, I would not use that again.
 In my Mazda I used Lucas Transmission fix additive & now I use Lubegard M-V additive in my transmission.
The Lucas additive contains no harmful solvents & the Lubegard additive contains absolutely no zinc.
It seems to make the shifting better. It did not feel like it was slipping. The Lubegard additive is currently required
for many new transmissions in some Fords, Lincolns, Mazdas, Mercurys and other makes.
It also seems like it would flow better in low temperatures.
  But as a note, it is not recommended to put any additive or full synthetic oil in a in a Subaru transmission it can
give you gear clash bad.

 Think of good oil as the oil with an additive already in it from the people who made the oil.
The oil today in some cases do not need an additive in it. It already has it in there.
 I would not put any additive in a good synthetic oil.

 If you do not want to put in a additive in your good synthetic oil but want it to be better.
what you could do would be to mix the oil with a higher viscosity of the same brand,
like 2qts of 10w 30 and 2 qt of 10w 40 to take the shock of fast driving
This makes a 10w 35 oil a bit higher than a 30 & not up to a 40 for a bit better MPG.

 Out of all the additives I have used for oil I really only trust Hyperlube additive, but only in a good mineral oil
or cheap Synthetic oil, like in a 10w 30 oil. The additives help to coat the metal parts like the mineral oil already does.
 An slick additive in your mineral oil will bring up your MPG.

ENGINE OIL:***What kind of oil should you use Synthetic or mineral?
It can be a tossup. Synthetic oil flows better in really cold temps.
A good mineral oil will stick to the metal better & be slicker depending with oil & additive you put in.
 I would use an oil that will not sludge or foam much in that case a good synthetic oil or good mineral type with additive.

 Not all Synthetic oil are from the same class.
There are different classes of synthetics class 3 is not a class 5, & class 3 is not pure synthetic.
Some synthetics are not 100%.
 Cheap oil is like no oil in your car as it is. But you get what you put in it.
I would use a good brand it is your car. You want the slickest oil you can get in the car.
 Or use an additive to help the oil.

 But some oils work good at first then over time the oxidation, carbon all the chemical reactions start.
All of this changes the oil, some oils will lose their super abilities kryptonite for oil!
There are test on oil, but you notice it is on new unused oil. As far as I know Red-line oil has tested
their oil & others when it was dirty & it held up better than a lot of them.

 There are some cars that can not use synthetic oil That would be the Mazda Rx cars. Oil is injected into the
engine's combustion chamber for lubrication. Synthetic oil will not burn right, so the unburned oil will slip
out of the exhaust port and end up gumming up the catalysts making a lot of pressure
in the engine only to end up blowing seal in the engine.
 Also my 1990 Nissan 240sx ran a lot better with out synthetic it had more low, mid range
power with the mineral type oil. I am not sure why but it did.

 In my Mazda I ran Castrol GTX start up oil, it is a mostly a mineral type oil with some
Synthetic additives put in it. It does start good, but the engine just kind of felt hot & I noticed my
MPG seemed a bit low. In a old modified car you need synthetic oil that is like a 10w 40 or mineral oil with additive.
 I used Royal Purple oil in my Mazda because it is said to stick to metal & is synthetic.
The oil stayed clean good & started good also, but at high RPM if felt like it was not doing good.
So I put Castrol Syntec oil back in it. On the highway the car felt like it ran better,
back like I remember it.

 At the time I went back to Royal Purple oil but I mixed the oil instead of 10w 30 I mixed the oil
2qt's of 10w 40 & 2qt's of 10w 30 this made a 10w 35 a good mix for cold weather & high heat.
Everything ran better with the oil, I did feel the difference in how the car runs with it.
 As your car gets older you will find you need to get a 40 oil with all your mods so the oil will hold up.

 Being that the Royal Purple oil, Red-line oil & oils like it are strong & with them saying the oil change
can be extended up to 12,000 + - miles or less & the cost of $8 to $9 an qt, all I really do now in my
Mazda is change the oil filter every 3000 + miles or more often if dirty.
So far everything is going well & I am saving money over the standard synthetic oil.
 With 4 oil changes at a $4 + an qt oil X 4 qts & the $3 + an filter gives you a total cost of $76 + for the oil changes.
Then with the long life oil the cost is just the oil $8 t0 $9 + X 4 & the $3 + an oil filter gives you a total cost of $44 +
 That is $76 in oil over the $44 + spent with better oil.

 There are a few long life oils out there. I have used Royal Purple oil because it sticks to the metal from what they say
& out of all the oil I have used it does work. There are test that show with it has minimum engine wear, but the test was on
fresh oil. Red-line oil has been tested dirty & does better than many of them. I have used Red-line oil in my car.
I would say just go with oil that has been tested dirty & still holds up good. Because that oil will be in your car for
something like 12,000 miles. It needs to last.
 But you need to know that Red-line oil over a 10w 30 does not like the cold,
so you might have to change oil with the weather.
 Also Red-line oil will drain to the bottom of the oil pan in time. It does not stick to the metal.
So really for me I would use an good synthetic oil that sticks to the metal, or use a cheap synthetic with an
Hyperlube additive, that will stick to the metal & not foam as much. That is what I stay at.

 Note if you are going to use a long life oil use a paper air filter.
Or if you use the K&N types you should use one of the filter wraps out there.
 Also a 99% filtering oil filter helps & you will need to change it more often to get the dirt out.
You should use a oil filter that filters good with long life oil anyway. It will get the nastys out better.

Like my spark plugs I have used, I also went through a lot of oil in my car & now I know.

*Never mix different brands of oil like Castrol Syntec and Mobil-1 etc.
You will never know what that might do in there. Each oil works in it's own way it is best not to mix them,
it could do a lot of harm.

ROTARY ENGINE OIL:***For a rotary Rx- 7 - 8 engine, I would not put in any additive, not any
Synthetic oil! Rotary engines do burn some oil & also the oil needs to be light, because of the spinning rotary.
It is best to go with the oil the car was deigned to run with the Mazda world standard rotary oil 5w 30.
Maybe 10w 40 in really hot weather. Dexelia oil is what Mazda says will not void the warranty.
Note there is no 5w 20 viscosity for the Mazda in the UK onward. That oil is too light for an rotary,
you need to look at the MSDS of the type of oil you want & know that an rotary engine runs really hot.
 The viscosity index of 5w 20 oil is not enough for that type of engine! When you get your oil changed,
I would make sure they use at least the 5w 30 oil or higher in the summer times.

 Oil is injected into the engine's combustion chamber for lubrication from the cars oil supply, so synthetic oil
or oil with an additive will not burn right, so the unburned oil mix will slip out of the
exhaust port and gum up the catalysts. Then the next thing to happen will be the apex seals to blow.

 You need to reduce friction at all cost in a rotary engine, but it would be best not to use synthetic oil, so
being so light of a oil I would use an additive to lubricate in the gas. An fuel additive also
helps to keep things clean when used in the right amount.
 Also you do not want to use ethanol gas because the oil is injected
into the engine for lubrication & ethanol is a alcohol a degreaser.
Also to the point do not use any additive that has alcohol.

 If you are going to change anything on the car like a intake or muffler you need to get the computer reprogramed.
Other than that, keep the engine about the same. It's all about the oil in the engine & how the engine runs.

OIL FILTERS:***There are many types of oil filters out there, many are made by the same people under different names.
 The oil filers job is to get most of the contaminants out of the oil, like dirt, metal, or anything bad, to keep the oils ability
to lube the engine. The oil filter I use for my Mazda is the PureONE filter. As I seen info about oil filters it points
me to say that these are best you can get by test. I always had good luck with them. I had a few Fram filters pop a leak a few times on me, that was a long time ago.

 In my Mazda the PureONE filter part # is PL14612. But there are some people that used an filter for the
1997 Mazda MX-6 V6 2.5 L engine. This is part # PL14610. It is a bit longer, and it does filter better.
 This is what I use in my car & everything seems to work well. I was worried that it would not do very well with a dry start,
with most of the oil in the oil pan, but everything works well with it. This has extend my oil changes a bit because of more filter space to clean the oil.

 You could look for a bigger oil filter that would safely fit on your car, this is something that might take a lot of research,
but it is worth doing. To help just look at the other filters part number that is next door to your filter.
My Mazda stock part # was PL14612 & the mod filter # is PL14610, only 2 off.
 You just need to look at the next part # & see how it looks & get the info on it, to see about the thread size is right.
But be aware it is a risk, you never know what will happen. If you have a warranty still on your car it would be best to
leave it alone, to not void it.

 If you use long life oil & plan to leave in the oil for 12,000 miles you should use the 99% filtering oil filters.
Mostly if you use long life oil & use a performance air filter you will need a better filtering oil filter this will get
the dirt out of the oil better.

MANUAL TRANSMISSION OIL:***In a Subaru transmission, it is best to not use a Synthetic oil or
Synthetic Blends, or additives due to the Synchronizers in the transmission. The synchronizers
are used to bring the gear you're shift to up to speed so that the gears match up without any grinding.
If the oil is too slick they may not mach up, giving you a clash.

 I have used a full Synthetic oil that cost $8.00 a qt, in my
Subaru only to have to take it out because of a bad gear clash in 1st to 2th & 4th to 5th gears.
It was too slick. So far the best stuff for a touchy Subaru is Exxon Superflow oil 80w 90
due to the copper protection it gives. If the copper spacers in a Subaru gets worn
you will get a off-set transmission, giving you bad clashes in 1st, to 2th gears & 4th to 5th.

 If you need more cushion in the oil just mix 80w 90 with one qt of 85w 140,
in a clean dry container. (*Mix well.) This will give you something like a
81w 100 from 4qts of 80w 90 & 1 qt of 85w 140.

 I used Synthetic oil in my Nissan 240sx with no bad behavior. You will just have to try it.
I would use an synthetic oil if your car can use it.

AUTO TRANSMISSION OIL:***If you use synthetic ATF you might get slippage in a older auto transmission.
I put synthetic in my 1986 Nissan 200sx, only to find that it would slip out of gear on the highway.
 It would be best to go with what is recommended for the car. If it takes Mercon V you could use a
full synthetic depending on the type. I use a synthetic ATF in my Mazda & I do not have any slipping.
 Other than that I would use what is recommended if things do not run right.

You can add additives like Lubegard or Lucas Transmission fix this will help a slipping transmission.
It works good in a 1996 ford ranger 2.3L truck & other cars I had.
 There are some places that will flush out the transmission,
this is something that needs to be done to keep everything shifting good.
Sludge can plug up the hydrologic pathways that change the gears making things go slowly & ruff.

REAR DIFFERENTIAL OIL:***Depending on what kind of rear axle you have, it would be best to use a
synthetic oil 75w 90, this will reduce friction & help you get better MPG. If you have a limited slip,
rear axle you should use the type of oil that is recommended for that. Sometimes it is ok to use a synthetic oil,
you will have to call the dealership to find out.
 In my Subaru I could not use synthetic oil in my transmission & the car being full time all wheel drive,
it was best to keep the oil the same. I did not want the back to be more slick than the front.
 I had used synthetic oil in my Nissans & found they do work better, things were smooth running.

 If you have not changed the oil in a while I would drain it for a long time, then spray some
cab spray in there to clean it out, then let it dry.

POWER STEERING FLUID:***If you have not changed your steering fluid in a long time you should.
From the steering rack loosen the center pressure pipe & let drain. Then when you put it back in place, refill
the fluid with Lubegard Power Steering additive or
Lucas Power Steering additive & a synthetic ATF. It will depend on your car on what kind
of oil it uses. It will say on the top of the steering fluid fill cap. I would still use an additive, but fill with the oil they
recommend. With my Subaru & Nissans, the oil helps lube the front drive shaft, that is why I wanted it slick in there,
to help reduce the ware.
 After you refilled start the car & turn the wheel back & forth then fill again, this will get the air out of the system.

COOLING SYSTEM:***If you have not flushed out your cooling system you need to.
If things look rusty or gummy in there you should clean it out. A aluminum engine has a very high
corrosion potential, you need to give it a good cleaning, a good flush.
 I use Red-Line Water additive in my Subaru & in my Mazda. It has corrosion inhibitors &
helps to pull the heat out more. An hotter running engine can give a chance of thermal fatigue of the pistons etc.
The more heat the more octane you need in the gas to keep the pinging away. So with everything it is best to cool
things down. You need something to ease the surface tension. The boiling at the hot spots impede
the heat getting out through to the the antifreeze, for heat transfer. It is a bad thing to get a aluminum engine hot!
 Some of the additives can ware out & could do damage, so this is why
I would not leave the additives in for a long time. It is best to not to anyway.

 The thermostat's job is to limit the water / antifreeze that goes to the radiator to be cooled. It keeps the engine at
an hot workable temp.
 Running your car with no thermostat, will send all the water to the radiator to be cooled. Your temp gauge will
move slower, because of the better cooling. This will mess with your cars sensors a bit because of cooler water / antifreeze.
Your idle will be higher longer untill the engine warms up. Also your heater will not work good in cold weather
with no thermostat. There also is a possibility that your water pump will need the blockage of an thermostat to work right.
This seems less likely, but you never know.
 Having no thermostat would be good in an hot running engine, like an old RX-7 running in the desert or other cases.
Race car drivers sometimes will take them out to cool the engine all they can.
 But all in all it would be better if you just change your thermostat with the weather.
I use an 170 deg, in the cold times then I use a 160 deg, in the summer.

AIR FLOW METER:***Sometimes your air flow meter can get dirty, with dust & oil residue from oil type filters.
After I cleaned mine out in my past cars I noticed the cars would run a lot better.
It made the reading how much air is getting in there easier. It made for a better running engine.
 The hard part was cleaning it. This is something that you did not want to damage.
Best of the bunch to use now is Mass Air Flow Sensor Cleaner from CRC additive, for long term use.

INTAKE MANIFOLD:***Honing your intake manifold will help the car to get more MPG & power.
You can get 10 more HP by honing. Helping the car to breath at it's full potential will help you get more MPG,
& more low & mid high range power. The car will feel all around better.
 You will notice a better sound coming out of the car. And if you have a electric supercharger
on the car it will work a lot better. It's all good! You could also paint the out side of the manifold with
ceramic paint, it helps to dissipate heat, cooling the incoming air.
I use the 500 degree clear coat ceramic paint on my car. You want to be sure you don't over paint.

BUTTERFLY VALVE / SENSORS:***You can get some good air flow by making sure the
butterfly valve is clean. Use some carb spray & wipe it totally clean.
 I wiped on some Rain-X for windows on it once this is something. I did this without reading the label.
I did notice a little change. I am not sure what what that stuff would do to the engine so that is why
I did not put it in the intake manifold.
 Always go by the label, & Be of sound mind. I am sure it would do something bad, because that stuff won't
last for ever. I was worried it would come off & be like sand paper.
You could spray on some Sea Foam deepcreep oil or something like it.
Just make sure it can handle the high heat.

 Check your butterfly valve. Take off the air pipe & have some one sit in the car with the gas to the floor while you
look at the valve to see if it is fully open. It is best not to adjust the butterfly valve your self, because it is a
hard thing to get right. When I looked at my Subaru & Mazda everything was where is needed to be.
 If it is off I would take take it to the dealer to have it worked on. This is really tricky stuff here,
once it is messed up it is done for life with a Subaru. You would have to get a new throttle body, to fix it.

 On the other hand my other cars were off & I had adjusted them & things were fine.
 My 1990 Nissan 240sx, & 200sx were off. I had to grind a stop tab on the throttle body to get things right.
 With the 1996 Ford ranger, I had to pull out the gas pedal & hit it with a hammer to bend it so it would
pull more on the cord that pulls the butterfly valve, so it was full open.
 In truth it would be best to take the car in & have a technician adjust it. On some cars it will offset some
settings, making the car run lean. If you do not totally know the car do not do it your self!

 You also need to adjust the throttle position sensor. For this I would take it in to have it done.
This is just one of those many things that are high tech! It needs to be done right.

AIR FILTERS***In a air filter you need one that filters good or change where
the air comes from, so the air is pulled in from shorter distance & a cleaner place.

 If you find dirt in the clean side of the air box the filter is not doing a good job.
Dirt is bad, in a aluminum engine! It is not worth damaging your engine to get better low speed air flow for
more torque for more MPG.
 I also noticed that my Mazda Protege's oil really looked bad when I changed it after running a
flat K&N type filter for a long time.

 Also sometimes the car will run better with a regular paper air filter, like my Mazda did.
It might be that some of the air sensors have a hard time reading the air at low rpms, or the sensors might rely
on the vacuum pressure to run right. So if you put in a better flowing filter the lower vacuum pressure could mess
with a lot of things. But it is up to your car.

 Other than the sensors having the hard time reading things, is the effect of the intake vacuum with the fuel injectors.
It is kind of a vacuum dispenser effect. When the fuel injectors spray in a high vacuum it tends to mix with the air better,
 Less of an vacuum might lessen the effect of that. There is an vacuum fuel conversion device that has the same principle
of the effect. So you see sometimes a better flowing filter might not make more power or MPH it depends on your car.

 With my Subaru it was best to go with the stock air filter! With a flat K&N type filter I found dirt in the clean side
of the air box. I put in a K&N cone filter kit on my Subaru 1.8L & found it made the car run too lean.
 The sound is also so loud that at high rpm the sound waves pushed the air out from the engine,
as the engine was pulling in the air at the same time the sound is pushing it out. It also messes with the air flow meter.
 The sound is cool with the cone filter, but it is killing your engine, that's why they do not have one for the car.
You don't need the grim reaper belching out of the Subaru intake.
 Also in my 86 Nissan 200sx I used a flat K&N type filter & I had found dirt in there, so I went with a stock paper filter
& opened the inlet to get more air in there, that worked fine!

 With my Mazda Protege I used the flat K&N type filter also, but when I took off the air boot
with my other mods, I noticed the dirt was in there but not as much. Any dirt is bad for an engine.
 I used a regular Purolator type filter, because of the fact the car runs better with a regular paper air filter
in a air box. I also have the air boot removed to make use of my new mods at the time.

 You can get more power with different types of stock air filters than some other ones.
It's all the in the design, there are some filters that flow good. You do want to see that the car can get all the air it can get.
If you see over glue around the edge of the filter part don't get it, keep looking.
 In my Subaru I used a stock Subaru filter part # 16456AA020 or Nissan filter part # 16546-0Z000 or
Purolator type part # A24278.
 Basically the Subaru filter that fits must be: Length: 281mm, Width: 168mm, Height: 33.5mm to fit the air box.
The Subaru air filter is the same as the Nissans.

With my Nissan 240sx, I had a K&N cone filter kit, it worked good. The sound was not that bad in the car & there was not
much dirt in the air pipe. I also used a filter wrap with the filter to help keep things clean.
 My Mazda Protege, I took the old K&N cone filter kit I had from from my Subaru 1.8L & put it on my Mazda.
I had to fix it up so it would work. So far it works good with the filter wrap, all is clean.

 So all in all I do not have luck with flat K&N type filter. I always find dirt in the clean part of the air box & that is bad.
I would use K&N cone filter kit with a filter wrap to make sure things are clean. I had luck with that.
 It is just that most of my cars I found dirt in the intake, without the filter wraps.

AIR BOX MODIFICATIONS:***Keep in mind more air = more fuel used, to make the engine work
right at high rpms, but more air helps when you need more low speed air flow.
This will help you to get more torque which will give you more MPG. It is only if you drive fast does the
need for more fuel overwhelms & everything get's turned up.

 The way to get more torque out of your car would be to gut the air box to get more air in there for more torque.
This in fact shortens the length of the air flow to the engine, makes it a short ram type.
This will help to be less restricting than the stock setup & adding more access to air, the engine will
have to work less to pull the air in, you will notice this at low RPM's

 There are chamber design air intakes that hold more air. This will bring up your low & mid power mostly.
It helps by holding more air that would normally be pulled through the air pipe. So at low RPM's it is ready to
go to the engine. These work really good, but the down side is the cost & the fact there is no real good way to
make something like that your self.

 There are dual chamber intakes like that that work good & will not cost as much as a chamber,
but they all may not be made or your car. So the other thing you can do is to get a air intake but seeing
if you can have a bigger air pipe to hold more air.
Or you could just use an short ram intake to help at low RPM's the same way.

VELOCITY STACKS:***It is worth it to put on a velocity stack on your car if you can.
You need to set the length right, a long velocity stack will make more torque & a short one will make
more horsepower. It will make the sound coming from the engine sound a lot better.
Personally I would use a set up for more torque. Being long it will end up sounding like a trumpet, that would be good.

 For a velocity stack to work good you need smooth air flow going into the engine, with the engines today that is hard.
It will speed up the air flow but really not that much vs the cost & labor of getting one.
That is why I used a cheaper way to get one on my Mazda.
It does work & sounds better with it on my car than with out it, with the air going right into the air box.
 You need to keep in mind that the gain is not that much other than being kind of like a short ram intake
in my Mazda & the sound change sounds good. If you want more you need to do more.

VORTEX GENERATORS:***A vortex generator can work if the car is set up right.
To work the best you might have to make small changes to the intake of car or have them on top of your car
but they can work, Just do not expect a lot from them. They are not the cure all!

~Engine Vortex A vortex generator does work with some cars but not as you think in some cases.
For mileage it can work, it depends on what your cars ECU will do.
 In some cases it will block the intake a bit & give the car less air so the car sees there is a lot
of gas that did not get burned to it will turn down the fuel to keep from being too rich.
 It can also increase the vacuum in the intake making a vacuum dispenser effect to the air & fuel.
All of this will give you MPG but is also bad in a way. If you get the car too lean the engine will get hotter.
Heat is really bad for an engine it can give you piston fatigue.

 The spinning air can get through the throttle body & intake manifold better.
This will help in getting the air into the engine & will give you the driving faster with less on the throttle effect.
 The electricsupercharger I had on my Subaru was a good vortex generator it worked & I noticed it worked.
While on the other hand the other vortex generators did not work with the car, so it is best to say some
vortex generators work & some do not. It is up to your car & how you have it set up.
 If you have a Natural gas Vehicle a vortex generator might help in getting more mph out of it.

 The best test to see if a vortex works the way you want it too is to take the vortex OUT of the car
& go 5000 rpm or so in 1st gear then do not give the car any gas & let it coast in gear & notice the time it took to slow down.
 Then put IN the vortex and go to 5000 rpm & cut the gas again. If your car slowed down faster with the vortex than
it did with out it, the vortex is too much of an blockage.
 If the vortex generator does not work in your car, you could change your air pipe size.
There are some after market air intakes that are bigger than stock. This will solve the blockage,
problem & would make the vortex generator work even better!
 A lot of the Vortex makers have a 30 day free trial, if it will not work then send it back.
Plan ahead get a bigger after market air pipe & a vortex generator to fit it. It is worth it!

 In my small Subaru engine, it seemed to work. I squeezed my tornadoair vortex generator I had from my
old Nissan 240SX in my Subaru it was a bit bigger that the one that is for the Subaru it but it fit.
 I found it made a lot of power low to mid, but the top end was
about the same. The top end was the same with or without the vortex generator.
 So that told me that it had to do with the Subaru's intake manifold & engine. The air coming in at the
intake manifold at high RPM peaked & the way the car breaths put a limit on the vortex generator behavior
 The bore is bigger than the stroke & the Subaru engine is only a 1.8L, so the car breaths in short fast strokes.
This gave it a limit on the vortex generator at high RPM. The low & mid range of the car was massive,
but top end was the same as it was with or with out it in the intake.

 I put in a tornadoair vortex generator in my Mazda & found it works the best with more air & more spark.
So I had changed my air box to get more air in & with modified NGK spark plugs & I have noticed more
MPG & more low mid power.
 But the top end dropped & when I did the test in the car at about 5000 rpm in 1st gear it did slow down faster
than with out the vortex generator, so it was blocking a bit. It will work better with a bigger air pipe,
or an K&N cone filter kit to get more air in easier. That is what I am using now in my Mazda & all works good!

 All vortex generators are not alike, you want one that looks like it will flow air the best. It also depends on the car
I used the tornadofuelsaver vortex in my Nissan 240sx I noticed it worked a small bit in the but the top end
did not do anything. It seemed flat. That was with a stock setup. It was blocking the air a little.

 Be aware that any vortex generator could slip down in the air pipe, or could slip sideways blocking the air
flow, in which the cylinder pulling in the air will get the air by sucking in a gasket, and if you place it to close to the
PCV valve it might block the PCV valve, which it would get air by sucking in a gasket some where in the engine,
which also will be bad, so this is why you need to run the vortex generator for a
time then take out the air pipe & look at it. If it looks stable leave it there.

~Car body Vortex A vortex generator on top of your car might help to lower the drag of the car, giving you more MPG.
It should work mostly on the highway or on trucks. That is why car makers design cars to have less drag.
 This is something that I would put on my car just on the fact that it does work & might make the car look better.
On the highway I can see it giving you more MPG, so for that it is worth doing to your car any bit helps.
The cost of these things range from $20+ to $100+ but still $20+ is worth it for me!

SPARK PLUGS / WIRES:***I have tried many kind of spark plugs in my Mazda & other cars
& even my lawn mower. The cheapest way to get an more efficient spark plug is to modify the spark plug.
This is not good for the life of the plug. Doing that will cut your life of the spark plug in about half & you
might have the spark hit the piston. With that & some other spark plugs you might need an higher octane gas
to keep the bad away. But you will get better combustion leading to better MPG.
If you modify the plug you will need to make sure all is running good.

 It is always good to take out your spark plugs to read how they are doing. And to look at the piston.
You also need to get the right heat range, to hot a plug will make the engine ping.
 If your car is not acting right with the spark plugs you have in it, you need to go with the
plugs that were designed for the car. The car was designed for that kind of spark plug for a reason.
When you start to push the ability you will either make it work or get bad pre ignition, melting etc
 In the same hand they were intended to work best in the car to get the most power with out the bad,
& to have a long life.

 Be sure to index your spark plugs if you can so the open gap is facing the toward the intake valve, not the exhaust,
for better combustion, this works best on a Subaru flat engine. It is hard to index plugs if you can't get it
right on facing the intake valve , get it close as you can, but just make sure it's not facing toward the
exhaust side. Try putting each plug in each cylinder if you get a match leave it in for now &
then move on to the next plug. Mix & mach the best you can. If you have a few plugs that are way
off the mark, get some more plugs & try them.
 If you use iridium or small wire types & you get a ping with the indexed spark plug I would pull
them out. The small electrodes could be too hot & being open to
the intake valve it could giving you some pre ignition.

 With a fine wire spark plug it tends to quench less, but all the power is not getting out.
That is why a power line is not a small wire. You need to think of the flow of electricity like water piping.
The smaller the water spicket the less that will come out, but comes out with force to a point.
 Like an fire fighter putting out an fire with an small water spicket.
You will need a water spicket big & wide to put out the fire.

 Less voltage is needed to make a spark with the wire electrodes so the spark voltage will be small also
but concentrated in a small area.
 If you have a big electrode the power kind of spreads out to a point, also there will be more volume
with more power getting out. There are some multispark spark plugs that show that effect.
 A spark will travel on the edge of the electrode. So the smaller it is, the less is needed to spark.
Because it acts like one small edge, but with that you will lose the volume of spark.
 The small electrode has less space to spark per cylinder volume than the big electrode does.
A bigger electrode fills the cylinder better & this makes the fire spread better.
The combustion cycle happens very fast there is not much time to get the fire going.

When I used a fine wire spark plug in my Mazda I noticed the car just did not run kind of right,
the car had a ping & the power was down in it with the plugs.
I also noticed in my Ford Ranger it made the car ping & act funny.
 The small electrode was hot enough to set off the fuel causing a ping.
When I changed plugs I noticed no pinging. It might of been fixed by indexing the plugs so the
fine wire electrode would not be open to the intake valve, but you can not hide a ping by
turing a spark plug around!

 Spark plug resistance is also a factor. You need to check the resistance of the spark plugs.
It should be around 6 Ohms or less. Some are just too high.

 At the time on my Subaru, I used Denso. It made good top end power , but it felt the same as the
V-power plugs in the Subaru engine. Denso Iridium type plugs, cost around $12.99, & the V-power plugs
are at $1.90 + a plug. The Iridium will last longer, but it does not have the mid range power like the V-power plugs

 More spark in a spark plug could be bad. More access with the spark could burn your piston & valves.
This is something you need to look at with some plugs. Pull out the spark plugs & look at them from time to time.
 Make sure it looks good. I would also look through the spark plug hole with a bright light
to see how the piston is looking. If things look bad as in black with carbon more than it should
or looking burnt then go back to a spark plug that was made for the car.
 Also when you change from a REG type spark plug to an open type you need to reset your cars ECU,
so it can learn the new better burning of the fuel.

 The height of the spark plug also is something you need to know when you go looking for a spark plug for your car.
The height of the spark plug from the seat to the top of the terminal nut.

 Most spark plugs are set to the ISO "International Standards Organization" type.
& that would be 50.5mm (1.98").
Then you have the JIS "Japanese Industrial Standard" it's height is set at 53mm (2.086").
If you use the JIS type plug you might need to adjust for it by putting washers under the coil pack if
you have the type of coil that is setting on the spark plug. Other than that you would just have to plug
the spark plug wire back on.

Advancing the timing with spark plugs?! The "NGK ZFR" plugs are a bit longer than the stock "NGK BKR" Plugs.
This makes the combustion happen sooner. But note that with the "BKR" types with 87 octane is enough, any higher
does not effect enough for the cost of it.. You need a higher octane to make any advancing type plugs work,
mainly because you do not want pre ignition.
 Non resistor spark plugs advance the spark a lot because of no resistors. If you use them
you will need to make sure they don't stick out like the "ZFR" type plugs. That would be pushing it too much!
You will get pinging with them that way.

 If you have an engine with no catalytic converter you know it will be reading too much fuel going out of the tail pipe.
So it will be running lean. In that case I would run 91+ octane & use an stock but cooler type plug.
You do not want to advance the timing in anyway, or modify the spark plug, or use a surface gap type plug at all.
The combustion is too sensitive to change anything because of no converters.

 If you had the same spark plug wires for 5+ years, you need to test them or change them.
Over time they can crack causing the spark to arc, short, misfire. When you go to get new
spark plug wires bring a little volt meter to check the resistance, you want the lowest.
 This helps, the engine to run better, helps your MPG.

~NGK V-power plugs  They are the best for my Subaru & they are also the original equipment for the
Subaru. I used  Denso Iridium type plugs & it seemed to make good top end power , but it felt the same as the
V-power plugs in the Subaru engine.

 In the Mazda Protege car manual it says you can use BKR5E-11 or BKR6E-11 plugs.
With NGK's plugs the bigger the number the colder the plug it is.
 On the NGK's plugs web site it said once to use the part number ZFR6F-11 for the V-power plugs.
I used them in my Mazda, with a small mod to them. & that worked very good.
 But you need to note that the ZFR6F-11 plugs stick out further this puts the spark deeper in the cylinder.
This advances the timing a bit & there is a small risk of the spark hitting the piston if you mod them.
 The spark will hit the ground because it is closer than the piston is, but you never know.

 My Mazda had the PO300 code pop up only at long high speeds. I thought it was a bad EGR valve.
But it turned out to be the main bearing was bad in it. That is what gave me the code, lucky I had a warranty.
 At the time I thought it was from a too hot spark plug. So I pulled out the BKR5E-11 plugs I had in there & put in
BKR6E plugs. I didn't find the plugs with the "-11" at the end. But I found out the "-11" is the set gap of the plug.
 I found some BKR6E plugs & set the gap my self & I found the car ran better for a time.
But the light came back on.

 Mazda calls for the laser platinum NGK PFR5G-11 or PFR6G-11 as original equipment in the DX.
But for me I did not want the fine wire electrodes, so I used a better plug.
 I also use an cooler NGK plug because of my engine mods.

 NGK V-power plugs are kind of regular plugs they need to be changes at 30,000 miles,
but they seem to work the best. Out of all the plugs I tested they win in my mazda.
 You can mod the NGK spark plugs. All you have to do is file back the ground until it is 50%
or more of the ground. I would say it will bring down the life span of the plug to about 15000 miles,
but power & MPG will go up but you will need a higher octane 89 to 91.

 The NGK BKR6EK plugs do not work very good. I had a missfire with them all the time.
The low end power was down. They just did not perform as good as ZFR6F-11 with mod.
 Not even close!

~E3 Spark plugs  These plugs are kind of good. But in my Mazda they worked not so good at the time.
I thought I had the wrong heat range in the car, but it was a bad engine.
 I looked at the plugs & found the ground on it was melting. It was getting too hot in there from the
engine not running right & the high speed highway driving I did.
 It might of been because the spark plug wires too. I changed the spark plug wires,
& put the plugs back in & things where better.

 They are a good design no small wire the electrode fills up the combustion chamber this is good.
But as you also look at them they do have a lot of metal to the parts of the plug, this can be quenching the fire.
You can see there is a lot of fire with the spark plugs by looking at them after they been in there a while.
The Halo spark plugs said not to run the car at high speeds for a long time, it could melt the ground with their plugs.
 You can see this as true with E3 plugs due to the fact there is no warranty for industrial or race cars types.
You also compare race plugs to E3 plugs & you will see that there is not a lot of metal to the race plugs to soak up the heat.

 Another bad part is the cost of the plugs. For my Mazda I spent $12 on
four new NGK plugs then did the modification to them & they ran better than the E3 plugs or any plugs yet!
 The E3 plugs have a longer life but the power is better with the NGK plugs in my Mazda.
The E3 plugs can be too close to the piston for the spark to do any good. It could be doing anything in there.
 That is why you need to run them for a week then pull them out & see if things are melting.
If the E3 plugs look like there melting this is not good. What is it doing to the valves & piston?!
Also you need to make sure your car is running right before you put in the plugs!

~Bosch Super / Platinum +2 & +4  The Platinum spark plugs never worked good in any of my cars.
I noticed they did not burn the air / fuel good at all, my tail pipe always looked very black &
the plugs looked black also. I even put them in my lawn mower & the power went down.

 It is the fact of the plugs being a surface gap type, with a small electrode.
The voltage coming out of it is small, and when you add high compression in high RPM's
that could be a bad thing.
 I also know over time that small electrode will recede down into the insulator tip,
making the small spark harder to get out.

 All in all I really would not use the Bosch Platinum because of the small tip & the people having a hard time
with them, look it up on line people have a lot to say about these.

 The Bosch Super plugs are another story, they do work good the electrode is bigger, but it is still a standard type plug.
You can do the mod to them cut the ground back so the electrode is open more.

~Denso Iridium plugs  spark plugs felt good in my Subaru they have a U-groove ground electrode & a
small Iridium tip that stays clean longer, but has less voltage getting out.
 To me it is too small for my car! It is also the fact of the price. You are paying a lot for something that feels
the same as a $2 V-Power plug. In a Subaru, the iridium will last longer.
The only thing that will go first might be the ground.
 I don't really trust them for my Mazda, the heat range are all the same for the cars, even the MazdaSpeed.
The heat range is like the V-Power plugs, the bigger the number the colder the plug.
They also do not have a listing for a DX model. I am sure the MazdaSpeed would run a colder plug than the others.

~Splitfire plugs  I had used these plugs in my Toyota corolla & Nissan 240sx & did not feel much power for some
reason they were not made of the the best conducting material! V-Power were at about 3 to 6 Ohms or less on the meter,
while Splitfire plugs was about 12 to 14!
I did not like that! I felt like that took away from the spark of the car, they look like they would work
but they end up not working for my car. Splitfire plugs are now regular plugs.

~Other Plugs There are other plugs like Champion, ACDelco plugs,  & others are good for regular cars, but
I would not put them in a foreign car unless you modify the plugs.
 Life is short get the best out of a car!

 **Capacitor ignition  It's the capacitors stored spark being discharged at once that helps.
The old DirectHits ignition did work for a time in my Subaru. It gave the car a lot of low & mid range power.
 After a time I noticed a ping in the car with them in there. I went up to 89-93 octane & the ping went
away for a while. I found out it could of been that there is more volume with them in there,
they extend the size of the spark plugs so they hold more heat & make the spark plugs job of
dissipating the heat hard to do for the small engine.
 So the plugs run hotter to the point it causes a ping in the engine when the temp is hot.
 A colder plug might of helped & also it could of been just a cracked plug from the heat,
it is unknown was making the ping. I would do what I could, to fix the plugs pinging. So if you did all you
could do & the engine still pings take them out!
 It's not the old DirectHits ignition that are bad it's the way the Subaru 1.8L engine is, the bore is
bigger than the stroke, so there is more heat up there for the spark plugs to get out. It might be
fixed with a colder plug.
 I would use them! I wish they were around when I had my Nissan 240sx!
I wanted them in my Mazda but it is not made to take them.
DirectHits ignition is now called Pulstar spark plugs.

 With my Mazda what I found for it is Nology's HotWires ignition. But for me I just don't want them in there.
Because I like my setup in my Mazda. To put them in my car I would have to move the things around to re-wire
everything to get the wires on the car.
 Pulstar spark plug types are not a good value. I am sure they run good but the ceramic insulator is too thin!
I can just look at them & see the danger in them. It is the fact of the engine getting hot, then the cool down,
over & over like the extreme winter temp, then going to hot / cold etc. All I see is cracks parts breaking.
To me I will not spend $$ an plug for that.

 **Non resistor spark plugs Non resistors can be good to use but if you get a ping at high rpm's that can
damage your engine. The ping can be from the lack of internal resistors to slow the electrical current
causing the spark to go out faster than it should. Or the RFI could be messing with a sensor that is reading
the engine, giving a false reading, it is worth finding out.
 For the most part the danger is the spark is going too soon. In the old days you would just tard your timing
back a bit to make it work, but with cars now you can not. Of course you will need an higher octane
because it advances the timing.

 Because of the better burning of the fuel, there will be more spark coming out & with that you can set
the gap wider to something like 0.050-0.060 inches, I set the gap to 0.050 with the mod to them this made
all the difference in my Mazda. But also I noticed that things did not feel right. The combustion might be hitting the piston.

  If you get some kind of error code on the dash I would try & set the gap of the spark plug to the stock setting
& put in some higher octane gas if you get a warning about pinging.
 Sometimes it will take time for the cars ECU to learn what is going on. Some ECU's do not learn like
my Mazda did. I could not make the Non resistors work.

 You might have to find the sensor that is close to the spark plug causing the trouble & shield it with
aluminum foil or something like it. If you still get an engine code or if the car acts strange over time
the plugs do not work, take them out.

 For lawn mowers I always use non resistors they work the best, but for cars not so good sometimes.
It depends on the car & how it will react.

If you do not know what to do? The best thing to do is search, ask & learn!

EXHAUST PERFORMANCE:***Putting a performance kind of muffler on a any car does help the engine
to be efficient. It also lets the heat out of the engine & it makes power. Just know how to balance the
flow capacity & the velocity of the exhaust. The exhaust gasses will travel faster through a regular size pipe than the
same volume of gas passing through a big pipe.

 A too wide exhaust will cause a slow flow with no back pressure, that will lower your low & mid range power
but increase your top end. In life you will spend more time in your low to mid range with less time in the top end.
 While a balanced system will give you the low & mid range power & still give you good top end depending how
you have things set up.
 All in all the way to go is to have the fastest velocity achieved with the least restriction possible, keeping your
back pressure to keep a balance in your exhaust system to have better low, mid to high power in the ranges.

 Back pressure is needed to help pull out the exhaust of the other cylinders. The exhaust pulse of cylinder 1
pulls on the other cylinders which helps pull out the nasty's of the next cylinder that is exhausting out.
 The faster the exhaust flows the better it works doing that.

 Also the back pressure is needed to keep the valves shut. Put funnel on a water hose then turn on
the water full blast then put a small ball up in there. The ball will stick even upside down.
This is the effect of back pressure on a valve.

 With some cars a straight through muffler or a loud one, can mess with the car.
Like putting the K&N cone filter on the intake of a Subaru 1.8L. The mid range drops off, & power all
around drops. The sound can even mess with the O2 sensors, mostly with the sound waves shaking the air
that is around the O2 sensors that are trying to read the air.
 The sound can also mess with the exhaust flow. The sound waves are pushing out at the same time
the flow is trying to go threw it like a wall. Cylinder 1 is trying to flow threw the sound waves of cylinder 2, etc.
 This in return can make for turbulent flow.

With all my cars I found ways to get good flow capacity & velocity of the exhaust.
I used stock pipes but with a better flowing muffler or a long glass pack of stock size.

 What I aim for is something like a turbo muffler, or a stock muffler with a bigger outlet or a long glass pack
this helped to get good velocity & the least restriction yet back pressure.
 This also helped to let you hear the intake noise, over the exhaust noise.
Like a jet intake, like the MadMax car in the movie when you could hear the air going in hissing.
You deserve better! The exhaust messes with the sound of the engine.
 It is like a BMW engine sound covered up by a loud BLAH sounding muffler.

 Getting some headers for your car is also a good thing to do to the car. You will get a lot of low & mid power.
Because of the velocity of the exhaust it makes. This helps the car to breathe easier.
 Putting on some header wrap on the exhaust manifolds, will cut down on the temperature under the hood making
things run better. Be sure to paint it with 1500 degree ceramic paint, to help keep things cool & water tight.
 Just make sure not to wrap it too much the heat needs to be able to get out.

 The first thing I worked on was a small Honda moped I put holes in the muffler, more holes only to find the
best way for power was to take the headers off & have the exhaust come right out of the engine.
It was loud! Sounded like a race bike. It sounded like it could rev to 11,000 rpm's!
 It was a 2 stroke engine so that is a whole other story about back pressure.
 My friend heard me at night when he was outside & I went over a hill wide open 7 miles away.
It was loud for a 50 cc engine. Do not do it to your car hearing loss will happen!
 My cousin started up a V8 in a garage with no headers to get some carbon off the valves & for fun.
Bad loud! ouch!

 Don't get a loud muffler just to be cool. I was once on my porch & in the distance I could hear a cow mooing
& at the same time there was a sound of a Honda with a loud muffler going down the road, it also sounded like
a cow mooing. "Moo hooo, hooo, hooo" Honda "Moo" Cow This is not cool to have a car that sounds like a cow!
The point here is to respect other people with the sound of your car moped etc! And know how it sounds.

CATALYTIC CONVERTER:***Running you car with out a catalytic converter helps in every way.
But it is illegal, they are federally mandated so it does not matter where you live in the U.S.
If your vehicle came with them and it is driven on the roads you are required by law to have them!
For racing this is not.

 You can smell a car without an converter driving down the road, so can cops!
The cops can also see at night on the highway flames coming from your tail pipe, not good!
 So I say for your sake it is best not to do it because of that. There are risks for doing it & also
benefits of doing it but note it will change everything on the car causing a real pain!

 Also there are people out there that think killing one of the converters & leaving the other one is ok.
This is bad because the one converter has to do the job of two & take the heat of two now & it will soon burn up.
 Note an plugged converter can do engine damage, like hydro lock with exhaust gases.

 There is a good chance that your car will run really lean & hotter with no converter.
Mostly if you have an O2 sensor before & after the converter. Your car does not know the converter is gone.
The O2 sensors read that there is more fuel than air, so it will say it needs less fuel to get to the air / fuel ratio of 14.7
so it will turn down the fuel, this will make your engine lean.

 There are ways to fix this, you can get the ECU re-programed for this for $1000,s
or put on a spark plug non-fouler on a O2 sensor to pull the O2 sensor away from the exhaust.

 An easy way to fix it is to run an higher octane 91 + to get more combustion with less gas to make the
combustion be the same as a 87+ octane gas but with less of the 91 + fuel.
 You also want to modify the spark plug. The more fuel you burn the less that will be coming out the tale pipe,
for the O2 sensor to read as being too rich.

 If your engine still feels hot you could get a cooler thermostat like an 160 with a hole drilled in it for better flow.
I would not pull out the thermostat. This is bad because of the hot & cold way the engine will be running at.
 The water could be too cold to be hitting such an hot engine you will get cracks over time!

 Also you want the intake to be pulling in cool air. You do not want an hot air intake! The engine is lean enough!

 I can not really say what to do because all cars act differently! This really is hard stuff here, you will know why
those race tech's go to school for this stuff!

 Racers know that catalytic converters are bad. The ceramic-core cats that are on most cars
can not take the heat! Racers know if they had them they will soon burn up & kill their engine
 Racers know that no converters make more HP. It allows exhaust gases to exit the engine much faster and at
a higher velocity. It also lessens the burden on your engine by enabling engine exhaust to get out easier.
This will give you a reduction in engine operating temperature but an hot exhaust.
 The more easier an engine functions and the less work it has to do results in less friction, less load and a lower
operating temperature. With less load on the engine this is the key to more torque also noted because it now
will pull in more air, this helps at low RPM's & that makes torque.

 For a reg car there are metallic core converters, you will gain 1 hp. But for the most part it is made
to take the heat better than ceramic-core types but it can still go bad.
There are better flowing converters this is the way to go because of the law.

 While the cars with converters can run only on unleaded gasoline, because the lead can quickly destroy the inner
catalyst materials of the converters. This is bad, but worse is the effect of lead on the injectors, they will clog
for good from lead! This is why they say unleaded only in new cars! So only if your car has a carb would I use lead.

 From all this you see why I say NOT to take out your catalytic converters, unless you race cars & have the know.
Just don't do it!

FUEL / INJECTION / ADDITIVES:***The fuel you use & the state of your fuel injectors & if you use additives,
all can give you the most MPG & power from your car. If you use gas that has a higher amount of water in it, that will
kill the MPG. If the fuel injectors are clogged or rusty from the water in the gas, this will lower it everything also.
 Additives in the fuel can also be bad. Some of them contain sulfur or too much alcohol or just will not burn clean.
These things are the main factor of you getting the most out of your car.

~Fuel: Ethanol in fuel is a bad thing. While diesel contains about 140,000 British thermal units (Btu) per gallon,
and gasoline about 115,000 Btu, denatured ethanol contains about 84,000 Btu per gallon; these numbers
translate into low fuel mileage.
 You can not mix two stroke oil with ethanol containing gas & want it to stay long. Ethanol will break down the oil.
It also has a higher volatility, & in hot weather it would likely increase smog.
 Old cars, rotary engines, two stroke engines, motorcycles, outboards and aircraft may even be damaged by E10.
All around I would use the lowest amount in the fuel. It will kill many old cars.
 Ethanol has to mixed separately with the gas, because if the maker of the gas you use mixed the ethanol with the gas
& sent it down the line, it would rust the pipes. So when gas is made they leave out ethanol till the end.
 Rusting pipes says a lot about what it can do to your car!

 Both higher production costs and surging demand explain why the price of pure ethanol has increased
The production costs are lower in Brazil because the industry there is using sugarcane, not corn, as a fuel input.
 Ethanol from sugar has about eight times the energy content of ethanol from corn, but unfortunately, the
U.S. is one of the most costly sources of sugar in the world. So unless global warming grants us the
heat and humidity of Brazil, that country's experience has no bearing on what we might expect
from the ethanol sector here at home. You will spend more on the fuel & get less mpg with it.

 I have filled up my Mazda with Ethanol E10 & found my mpg went down to 21.4 mpg, from 24.8 mpg
from my 45 mile drive to work at the time. I needed the gas to last me the week like it did before
I was short on money at the time. After I burned off the gas I put the regular gas from the gas station that sales it
back in my car & my MPG was back to 24+.
 After that I went to the E10 gas again & my mpg was 21+ again. I know how it effects my car so
I get the gas with the least of it. I have also noticed there are some rust spots on my spark plugs.
Going by that I use a additive to lubricate in my gas now, the best I can.

 Other than Ethanol there is Bio-butanol is has about 110,000 BTUs so the mpg is about that of gasoline.
It is less corrosive and will not separate in with water in the tank. The emissions that is with the Bio-butanol fuel
is the same that the plants take back in. The emissions do not get worse with the fuel.
 You can also make it from algae from the sea. Which might be good because of global warming, a warm ocean
makes a lot of algae. If we use the algae for fuel, we would be taking away the some of the algae.
 Algae biofuel is the better choice of fuel's! Sea algae can yield 30% more stock of butanol than corn does
at the same amount. Anyway you see it there are options for fuel than oil based / Ethanol types!
 This is the fuel of the future, it fits the way things are going it is available & will help to rid the algae from
the damages a warm ocean can do.

 If more people use hydrogen cars this would make more water exiting out of the tail pipe, making things more
humid, making more mold & everything bad that comes with high humidity. There is faults in hydrogen, & other
things out there for the use of fuel. Really all you can do is pick the best way of doing it.

 As for my Subaru, it is touchy about gas. If you modified your car, you need better gas.
I noticed I get more MPG, better Hp, with good gas. I ran cheep gas in my car, then one day I filled up with
Shell type gas, & as I was driving down the road the gas hit & my car took off with better power.
It could be the water in the cheep gas. Bad gas can also clog up your fuel filter along with having water in it.
 Even in my Mazda the car would misfire when I had put cheep gas in it, only to have it run better when
I put in better gas.

Chevron, Phillips66, & others are good gas. It is up to you to find something that works.
You just need to try them & see what feels better with your car. I would look for the fuel with the lowest amount
of ethanol. Like the fact of some of the additives for gas can burn dirty making your engine dirty.
 Good gas it like a good additive.

 If you plan to let your car sit for a long time fill the gas to the top with some kind of additive.
If you leave it at 1/2 a tank you will get water in your tank. It will condense like a cold can of pop in the hot sun.
From time to time I use something to get the water out of the gas. in the winter time I use Iso Heet additive
it is cheep & works good. Ethanol in fuel is an alcohol & it can end up pulling water in to your gas tank if you
let your car sit around a lot. This fact also applies to your gas can for the lawn mower.

 There are natural gas vehicles they use LNG it is cheap for now but there are some bad sides to it.
You get less MPG with it, there is not many places to fill back up right now & if you do find a place, it
can take a long time to re-fill the tanks, other than home kits to re-fill at home.
 This is a good start but looking down the road like oil we are dependent upon it. Most of it will be coming
from Mexico & Canada & as everyone uses it as we do the cost of it will go up.

 ~Fuel injectors: If the injectors are bad you can send them out to have them cleaned & tested. This saves money
from getting all new injectors. It is a good ideal to get a new O2 sensor & a new fuel filter to get things flowing
& reading well again. A clogged filter may test on on pressure,
but it may restrict the volume of gas under load. You can kill the engine fast with it running too lean,
things get hot & some engines being mostly aluminum!

To make sure the car is getting all the gas it needs to fuel the fire with the more power, you need to
clean out the injection system. If you have over 100,000 miles on the car you need injector cleaning!
It would be best to take the car in the dealer for this. Make sure they:
(A) Test the Fuel pump's pressure & volume.
(B) Test the pressure regulator for operation & leakage.
(C) Flush the fuel rail & upper fuel injector screens.
(D) Clean the fuel injectors them self's.
(E) De-carbon the engine, valves, pistons etc.
(F) Clean the throttle plate.
(G) put in a new fuel filter
(H) lastly Re-learn the car's computer.

~Fuel additives: Some additives are good to have in the fuel, but do not over do it with them.
To much will get things dirty not clean. There is the fact that some additives can burn dirty.
So it would be best to go with the amount they say to use.
 Some additives did not work good in my Subaru, & then some worked in my Mazda so sometimes it is the car
not the additive.

Red-Line Fuel additive is what I used for long term, but found when I drove the car, it did not have any feeling of
running better I am sure Red-Line Fuel additive was cleaning but I just could not tell by how the car ran.
 It does lubricate & clean that is the main parts needed in an additive. It works good at high heat also.
Far as I see it is the best long term additive to run. This is one of the best additives to use. I used it in most of my cars,
with good results. This is the stuff I use when I go on a road trip on, it cleans things out.
It has good stuff in there, This would be the best to use.
PolyEther Amine, Isooctanol & Aliphatic Naphtha.
CAS # 999999-51-7, 104-76-7 & 64742-88-7.

 Lucas fuel additive is what I had the best luck with in my Mazda but not with my Subaru.
In my Subaru I had used Lucas fuel additive & it did lubricate good, but did not seem to do much for the car.
There was no gain in power or better running & over time the car started to feel sluggish.
It was too much of the additive being used getting things dirty, so on my next gas up I put in some STP additive
& the power went up, it cleaned up the other additives mess.
 I am not sure why the Subaru did not like it when my Mazda did. I noticed my Mazda ran better & had more power.

 It's Chemical Name is Petroleum Hydrocarbon plus additives. The Formula is N/A.
But it also does not have sulfur or "alcohol, solvents, kerosene, or anything else that would be useless or harmful to engines."
Sill I do not know what is in it. But being said it has no solvents I am sure it does not have any Chlorinated Hydrocarbons.
 This is good for full time use if your car likes it.

 Chevron fuel additives is what i used with the best results in all my cars, but not for long term. It cleans everything out
but is used as one tankful per 3000 miles. It is just the fact of the light parts of the additives that is good.
This is the stuff you would use in your fuel to clean everything out.
To me it has good cleaning stuff.
PolyEther Amine, Distillates, hydrotreated light,  Stoddard solvent,  Solvent naphtha, light aromatic, Benzene,
1,2,4-trimethyl- &  Xylene.
CAS #  999999-51-7,64742-47-8,  8052-41-3,  64742-95-6,  95-63-6 &  1330-20-7.

BG 44K Power Enhancer additive I have used this in my mazda & noticed it did work but at the cost of about $30 + - !
It worked the same as 2 Chevron fuel additives in your tank is what I noticed. To me I would not use it again, there
are better ways of cleaning out an engine. I just can not get my self to spend the money on it again for something that
goes in the fuel. The air induction stuff would be the best thing to use. But as for B-12 chemtool fuel additive through the air induction is another story.
 The mix is Petroleum Distillates, Mineral Spirits, Alkanolamine Fatty Acid Ester, Polyol.
CAS # Mixture, 8052-41-3, Trade Secret.

 STP fuel additives is what i used to clean out the injectors. It works good with that, but as a long term additive
it cost a lot & for me I would not use for a long time. I use it for problems with clogged injectors mostly & it works fine.

 It says it contains Jet fuel, but "Jet fuels are sometimes classified as kerosene or naphtha-type. Kerosene-type
fuels include Jet A, Jet A1, JP-5 and JP-8. Naphtha-type jet fuels, sometimes referred to as "wide-cut" jet fuel,
include Jet B and JP-4."
 The kerosene types might be bad for an auto engine, but the Naphtha-types are more common & is what they use.
Jet fuel is poor at lubricating compared to diesel so an additive is added to Jet fuel to do that job.

 The mix is Petroleum Distillates, Trimethylbenzenes, Naphthalene, Petroleum Oils & *Proprietary Additive.
CAS # 8052-41-3, 64742-88-7, 64742-95-6, 64742-81-0, 8008-20-6, 25551-13-7, 91-20-3,64742-54-7,
64741-88-4 *& a mixture.

B-12 chemtool fuel additives is good at removing carbon fast. I had the best luck with it in my cars. But you need to know
it has a lot of hard stuff in there which is not bad because when you need it you need it. It has alcohols & paint thinner in the mix
so it does not lube things very good. So I would not use it all the time. It is just for cleaning & that it does.
 I would not use the additive on a Mazda RX-7 -8 because of the lack of lubricating things it has. That is what
 It is good for cleaning! Toluene, Methanol, Acetone, Methyl Ethyl Ketone, 2-Butoxyethanol, Isopropanol,
Mixed Xylenes.
CAS # 108-88-3, 67-56-4, 67-64-1, 78-93-3, 111-76-2, 67-63-0, 1300-20-7.

Sea Foam Motor Treatment additive is also good at removing carbon fast when used through the air induction.
That will clean out everything even the catalytic converter, also lubricating as it is pumped through the engine.
 This is the only way I would use the additive mainly because the stuff is $8 + not for full time use in the fuel for me
but only if you have a rotary engine you can use in the fuel!
 I have always used the additive what way when I got a used car. It took care of any mess in there!
 It's good stuff is Pale Oil, Naphtha, Isopropanol.
CAS # Mixed, 8030-30-6, 67-63-0

Marvel Mystery Oil additive for me should not be used in the fuel. I have noticed with the lawnmower when
I put too much of Marvel Mystery Oil additive in with the gas I noticed more smoke coming out of it.
The regular additive does have enough sulfur to not comply with federal ultra low sulfur content requirements for use
in model 2007 and newer diesel motor vehicles. But they do now make an additive that is made for 2007 + diesel motors.

 I have used Marvel Mystery Oil additive in my Mazda only to find it made the car smell like bad eggs
out the exhaust. It's use in the fuel I would say is bad. It is the Chlorinated Hydrocarbons part that is bad.
"Chlorinated additives mixed with oil and subjected to heat forms hydrochloric acid." that is what makes it bad.

 But it is not all bad Marvel Mystery Oil additive is the best for carbon removal or freeing a seized piston by putting
it down a spark plug hole & letting it sit for days. This has been used in aviation sense the 1920's!
For you to do it that way, is up to you.

The additive has longer chain molecules, less hydrogen per molecule, and is likely to build up carbon
if it was burned over time. It has a lot of Severely Hydro-Treated parts to the mix.
Naphthenic Hydrocarbons, Mineral Spirits & Chlorinated Hydrocarbons.
CAS# 64742-52-5, 08052-41-3 & 00095-50-1

Gumout fuel additives is something that I would not use at all only for the fact it has kerosene in it & that gives you the
extreme sootiness of kerosene on your valves O2 sensors etc. The detergent in the additive fight this, so it's a battle there
going on. That is why I do not touch that stuff.
 The stuff is mostly Kerosene, *Detergent/Dispersant, *Stabilizer.
CAS # 8008-20-6, *Mixture, *Tradesecret.

  In real life I would use an additive that lubes but does not dirty things up to badly.
For your car you need a additive that lubricates, to support the engine & fuel pump, at high speeds &
Horse Power. Because of the fact of my Subaru engine's Bore is bigger than the Stroke,
so piston speed is higher, and because the engine is aluminum & the engine is flat with a
small amount of ware on the bottom part of the cylinder, you do need something in the gas to
lubricate, this will help in making things slicker & run better in all kind of engines not just a Subaru.
 It is a fact you need a good additive that will burn clean. Why lube, clean & get dirty at the same time?

 You shouldn't mix additives, if you put in Marvel Mystery Oil additive don't pun in anything else. Oil & solvents
don't mix together. If you had used Red-Line, STP or anything, use the Marvel additive after your 2th gas up.
Red-Line Fuel additive, turns the Marvel additive rancid in the fuel!
 I have also mixed Lucas fuel additive & Marvel Mystery Oil additive together, this was bad!
The mix had some reaction it just did not look like something I would of put in my gas.

Home made fuel additives There are some people that use smokeless Synthetic 2 stroke oil in with the fuel in diesels &
Mazda rotary engines, to lubricate better. It is said it is 1oz. to every gallon of diesel & reg cars, or a 40:1 ratio.
 I personally would not recommend doing this on a Mazda rotary because the engine uses its oil to lubricate &
adding more oil to the engine would gum things up more. This would be bad for the converter, you would end up
clogging it up, & blowing your Apex seal. For a RX-7 -8 I would have to say I would use an additive that can lubricate.
Just do not use too much additive.

 There is the ideal out there to use Acetone in your fuel 1.oz, 2.oz to 3 oz per 10 gal of fuel.
mixed with Xylene & a light synthetic oil or smokeless synthetic 2 stroke oil or Marvel Mystery Oil additive.
 Acetone burns slow & is said to decreases surface tension causing the fuel to mix better.
Xylene is said to protect the acetone from ethanol to make sure it wont dampen the effects of acetone.
But Xylene is more of  a octane booster than anything.
 The oil in the gas lubes everything because of the strong effects of the additives to plastic parts.

 The bad thing is that I had used 1/2 ounce of only Acetone in my fuel once in the winter time so my fuel had
more than 1/2 ounce of water in the tank. When the amount of water is roughly equal to or greater than the
amount of acetone the water will drop to the bottom of the tank.
 My car had a misfire a few times, this was because I had some water drop out of solution with the fuel and
drop to the bottom of the fuel tank, and was drawn through the fuel injection system.
 So to make it work I had to use 1 or 3 oz. of Acetone to out number the amount of water that might
be in the gas. This at the time bugged me, I do not want to have that much in my car so for me,
I just did not use it anymore like that.

 I have used B-12 chemtool fuel additives in my car & that does contain Acetone, mixed Xylenes
& other ingredients & I never had any kind of misfire when I used the stuff.
 The amount of Acetone must of been higher than the water that might be in my tank, or the other ingredients
help in removing the water. In any case Acetone is already in an additive over the shelf, so it's use is
kind of common.

 Acetone & Xylene also has a bad effect on some plastics. There are people that have car parts soaking in it for years
with no damage. But there are some people that used Xylene that found that it ate the gas lines overtime,
also some cars have a rubber hose in the fuel line that goes between the fuel cap and the tank. So when you add the
acetone at a 100 percent, undiluted it might be eating through it rather fast. In this case I would use a tube & a funnel
to put the Acetone in the gas tank to bypass the rubber tube. This will also keep you from maybe spilling it on your paint.

 Acetone is sometimes stored in plastic containers with no damage done to them by the acetone.
The fuel lines are made out of, N-buna, which can stand up to 200+ kinds of solvents.
 Acetone is also used to clean hair of oil & residue. It is also in fuel additives already, so the use of it is a tossup.
It is the fact my Mazda having a plastic sock filter on the fuel pump, the fuel pump having some plastic on it
& the fact of the fuel injectors also having plastic in it is why I will not use it long term.
 It is the worry of the possible cost of repair, even if it is not a true fear I have.
It would be best to think about it before you use it. If you use it keep an lookout for any type of damages.
 I would not use acetone, or ethanol fuel in any kind of rotary engines!

 But overall I just would not do this. For me I would just buy B-12 chemtool fuel additives it has all the stuff in it already.

ENGINE DECARBON:***Depending how bad your car is, you might want to have it get the carbon out.
If you do not like doing this, or you do not know the engine, take the car in to have it done.
Look a place that uses the BG 44K cleaner. & have them clean everything out.

Sea Foam Motor Treatment additive is also good at removing carbon fast when used through the air induction.
Just go with what it says on the bottle.
 If you do this your self the wrong way it could
do a lot of engine damage. This is something you should do but only if things are really bad.
You might have to change your oil because the stuff in the intake also breaths in to the oil.
 Doing this too much, will damage / block your catalytic converter, this will cause too much back pressure,
even breaking your crankshaft because of the damaged converter. If you clean out your engine this way just do it once
& call it good.

 *Note there will be a lot of smoke for a while after you start it up.
I would do both things, with a piston engine NOT a rotary engine. You DO NOT want to put any kind of additive
right in a rotary engine or Turbo car!!!!!!

 Do not do any of these things to a rotary or Turbo engine, it will blow up!!!
The safest way to clean everything out if you have a rotary or Turbo engine is to use
Red-Line Fuel additive, Lucas fuel additive or Sea Foam Motor Treatment additive for a long time at high amounts
in the fuel! Like a high way drive. Just make sure the additive lubercates.

 This is also the safest way to clean out your piston engine. If you go on a road trip on the high way & plan to
use a tank of gas both ways this would be the best time to clean things out.
 Just put in Red-Line Fuel additive or Lucas fuel additive or Sea Foam Motor Treatment additive
Chevron fuel additive or STP fuel additive then go drive, then for the way back do it again.
Do not mix any additives just use one or the other.

 After all that will help to replace your O2 sensors if they are old!
& also you might want to change your gas cap, just to make sure it has a good seal.
If you are not sure of what you are doing take the car in to be cleaned, do not do it your self.

CRANKSHAFT:***Because the Subaru crankshaft is smaller and lighter with the engine being flat & balanced
it does not need much of a counterbalancer & with the car being only a 1.8L you can see how light the crankshaft is
from there. This could be a concern with getting more power out of a older car.
 It is best to aim for more MPG than HP, in older cars.
You never know what the shape of the crankshaft & parts are in.

 My Mazda had to have a new engine put in it, because the baring on the crankshaft was bad.
The piston was hitting the top of the cylinder That was why the engine light was on when it showed the engine code PO300.
 Now that I have a new engine in there all is ok now, no engine codes yet.

 Also a warning of a bad crankshaft would be if your engine took 4qts of oil for an oil change then went up to 4.5 qts.
This is what my Subaru did. Something is wrong when that happens.
 It takes more oil to fill up the gaps in the moving parts. Listen to your engine!

TIRES:***Because a tire with bad traction can be dangerous & also be bad on MPG.
It would be best to do the penny test to see if you need tires. All the tires I had when the tread was bad
 I was always having to fix a flat more then I would with a tire with good tread.
A good speed rating is also good. A high speed rating gives you a firmer tire wall.
This is good in fast corners & makes things feel better.

 You can also see about getting bigger tires on your car. If your car has 15 inch tires & it does,
55 MPH at 2500 RPM's. Then you change your tires to 16 + inch size the bigger tire will turn slower.
So now your car & 55 MPH does 2333 + - RPM's at 55 MPH. Less RPM's gives you more MPG.

 It would be also better to have the tires filled with nitrogen this will keep the tire pressure from
going low as fast. A good tire pressure will help your MPG. Nitrogen will not explode it is not that kind of gas.

 My cousin once filled up his tires with helium once to get more MPG. This really sounded like a good plan.
But it's the fact that helium has small particles that will in time find there way out. This is hard on soft rubber,
could blow your tire on the road badly! And the fact it did not work that well with the risk,
it was soon out of the tires.

MAINTENANCE INTERVAL:***Oil changes with filter should be done every 3000 miles, depending on the oil.
If you are on the highway a lot, or use synthetic oil it could be longer to 5000 miles. It would be best to go to
3000 miles then when you change the oil, change it cold & let the oil drain threw a strainer.
 Then just look at what is in there, if there are lots of black lumps you should change at 3000 miles & use
synthetic oil if you find metal in there, if you do not already because finding metal in there is bad.
If you do not find metal then just go by the sludge. If you have a lot of sludge try getting a better oil, it is worth it.

 At every 30,000 you need to do a lot of things. As in:

 ~DRIVE BELTS: You need to look at the drive belts. If it looks bad then replace.

 ~ANTIFREEZE: Replace the antifreeze in the car. Depending on the car I would use Sierra antifreeze with
Redline Water additive. But I would ask the mechanic from the make of your car, go to the dealership & ask.
Sierra is less toxic.

~FUEL FILTER / GAS CAP: Then you should replace the fuel filter & look at the hoses, this would help out your car a lot,
if things are dirty. Before you put on the filter fill it if you can with fuel injector cleaner. This helps clean out the
injectors when you start the car.
 As for the gas cap, if you open the cap & do not hear the pressure release then it is time to get a new one.

~AIR FILTER:I would replace the filter. I would look at the filter at every oil change to see how it looks.
Hold it up to the light to see how it looks. If there are a lot of stuff in the filter, just softly tap the filter in your hand to
get the stuff out. If the filter looks bad then get a new one.

~SPARK PLUGS / WIRES: Depending on what kind of plugs you have, if you use copper type plugs
I would replace that at 30,000 miles. Iridium, platinum or silver spark plugs could last to 75,000 100,000
miles or higher. I would replace them at that. But if your car sounds funny or misfires I would change the plugs
& test the wires. If your car is over 5 years old I would change the spark plug wires!

~TRANSMISSIONS / DIFFERENTIAL: This is important to do more in a auto. The life span of regular oil is
60,000 miles, but if you use synthetic oil it could last to 100,000. But if the transmission oil runs hot you will need to
change it at the 60,000 or less for both kinds of oil.

~BRAKE FLUID / PADS: You should have the like flushed out & have new fluid put in. It sucks to have bad brakes.
My 1982 Toyota corolla had carbon in the line, it made the brakes work in a time delay.
You would put on the brakes & that would not do anything, then later all 4 tires were screeching.
I took the car in & they flushed it out. It worked fine after that. It is best to be safe.
 I would also change the brake pads, you need to stop the car sometime.

~O2 SENSOR: This is something that needs to be done. My nissan would run funny, then when
I put in a new sensor the car got better. My subaru seemed to run fine with out it, but I am sure it was not running good.
To get things working good & to get better MPG, I would change it.

RESETTING THE ECU:***After you changed anything on the car you need to reset the ECU.
Mostly all you do is disconnect the (-) side of the battery over night. Then when you reconnect the battery things
might be hard to reset as in a Mercedes where you have a lot of things to do.
 Mostly just remember to let the car run until it fully warms up, then drive it around with AC on, AC off, turn
every thing on & off then when you are done turn the car off & that should do it.
 Other than that you need to find out what to do before you do anything!

GETTING BEST MPG:***The best way it seems to get more MPG, out of my Subaru & other cars
was to, get the car running like it should then to add a better flowing balanced exhaust, headers
a honed intake manifold & better spark with indexed spark plugs to get better use of air & fuel.
 Good spark plugs & wires would help in getting more MPG. I personally use
NGK ZFR6F-11 spark plugs modified  so the fire can get down in the cylinder better & burn the fuel efficiently.
You will need higher octane & you need to look out for the spark hitting the piston, even if the chance is small.

 Letting in more air into the engine can mess with the vacuum sensors & lower your MPG sometimes.
But more air flow can help the air flow at low RPM's, making more torque that leads to more MPG.
More air helps something like a vortex generator to work better & might still block enough to
make the vacuum sensors happy along with the vacuum dispenser effect that happens with air / fuel.
Then you add more spark, with an good additive in the fuel that lubricates could give you more MPG.

 MORE AIR = More gas used to keep the car from being too lean from the more air at high RPM's.
The car reads more air so it turns up the fuel & uses more. So getting a better flowing air filter could lead to that
& a miss reading of the vacuum sensors & vacuum dispenser effect when the fuel injectors spray in a vacuum.
 I had a K&N cone filter kit, on my Nissan 240sx & with it I found I had 18 MPG highway, with out it was about
23 MPG. The fact is the more air you get in the more gas you need to keep the car from getting too lean!

 LESS AIR = Like an vortex generator in a stock setup, can block the intake causing the car to read too rich because
there is less air. So the car will use less fuel to get the mix of air / fuel right. A lean running engine could burn
your valves, pistons because the engine is not made to run that lean. It is best to run rich not lean.

 MIDDLE AIR = More air with an vortex generator might break about even. More air makes the vortex generator
run better. The more air flow gets best use of the vortex generator, making it less of an blockage, but still enough to
make the sensors & effects work right with a better flowing filter, depending on your car.
 A good setup is a regular air filter with a mod to the air box to get more air in a shorter distance, so at low RPM's
it is easier to get the air in.

 The electricsupercharger I had on my Subaru with all the mods worked very good.
On the highway I found my self only giving the Subaru 25% throttle & going fast with out the
electricsupercharger running. It made a good vortex generator with out blocking the air too much.
 Because it increased the size of the air inlet, so it was not much of a blockage.
I spent time on the highway but did not see any mpg with it. It made the car run better.
I am sure if I would of slowed down to where the torque was it would give better MPG.
 It sure cost a lot, there are cheaper ways do doing this for an vortex.

 Another effect on on your MPG, is the design of your engine. If the engine has a bigger stroke the piston travels
farther with each stroke The farther it travels, the more it compresses the air fuel mixture, and the more
mechanical energy it harvests from the explosion as it retreats.
This is the concept of a diesel engine being efficient, why a diesel has better MPG.

 With my Mazda Protege I found what the best setup is for more MPG you need to have a vortex generator with a
bigger size air pipe to compensate for the restriction of the vortex or a K&N cone filter kit.
 You can modify the air box so it is flowing better & pulling in warm air from under the hood, less dense air.
Better spark with NGK or modified spark plugs.
 An better flowing exhaust, with something in the fuel to lubricate everything, but not in excess.
This would be the best setup for me.

 With things better flowing my Mazda will act like the Subaru on the highway, 25% throttle to go fast.
 But if you go down to 75 mph your MPG will go up.
 It is a matter of speed in the car. It takes more gas to feed the many bangs in the engine.
It has to do with the RPM's. The more bangs the engine does the more gas it takes to feed them.
 And the faster you go the harder it is for the car to go against the wind.

With the set up on my Subaru I had I was always running about 25% less throttle on the highway.
It all depends on how you drive for more mpg!

  Helping the car to breath better will make the engine work less to pull it the air especially at low RPM's
where you will get more MPG & get best use of the vortex generator you might have.
 Better spark will be more able to light off the mix of air / fuel the vortex mixed up together.

 You can get a Fog warmer, they say it will get you more mpg. What it does is warms the fuel before it gets used.
It gets strapped to the radiator hose with new piping that can take the heat & pressure of the heated fuel.
 The hot fuel gets hot like steam in a pressure cooker. This will mix air & fuel better, giving you more mpg.
I do not want to do that because of my injectors having some plastic in there that I do not want to get too hot.

 Hot air intake, is said to work because hot air is less dense. Less air, less fuel used to get the mix of air / fuel right.
This could make your engine run too lean & it is hard on the airflow meter.
 With hot air you will have to open the throttle to get the car to go because of less power
but still less fuel is being used.
 Being hard on the engine is why I will not do such a thing to drastic to the engine.
 To have the air inlet at something like 4 inches from your exhaust manifold could be bad I think,
I have my engine pull air from under the hood with all my mods with out my air boot on this is good enough for me.
 You do not want to do this in a car with no catalytic converter! You need cool air to get the engine to add more fuel!

 Keep the engine cool a hot running engine can lead to piston fatigue & fatigue of other parts.
Saving MPG is not worth the cost of a new engine.

 You also need a good slick oil, less friction, less heat get synthetic or a good slick type.
Header wrap or wrap for your air inlet would also help in bringing down the heat.
Heat kills MPG, & your engine. But the heat wrap could make things hotter in an engine if wrapped too much.

 A vortex generator, works good in a Ford Ranger. It also kind of worked in my Nissan 240sx,
It will work with the mods to make it work. I would not use it in a stock setup. You need to change something
an bigger air pipe or an better air filter.

 Lastly the first thing you need to do is to get the car running right, all tuned up, then I would check the tires.
If the tires are slick or low in air it will be more likely that things are not moving efficient, this can lose you some MPG's.
 Also getting bigger tires on your car can help get more mpg, by lowering the engine's rpm's, this will help in getting more MPG.

***Obey the maximum speed limit posted on signs along our roads and highways, do not drive to slow
but always drive at a speed that will let you stop safely.
If you drive 40 mph  in a 50 mph zone you are likely to be not in overdrive or 5th gear.
This means you are driving at a higher RPM so your engine is using more gas to feed the more RPMS.
The more bangs it takes to power the car = more gas burned.
 You want less rpms, so it would take less fuel to feed the rpms that move the car.
But if you drive too fast the engine will have to work harder to brake through the wind.
If you bring the rpms too low the engine has to work hard to not die burning more gas.

( ( ( TOP PAGE ) ) )

( ( ( CAR LINKS ) ) )
( ( ( TOP PAGE ) ) )























( ( ( ( ENGINE INFO ) ) ) )

ENGINE ROTARY----( A )    ( B )    ( C )    ( D )    ( E )    ( F )    ( G )
ENGINE SUBARU----( A )    ( B )    ( D )
ENGINE DIESEL----( A )    ( B )    ( C )    ( D )
ENGINE HCCI----( A )__( B )__( C )__( D )__( E )    ( F )
ENGINE VTEC TYPES----( A )    ( B )    ( C )    ( D )
ENGINE SMALL V8----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
ENGINE QUASITURBINE----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
STEAM ENGINES----( A )__( B )__( C )__( D )

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( ( ( ( INSURANCE LINKS ) ) ) )

( ( ( ( CAR TIPS ) ) ) )

( ( ( ( RACING  /  INFO ) ) ) )


CAR VIDEO----MUSCLE CAR ROAD TRIP----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
CAR VIDEO----MUSTANG V6----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
CAR VIDEO----FORD GT----( A )    ( B )
CAR VIDEO----FORD CAPRI----( A )__( B )__( C )__( D )
CAR VIDEO----FORD ESCORT RS COSWORTH----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
CAR VIDEO----FORD FOCUS RS----( A )    ( B )    ( C )    ( D )
CAR VIDEO----CORVETTE ZR1----( A )    ( B )
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CAR VIDEO----GEO METRO----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
CAR VIDEO----PONTIAC G8----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
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CAR VIDEO----LOTUS OMEGA----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
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CAR VIDEO----NISSAN 240SX----( A )    ( B )
CAR VIDEO----LAMBORGHINI----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
CAR VIDEO----PORSCHE----( A )    ( B )    ( C )    ( D )
CAR VIDEO----MCLAREN F1----( A )    ( B )    ( C )    ( D )    ( E )    ( F )
CAR VIDEO----ALFA ROMEO 8C COMPETIZIONE----( A )    ( B )    ( C )
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SUZUKI ROTARY----( A )    ( B )
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( ( ( TOP PAGE ) ) )

( ( ( DuGBuG cars! ) ) )
( ( ( TOP PAGE ) ) )


( ( ( 1986 Nissan 200sx ) ) )

( ( ( 1990 Nissan 240sx ) ) )

( ( ( 1995 Subaru Impreza 1.8L ) ) )

( ( ( 1995 Subaru Impreza in .7Z ) ) )

( ( ( 2003 Mazda protege ) ) )

( ( ( CAR PHOTOS ) ) )

( ( ( Displacement ) ) )

( ( ( HP Math ) ) )

( ( ( Subaru Engine ) ) )

( ( ( TOP PAGE ) ) )

1986 Nissan 200SX Non turbo
( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

Displacement by the book
1973 cc  / 120.39 ci    8 Valve SOHC

(a*) Piston Displacement by Bore & Stroke
2372.46 cc  /  144.77 ci

Bore & Stroke
3.33  X  3.46  Inch

Stock Power
102 HP @ 5200 Rpm  /  116 Tq @ 3200 Rpm

***Mod Power
Total HP 132+

***power to weight
Total 23.53

Compression Ratio

Air Capacity CFM
223.07 @ 6400 RPM

Oil Pressure
57 psi @ 4000 RPM

Kerb Weight AT.
3107 Lbs

Tire size.
205 60R 15

Gear Ratio AT.
1 - 2.842
2 - 1.542
3 - 1.000
4 - 0.686
Diff - 4.111

Red Line
6400 RPM

Top Speed in OD, at Rpm by gear ratio
49.39 @ 2000 RPM
74.08 @ 3000 RPM
86.41 @ 3500 RPM
98.76 @ 4000 RPM
123.45 @ 5000 RPM
158.02 @ 6400 RPM

Gear Ratio MT.
1 - 3.321
2 - 1.902
3 - 1.308
4 - 1.000
5 - 0.833
Diff - 4.111

Red Line
6400 RPM

Top Speed in gears by gear ratio in Mph
1 - 34.42 @ 6400 Rpm
2 - 60.10 & 6400 Rpm
3 - 87.40 @ 6400 Rpm
4 - 114.32 @ 6400 Rpm
5 - 137.24 @ 6400 Rpm

***Mod Power is read by car design.
NGK V-Power spark plugs 2 per cylinder ( *7+ HP )
Mod airbox ( *6+ HP )
Turbo muffler ( *7+ HP )

( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

1990 Nissan 240SX
( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

Displacement by the book
2389 cc  / 145.78 ci    12 Valve SOHC

(a*) Piston Displacement by Bore & Stroke
2724.34 cc  /  166.25 ci

Bore & Stroke
3.50  X  3.78  Inch  /  88.89 mm X  95.98 mm

Stock Power
140 Hp @ 5600 Rpm  /  152 Tq @ 4400 Rpm

***Mod Power
Total HP 182

Compression Ratio

Air Capacity CFM
307.87 @ 6400 RPM

Piston Speed, Feet Per Minute
4032 @ 6400 RPM

Oil Pressure
60 - 70 psi @ 3000 RPM

Kerb Weight
Stock  2840 Lbs  /  1288 kg

Gear Ratio
1 - 3.321
2 - 1.902
3 - 1.308
4 - 1.000
5 - 0.749
R - 3.657
Diff - 4.083

Red Line
6400 RPM

Tire size
205 60R 15

Top Speed in gears by gear ratio in Mph
1 - 35 @ 6400 Rpm
2 - 62 & 6400 Rpm
3 - 90 @ 6400 Rpm
4 - 118 @ 6400 Rpm
5 - 117 @ 4800 Rpm Governed
5 - 156 if @ 6400 Rpm

***Mod Power is read with HP listing on parts & with  (*G-tech Performance meter )
NGK V-Power spark plugs  ----
HotShots intake pipe ( 8 HP )
K&N - FIPK air filter ( *15 HP ) ----
J.E.T ecu upgrade ( 13 HP ) ----
Center-Force clutch ----
Red-Line oil ----
Magnaflow muffler ( *10 HP ) ----
Readjusted butterfly valve fully open. ( ? HP did before readings. )

( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

1995 Subaru Impreza 1.8

Engine VIN / Displacement by the book
VIN#2 / 1820 cc / 111.06 ci
(*a) Piston Displacement by Bore & Stroke
2101.8857 cc / 128.2649 ci
Bore & Stroke
3.46 X 2.95 Inch 
87.88 mm X 74.91 mm
Compression Ratio
Oil Pressure
43 psi @ 5000 RPM
Piston Speed / Air Capacity CFM
Piston speed 
feet per minute 222.68 @ 6000 RPM

Air capacity
cubic feet per minute 2950 
@ Red Line 6000 RPM

Valve specifications for engine VIN#2
Seat angle (deg) 45

Face angle (deg) 45

Spring test pressure ( lbs @ in. ) 

Spring installed height ( in.) 

Stem to Guide clearance ( in. ) 
Intake 0.0014-    0.0024
Exhaust 0.0016-    0.0026

Stem diameter ( in. )
Intake 0.2343-    0.2348
Exhaust 0.2341-    0.2346

Camshaft specifications for engine VIN#2
Journal diameter ( in.)
( 1 ) 1.2573-    1.2579
( 2 ) 1.4738-    1.4744
( 3 ) 1.4935-    1.4941

Elevation ( in.)
Intake 1.2742-    1.2781
Exhaust 1.2742-    1.2781

Bearing clearance ( in.)
0.0022-    0.0035

Camshaft end-play ( in.)
0.0012-    0.0102

Crankshaft & connecting rod specifications
Main Brg. journal dia. ( in.)
2.3616-    2.3622

Main Brg. oil clearance ( in.)
0.0004-    0.0012

Shaft end-play ( in.)
0.0012-    0.0045

Thrust on No. 

Connecting rod Journal diameter ( in.)
2.0466-    2.0472

Connecting rod Oil clearance ( in.)
0.0006-    0.0017

Connecting rod Side clearance ( in.)
0.0028-    0.0130

Piston & ring specifications
Piston clearance ( in.)
0.0004-    0.0012

Ring gap Top compression ( in.)
0.0079-    0.0138

Ring gap Bottom compression ( in.)
0.0146-    0.0205

Ring gap Oil control ( in.)
0.0079-    0.0276

Ring side clearance Top compression ( in.)
0.0016-    0.0031

Ring side clearance Bottom compression ( in.)
0.0012-    0.0028

Ring side clearance Oil control ( in.)

Torque specifications
Cylinder head bolts
Tighten all bolts in sequence to 22ft. lbs (29Nm) then to 51ft. lbs (69Nm) 
Then loosen all bolts by 180 deg.
Then tighten bolts 1 & 2 to 25ft. lbs (24Nm)
Then tighten bolts 3, 4, 5, 6 to 11ft. lbs (15Nm)
Tighten all bolts in sequence by 80 - 90 deg. Then an additional 80 - 90 deg.

Main bearing bolts
Tighten the case half bolts (10mm) 33-37 lbs
(6 & 8mm) bolts 1-7 to 14 - 20 ft. lbs
Then bolt 8 to 4.7 tf. lbs.

Rod bearing bolts 32-34 ft. lbs

Crankshaft damper bolts 69-76 ft. lbs

Flywheel bolts 51-55 ft. lbs

Intake manifold 15-25 ft. lbs

Exhaust manifold 18-26 ft. lbs

Spark plugs 14-22 ft. lbs

Hood 9-17 ft. lbs

Lug nut 58-72 ft. lbs

Kerb Weight
Stock 2635 Lbs / 1195 kg

Mod  2605 Lbs / 1181 kg without 30 Lbs spare tire

Mod  2582 Lbs / 1171 kg without 35 Lbs battery & with 12 Lbs dry cell battery

Mod 2570 Lbs / 1166 kg without 20 Lbs hood & with 8 Lbs carbon fiber hood

Mod 2530.5 Lbs / 1148 kg with half tank of gas.

*Mod 2505.5 Lbs / 1136 kg without 25 Lbs AC pump & re-adjusted sypertine belts

***Stock Power
110 HP @ 5600 Rpm 
110 TQ @ 4400 Rpm
68 HP read with 89 octane 
With G-tech meter
***Mod Power #1
MOD (B) E-supercharger on
121 HP read with 89 octane 
With G-tech meter
Total HP 163
***Max mod Power test only #2
With - 1 one catalytic converter
MOD (B) E-supercharger on
132 HP read with 93 octane 
With G-tech meter
Max Total HP 177
Gear Ratio
1 - 3.545
2 - 2.111
3 - 1.448
4 - 1.088
5 - 0.825
R - 3.416
Diff - 3.900
Top Speed in gears by gear ratio in Mph
1 - 30.97 @ 6000 Rpm
2 - 52.01 @ 6000 Rpm
3 - 75.82 @ 6000 Rpm
4 - 100.91 @ 6000 Rpm
5 - 124 @ 5600 Rpm
*5 - 133.09 If @ 6000 Rpm
Speed on speedometer at 3000 RPM
*( X2 )
1 - 16 *( 32 )
2 - 27 *( 54 )
3 - 40 *( 80 )
4 - 52.5 *( 105 )
5 - 67 *( 134 )

( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

2003 Mazda Protege DX
( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

Displacement by the book
1991 cc / 121.49 ci  16 Valve DOHC

(a*) Piston Displacement by Bore & Stroke
2437.56 cc  /  148.75 ci

Bore & Stroke
3.27  X  3.62  Inch  / 83 mm X  92 mm

Stock Power
130 HP @ 6000 Rpm  /  135 Tq @ 4000 Rpm

***Mod Power
Total Max HP 170

Compression Ratio

Air Capacity CFM
279.76 @ 6500 RPM

Piston Speed, Feet Per Minute
3923.88 @ 6500 RPM

Kerb Weight
Stock  2690 Lbs  /  1220.16 kg

Gear Ratio AT
1 - 2.816
2 - 1.497
3 - 1.000
4 - 0.725
R - 2.648
Diff - 3.904

Red Line
6500 RPM

Tire size
195 55R 15

Top Speed in gears by gear ratio in Mph
1 - 41.23 @ 6500 Rpm
2 - 77.55 & 6500 Rpm
3 - 116.10 @ 6500 Rpm
4 - 126 or 160.14  if @ 6500 Rpm

Mod Power is read by car design. An estimate of my knowledge & info.
***129 HP listing on parts & with  (*G-tech Performance meter )
129 HP at weels = 170 HP

NGK spark plug wires # ZE76
NGK spark plugs # ZFR6F-11 mod

Long glasspack, any muffler shop.
Air intake K&N cone filter kit with a filter wrap with a vortex generator.

Sierra antifreeze with Red-Line Water additive. -

Engine : Red-Line oil 10w 40
Or Castrol SYNTEC 10w 40
Or cheap synthetic oil 10w30 with 1/2 or more Hy-per Lube.
with Purolator # PL14610
Transmission: Mobil1 with LubeGard PLATINUM - - - -


Dreams of being a Lotus Omega.  http://www.lotus-omega.dk_&_

Facts of being a_Ford_Activad Ford_Tierra_elsewhere.

( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

***Piston Displacement is found by formulating the volume of a cylinder as a
geometric shape which is pi/4 which equals 0.7853982
This number is then multiplied by the square diameter of the bore & multiplied by the stroke times the cylinders.
(pi/4)  0.7853982    X   (Bore squared )  3.50 X 4 =14.00   X   (Stroke)  3.78   X  (Cylinders)  4  =166.25 ci  /  2724.34 cc

HP Math!
( ( ( DuGBuG CARS ) ) )

Mod Power is read by car design. An estimate of my knowledge & info.
With the  (*G-tech Performance meter ) in my past cars.

 The Subaru having all wheel drive the reading is hard to get.
So the math was on the stock reading of 68 HP from a stock 110 HP engine on 89 octane.
42 HP loss. So an reading of 132 HP + the 42 loss & 68 HP divided by 89 octane X 93 octane.
gives you 3 HP so the total is a =177 HP engine

The Nissan having Rear wheel drive had a reading of 101 HP from a stock 140 HP
41 HP loss. So an reading of 141HP + the 41 loss is a =182 HP engine

The Mazda I having front wheel drive showed a reading of 129 HP at wheels, from
a 41 HP loss from most test here. I never tested the car as stock. So no stock reading.
This gives a =170 HP engine

Subaru Engine
( ( ( TOP PAGE ) ) )

***An Subaru engine is flat & the bore is bigger than the Stroke, so piston speed is higher, and the engine
is aluminum you would think there would be a lot wear on the bottom part of the cylinder.
This is not that true. Believe it or not the subaru crankshaft & piston is balanced in a way
that the piston kind of floats in the cylinder to a point. It has some wear but it is said to be on the
back part of the cylinder.
This info was found out at I do not know where the info went today.

( ( ( Car Air Box Mod ) ) )
( ( ( TOP PAGE ) ) )

~ Mazda Air Box Modifications (A): For my Mazda I took off the air boot, then like my Subaru mod (B)
I put on a hard plastic cup that you can get for a $1 & cut it to fit the inlet of the air box.
The cup acts like a velocity stack. You need to set the length right, a long velocity stack will make more torque
& a short one will make more horsepower. I went thru 2 cups to find the right feel for the car.
 The vortex generator tornadofuelsaver works good with the velocity stack.
I also taped the air box with some Thermo-shield to keep the heat out & painted the cup black.
This mod works the best for my car, everything works & sounds good did not cost me $100's!

This is a better way to do things with out tearing things up to badly if are making payments on the car.
Other than that you could get a spare part at the junk yard, or dealer & go for broke on it.
you would get more power out of it.


~ Mazda Air Box Modifications (B): Also for my Mazda I cut the resonator for more air.
Then I put in a vortex generator tornadofuelsaver. I also taped the air boot with some
Thermo-shield to keep the heat out. Then I drilled some holes for a bit more air to the air inlet.
 This worked good all but the vortex generator because it needed more air flow to work the best.


~ Subaru Air Box Modifications (A): For my Subaru this mod is the best to do for better power all around,
it's the hardest to do. It involves sealing up the old inlet hole cut some flat plastic to fit over the hole & J-B Weld
it all around so there are no leaks. Then you need to carefully put a round hole in the front of your air box,
& put in a tin can 3 to 4 inches wide. Open both ends cut if needed to shorten & install, you need to wrap
the can with foam insulation wrap, this keeps the tin can sound sound away.
 You can attach a electric supercharger to the tin can, if wanted.
It works best with a 4 inch tin can.You won't believe how the car runs with the electric supercharger
like that, even with out it turned on. It makes the car zippy!

 Take your time doing this mod it's hard to get it all to fit in. Get a spare part at the junk yard before you work
on the car, and keep in mind that after things are done you need to shield the new inlet from the rain.
 So you may need to attach a vent duct to it, to keep the rain out if it rains, and take it off when it doesn't.

 Disconnect the ( - ) side of the battery over night to make sure the cars ECU gets reset.
You can also use insulation wrap the intake to keep the heat out & wrap the exhaust with header Rap,
to keep the temperature down under the hood.
 If you find dirt in the air pipe, take out the after market filter & go with a stock type filter.
I would just use a stock filter in my car anyway!


~ Subaru Air Box Modifications (B): For my Subaru this was lame but the easiest mod to do.
The cup acts like a velocity stack, & creates a better sound coming from the engine the top end is better too.
 All you have to do is to pull the air inlet out, & safely cut it to fit on the cup. Take your time doing it.
Cut then put it back in the car to see how much you can cut off. You want it as short as possible.
 Next is the cup. It is best to use an hard cup. Cut the bottom of the cups, to fit in the pipe.
Use lot's of duct tape, any strong tape, to wrap it all together & to keep the plastic buzzing sound away,
that the cup may put out, and to also support it so it won't collapse under the high vacuum it gets.
A collapse would be bad!
 I am sure you get the point. but a cup for a intake? It works good! It's the velocity stack that makes it work,
but keep in mind the stock inlet going into the air box is only about 2 inches wide & you need to know
that you need to set the length right, a long velocity stack will make more torque
& a short one will make more horsepower.


~ Subaru Air Box Modifications (X): For a Subaru this is something that you do not want to do to your car.
Put in a K&N type cone filter kit. It makes the car run too lean, it sucks up a lot of hot air from the engine.
 Subaru's have a bad intake frequency, that is why they make the intakes the way they do.
The frequency of air bouncing back out through the intake pushes back on the incoming air,
making the engines job of sucking in air hard to do. This makes your car drive badly, the top end dies,
it feels like the engine can barely run.
 It messes with the air flow meter & could damage it over time. When I had this on my car the engine would pop,
crack in the intake & back fire, this also could over time damage your engine.
This was a frightening sound I heard when I was driving the car. More air is not better, trust me!

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