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Aryan Civilization


The original name of Afghanistan is Aryana or the “Land of the Aryans.”  The borders are defined in the Avesta, one of the oldest scriptural writings of the Aryans.  The Aryans migrated westward to Persia and South to the Indian Subcontinent.  The Avesta mentions the Popaey-I-Sina (Hindu Kush).  Traces of the Aryans in the form of tribe names as well as Aryan loan words can be found in the oldest texts from Sumer, Akkad, Egypt from the 4th-2nd millennium BC.  (Pazwhak ) 



1.  PIE


2.  Proto-Aryan


Late PIE is ancestral to Proto-Aryan.  The Proto-Aryans substituted h for s (also occurs in Hindu). Oxus Civilization began c2500. Proto-Aryan continued as a linguistic unity until the end of Sintashta-Arkaim culture. c2100-1900BC.  The final split of Proto-Aryan took place c1900BC with the Ural River as the border- line. (SW 30, 44, 47, 80, 81)



3.  Aryan


Pit Grave (Yamnaya) culture (c3600-2500/2200BC)-the community from whose Late Central Prot-Indo-European language descend the Graeco-Armenian and Aryan branches. The Aryan elite superstratum overran BMAC ‘Bactria and Margiana Archeological Complex’


Map of BMAC Complex and the Ural Yenisi zone



(Ref. SW 26)


BMAC in Afghanistan spreads to Sindh c2000-1900BC. (SW 44, 70, 79) 



Map of Aryan Spread from Bactria Complex  to Sindh


(SW 31)


BMAC citadels and temples from c1900-1700BC are archeological entities.  The Indo-Iranian (Aryan) speaker spread started around 1500BC.  Eastern Iranian (Aryan) Saka was ethnically related to the Scythians.  Bactria, Choresmian, and Sogdian was on its southern borders. The Iranian-speaking centers of Coresmia emerged.  The emergence of the Iranian-speaking centers of Coresmia, could be an archeological expression of the culture depicted in the Avesta.  Herodotus suggests an east to west movement with steppe groups aligned and pushing into one another, eg. Alans>Sarmatians>Scythians>Cimmerians – origin for the east Iranians of the Eurasian steppelands. (SW 26, 30, 81)

A Fresh wave of Aryans coming from the north overran the rule of the BMAC.  The horse and donkey come form northern Bactria.  A horse –drawn chariot is depicted on a cylinder seal at Tepe Hissar in Gurgan where the BMAC expands ca1900BC, Metal trumpets can be found in BMAC.  Amongst the most significant finds of the BMAC in northern Bactria are the mandala-like square fortress-place of Sapalli-Tepa, which greatly resembles its parallel at Dashly-3 in southern Bactria; the fire temple of Dzharkutan; and the remains of grapes/raisins and jujube fruits (still locally used for the fermentative of alcoholic drinks) found in jars give as gave goods, the beer-like sura is associated with the demon Namuci, ephedra also hemp, plant of the genus ephedra are the strongest candidates or bin the original ancu plant of the Indo-Iranians, a cultural diacritic.  At least one new motif on Assyrian seals undoubtly comes form Bactria and Margiana: this is the two-humped Bactrian camel, which along with the horse, is a new motif in the ‘late urban’ phase of the BMAC as well, the Assyrians with whom the BMAC people were in contact form 30th century BC onwards later became vassals of the Mitanni Aryans, Assyrian religion, Assur was resented in art by the winged solar disk, Mitanni glyptics the winged solar disk is often associated not only with a supporting pillar, with turning pillar of the horse race, the tree of life, as often in Middle and Neo-Assyrian seals. (88)   Proto-Indo-Iranian (Aryans) would have split up into thee main groups,, one pushed to Iran, one pushed to Nuristan, and one pushed on to India. (SW 20, 38, 85-88, 111) 



Map of the Core of the Aryans Speakers