Erik Erikson and Ego Psychology

Some distinctions between Erikson and classical psychoanalysis

Eriksonís theory is heavily influenced by Ego Psychologists

Erikson suggests that our identity is made up of four parts:

One of Erikson's most important concept is the epigenetic principle.

Erikson conceptualized personality development as having eight psychosocial stages


Each stage has a certain optimal time as well

If a crisis is favorably resolved, we gain a certain virtue or ego strength which will help us through the rest of the stages of our lives.

Infancy: first year (similar to oral stage)

Basic Strength: Hope.

Ritualization: Numinous.

Ritualism: Idolism (idolatry).

Maldevelopment: Withdrawal.

Significant Relations: Maternal parent

Early Childhood: 2 to 3. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

Play Age: 3 to 5: Initiative vs. Guilt

School Age: 6 to 11: Industry vs. Inferiority

Adolescence: 12 to 18: Identity vs. Role confusion.

Young Adulthood: 18 to 35: Intimacy vs. Isolation

Middle Adulthood: 35 to 55. Generativity vs. Stagnation

Late Adulthood: 65 to death: Ego Integrity vs. despair.

Karen Horney.


Agreed with Freud regarding

Disagreed with Freud regarding

Motivational nature of personality

Basic concepts: the causes and consequences of seeking security.

Basic hostility

Basic anxiety

The Development of Maladaptive Personality

Neurotic trends

Self-effacement: Moving Towards Others

Expansion: Moving Against Others

Moving Away From Others

Healthy adjustment: the overlapping of the real and ideal self



two events in his early adolescence that influenced later thinking.


Fromm added the idea of freedom.

There are examples where determinism alone operates.

Uniquely Human Needs

Fromm describes three ways in which we escape from freedom:


There are two ways to approach this.

Fromm referred to the extreme version of authoritarianism as masochism and sadism


Automaton conformity. Hide within mass culture


Symbiotic families.

Withdrawing families.

What makes up a good, healthy, productive family?

The social unconscious

The receptive orientation.

The exploitative orientation. These people expect to have to take what they need.

The hoarding orientation. hoarding people expect to keep.

The marketing orientation. The marketing orientation expects to sell.

The productive orientation.

humanistic communitarian socialism