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Index Dutch Bronze Age
Index First farmers in the Netherlands

Chronology: the prehistory of mankind

5.Egypt: first cultivated cereals

Palestine settlements: first grain gatherers

1.Israël: bone / flint sickle
1.Jericho (=Tell-es-Sultan) founded
3.Mesopotamia: agriculure
12.Mesopotamia and E-Mediterranian: copper beads, also smelted copper (on a small scale)

The Paleolithic (ice ages) ends
Jericho: stone tower

8350 - 7350:
8.Jericho, the first settlement of the world with a surrounding wall (4 acres) and a tower

8000 - 4000:
8.Copper centers: Northern Greece, Turkey, Northern Iran, Northern Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, East-Israël (Beidha)
5.Jericho: cultivated wheat
1.Mesopotamia: domesticated sheep

7500 - 7000:
Palestine (Jericho 7800), Syria, Iraq: agriculture and pottery
Sea level: - 45 m
From the U.K. to Siberia / Alaska: Maglemose culture

Sea level: - 15 m
Sahara: Neolithic culture
8.Early experiments with copper ores in Central Turkey
1.Mesopotamia: domesticated goats

6700 / 6500:
Turkey: urban civilisation: Çatal Hüyük (cereals, vegetables, fruits, wine, beer)
6500: Western Mediterranian: Neolithic culture (sheep, pottery)
Start of "Middle Danube" cultures: Lepenski Vir

Netherlands: first canoo (Pesse)
1.Mesopotamia: domesticated cattle, pigs, goose, cereals (2- rowed hulled barley)

End of Çatal Hüyük, founding of Byblos
From Croatia to the Ukrain: Danube Neolithic
Sea level: 0 m

From Denmark to Siberia: Mesolithic culture "Ertebölle"
1.Mesopotamia: "Ubaid" pottery

5500 - 5300:
Sea level: + 2 m Neolithic cultures spread all over the European continent: Vinça, linear pottery Neolithic farm
Egypt: first farmers (8.: 5000)
8.Israël and Lebanon: copper ores are melted
1.Mesopotamia: first use of irrigation, first casting of copper
12.Mesopotamia (5th millenium): casting of copper (first time in history) in open moulds: axes and long blades
18.Serbia: mining of copper ores in 20 deep pits (5th millenium, see graphic)
20.Belgium (Darion): first fortified settlement

Serbia: copper mining and metallurgy

Copper cultures develope: Vinça "C, D", Tripolije
Bretagne: first megaliths (Barnenez 4600 - 4300)

Northeuropean Ertebölle continues, developes into a Neolithic culture: the Funnel Beakers

Spreading of the megalithic culture over Southwest Europe
The Netherlands: second Neolithic culture "Swifterband"; in the winter they hunt near the sea, in the summer they return to their farmland.
1.Plough tracks in the southern part of Mesopotamia
12.Serbia (Vinca) / S-Bulgaria: mining of large amounts of copper ores, axes with cast holes (first time in history)
12.Italy and S-Spain: use of copper

Mesopotamia: El Obeid ("I") U.K.: Neolithic culture

West-Germany: Rössen / Michelsberg
Wolga region: Kurgan ("I") culture

12.Egypt: copper work (chisels)

Sea level: + 5 m
Mesopotamia: El Obeid ("II")
U.K., West-Germany, Denmark, South Sweden (Funnel Beaker), Portugal: spreading of the megalithic culture
8.9.Israël and Lebanon: start of casting bronzes, first use of a plough
1.Egypt and Mesopotamia: first use of the pottery wheel ("tournette")
4.Middle-East, 4th millenium: the use of the lost-wax process (bronze moulds), gold, silver and lead are known
3800 - 3700: Indo-European cultures: combat axes (see photo right), corded ware Kurgan ("II") 

Photo right: top: flint axe, the other is a typical N-W European battle axe with a drilled hole. This drilling can be practised in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands

Sea level: + 3 m
Languedoc and Provence: more megaliths
Near the Black Sea: the horse is domesticated
The Netherlands: the third neolitic / megalithic culture (Funnel Beaker) builds "hunebeds" The Austrian Alps: Otzi, the Ötztaler glacier man dies
5.Egypt: first bronze, first sailing boats
5.Israël and Lebanon: first bronze
9.Jericho: ±1000 inhabitants
5.Iran, Sumer: casting of copper
6.Iran, Sumer: first cities (Uruk: 100 acres, 10.000 inhabitants!)
8.N-E Mesopotamia: 6 tin mines (3500 - 1600)

5.Egypt: 365 days calendar

Kurgan ("III")
1.Mesopotamia: domesticated donkey

Sea level: + 1 m
First hieroglyphes
8.Egypt: copper melting

3000 - 2900:
Mesopotamia: first writing
8.Mesopotamia: first "icon-writing" / hieroglyphes (3000)

3000 - 1200:
8.Mesopotamia: trade in copper 'ingots' (currency bars)

First graves near Stonehenge ("I")
Avebury stones
Stonehenge ("II")
The Bell Beaker culture spreads all over the Nort African and European Atlantic coast. This culture might have experimented with copper- working
5.Mesopotamia: Gilgamesh king of Uruk, fortifications around the cities

±2660 - 2600:
5.Egypt: first stone pyramids

2660 - 2180:
5.Sinaï: copper mines, copper trade with Egypt

1.Egypt: first plough, trade route along the coast with Phoenicia (Lebanon)

22.The virus "influenza A" jumps from wild to domesticated ducks
17.Portugal (Zambujal): copper age tools: axes, saw blades, chisels, piercers. copper trade in ingots and finished products
4.Assyria: bronze weights shaped like ducks / lions: spherical or barrel-shaped
4.Syria (Ur): in 2 pieces cast dagger (26 cm): blade and handle together rivetet

Czechia: Unetiçe Bronze Age culture ?
Netherlands: first wheel, Vlaardingen culture
4.Syria (Ur): cast, half-moon shaped axe 14 cm x 7,3 cm

3.Sumerian / Semitic non-iconic writing, "hour", "60 minutes", algebra, medicines 19.Bronneger (NL): first copper beads in "hunebed" (megalith barrow)
21.Egypt: a grave of the pharao Pepi contained a bronze statue which contained tin from Cornwall

2250 - 1875:
11.Palestine: only nomads


2000 - 1700:
Hot climate
Nordic Bronze Age U.K.: Wessex F: Armorican Bronze Age
9.Greece: sailing ships can sail the seas
4.Sumeria: first iron and steel
11.Sumeria / N-Israël: (in writing) "caravans bring the tin to Hazor" (city in N-Israël)

Sea level: + 3 m

around 1600:
22. The Chinese start to domesticate ducks, chickens and pigs, close to eachother in farms. Pig- and bird-type influenza virusses 'cross' with eachother which lead to virusses that are contageous for humans.

1600 - 1100: 
9.Cyprus: trade in copper 'ingots' (currency bars)

16th century: 
3.8.Iran: Kassites have iron war chariots

11.Jericho is destroyed

9.Sumeria / Israël: first alphabets

Greek writing: Linear B

11.Syria (Ugarit): iron battle axe

Georgia and Turkey: start of Iron Age

Central and West Europe: Celts, Iron Age, Hallstatt

11.Near East: long dry periods, cities are abandoned, people move into the hills

8.Egypt / Palestine: Jews emigrate from Egypt to Palestine (11.: 1260)

Sea level: + 1 m
The Netherlands, West-Germany: Urnfield culture

The Netherlands: start Iron Age

8.Egypt: first iron
4.Assyria: first brass (zinc and copper), 17 bronze 'lion' weights: 2 - 30 cm, 50 - 2000 g

8.Turkey: first coins

8.Greece: first coins

8.Middle East: Darius I, stable weights / measures, written laws, stable currency system, efficiënt mailing system

22.Hippocrates describes an epidemic that is similar with influenza

4th century:
4.Middle East: gold coins: 'Darics'

Rome sacked by the Gauls, led by Brennus: "Vae victii!" (See graphic right)

5.Phoenicia: coins with ships depicted

334 - 323: 
6.Middle East: Alexander the Great

6.7.8.The Gauls settle in Central Turkey ("Galatia")

16.Jeruzalem: first glass 'blowing' techniques


Scheme of animal domestication (4.)
Animal: name in the wild: domesticated (estimated years B.C.E.): place 
(Middle-East, unless specified):
dog woolf 11.000  
goat bezoar goat 8500  
sheep moufflon 8000  
pig boar 7500  
cattle   7000  
cat wild cat 7000  
chicken fowl 6000 China
donkey wild ass 4000  
horse tarpan 4000 Near the Black Sea, Russia
camel wild camel 3000 Saudi-Arabia, India
rabbitt wild rabbitt 1000 Spain


The radiocarbon (C14) method of dating an archaeologic place proved to be insecure with dates that were thousands of years B.C.E.

By examining the tree rings (dendrochronology) and comparing them with C14 results, better results were achieved.

There are various methods to calibrate C14 results. More information about these methods.

Literature list:

  1. C. Renfrew, Past Worlds: Atlas of archaeology, 1988

  2. R. McNally, Atlas of world history, 1992

  3. Dr. Vermel, Geïllustreerde bosatlas van de wereldgeschiedenis, 1984

  4. M. Roaf, Cultural atlas of Mesopotamia, 1990

  5. P.V. Naquet, The Harper Atlas of world history, 1992

  6. T. Cussans, Atlas of European history, 1994

  7. C. Anker, De Kelten: Europa in de ijzertijd, 1995

  8. N. Stone, (Times) Atlas of world history, 1989

  9. G. Parker, (Times) Atlas of world history, 1993

  10. K. Ploetz, Wereldgeschiedenis in jaartallen, 1980

  11. Drs. Van der Land, Van Abraham tot David, 1993

  12. J. Hawkes, Archeologisch panorama, 1976

  13. G. Mandel / P. Eisele, Koning Samolo, 1980

  14. P. Albenda, The palace of Sargon (Assyria), 1986

  15. A. v. Iterson, Armenzorg bij Joden in Palestina 100 v.C. - 200 n.C., 1911

  16. H. Blok, De onderste steen boven, 1991

  17. Antike Welt Tl 8, 1977

  18. Time-Life, Het vroege Europa, raadsels in steen, 1995

  19. L.P. Louwe Kooijmans, prehistorie en vroegste geschiedenis van ons land, 1974

  20. D. Cahen, J.P. Caspar, F. Gosselin, A. Hauzeur, La village Rubané fortifié de Darion - Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 17, 1987

  21. I. Wilkins, Where Troy once stood, 1990

  22. / The Scientist

  23. De oude geschiedenis in jaartallen (just in Dutch, 2600 B.C.E. - 293 C.E., mainly focused on the Roman Empire)

King Nicomedes invited the tribes of the Tolostibogii, Tectosagii, Trocmii.
They served in his army and were known for their agression.
After their service they build oppidas (fortifications in the hills).

Writer / editor

March 26th, 1998