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Ancient Runes Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Second Years

Glossary of Gods and Goddesses- Part 2

Nanna: Asa-Goddess; "The Moon"; Great Mother; Earth Goddess; wife of Balder, mother of Forseti. She dies of heartache after Balder's death and is burned with him on his funeral boat. Earth Goddess.

Nerthus, Erda: Mother Earth Goddess, primal earth mother. She is the oldest Scandinavian Goddess whose name has come down to us. Possibly an older version of Njord (as the opposite sex) or his sister with whom he has Frey and Freya. She was a fertility Goddess whose worship was centered in Denmark. She lived in a grove on a sacred island. Once a year she traveled across the land in a wagon bringing a season of peace and plenty. When she tired, she returned to her island and was bathed in a lake by slaves who were later drowned.

Njörd: "Stiller-of-storms", Vanir-God of seafaring: controls wind, stills sea and fire. Was married to Giantess Skadi who picked him for his beautiful feet, by mistake, thinking he was Balder. Njord and Skadi could not agree on where to live. She didn't like his home, and he didn't like hers, so they split up. He has ten children, most famous are Frey and Freya. He is Frigga's brother.

Norns: The three Fates (the maiden, the mother and the crone) of Norse myth known as Urd, Verdhandi, and Skuld, and representing the past, present and future.

Odhinn (Wodan): Ruler of the Æsir, the All-Father, God of the runes, inspiration, shamanism, magic and war. God of the hanged and the Wild Hunt; God of storm, rain and harvest. A shape-shifter, he makes men mad or possessed with a blind raging fury. He produces the battle panic called "battle-fetter". Three different frenzies or madness are his gifts to humankind: the warrior in battle, the seer in trance, and the poet in creativity. Subtle, wily, mysterious and dangerous, he often ignores pacts made in honor with humans. Attended by his two ravens (Huginn and Muninn), two wolves, Freki and Geri, to whom he gives his food for he himself consumes nothing but wine, and the Valkyries. Feared by ordinary people and worshiped only by princes, poets, the berzerkers, and sorcerers. Unpredictable when invoked.

Sif: The second wife of Thor, Sif has the gift of prophecy. Sif is a swan maiden and can assume that form. She signifies summer fertility and corn. Having been married once to Orvandil, she is one of the elder race of Gods. Uller was her son from that union. Her golden hair was cut off by Loki as a trick, and replaced with hair of gold made by the Dwarves. Skadi Scathing Goddess of wintertime destruction, briefly married to Njord. It didn't last because she didn't like living with the Æsirs. Scandinavia is named after her--the "land of Skadi". She brings the snow which insures a good harvest and she leads the Wild Hunt. The wolf and poisonous snake are sacred to her. Her name means "Harm".

Skuld: The norn representing the future. The maiden. "That which shall be"

Surt: A Fire Giant who guards the gates of Muspellsheimr. He carries a flaming sword. His face is casted in fire, his hair is burning and boiling lava covers his body. Surt means "Black".

Thor, Thorr, Donar: Hammer-God of thunder and lightening, agriculture and craftsmanship. Thor also is the God of defense and strength. His magic hammer is known as Mjöllnir ("Destroyer"). He is called "The Thunderer", champion of the Gods and enemy of the Giants and Trolls; protector of the common man; son of Odin and Jord. He has a magic belt called Megingjardar ("Strength Increaser") and drives a chariot pulled by two Giant male goats. Thor is a size-shifter. He is terribly heavy and hot, and he cannot cross the Bifrost bridge. He must wade through the North Sea and come around the long way.His wife is Sif. Although he is sometimes over hasty in judgment, he is a totally reliable friend and battle companion. He has wild red hair and beard, always dresses in battle dress.

Tyr, Tiwaz: The Norse god of law and justice. Tyr rules over the administration of right and honorable justice, so he is invoked for victory and is therefore an important war god. In northern mythology, it is Tyr who sacrifices his hand between the jaws of the Fenris wolf in order to save his fellows gods from destruction.

Ullr: Winter God of archery, skiing and yew magic. Stepson of Thorr from a previous union between Sif and Orvandil.

Urd: The norn representing the past. The crone. "That which was"

Valkyries: "Chooser of the Fallen" (the slain).Sent by Odin into battle to select those who would go to Valhalla, lead by Freyja. Battle virgins, women trained in battle and war magic who would enter the fray with the warriors. They have raven and swan forms, choose among the slain and bring fertility to the earth.

Vanir: A race of gods corresponding to fertility.

Vé: Odhinn's brother. Or one of the three aspects of Odin.

Verdhandi: The norn representing the present. The mother. "That which is becoming".

Vili: Odhinn's brother. Or one of the three aspects of Odin.

Ymir: Androgynous Giant created in the Ginnungagap.


1. Which goddess dies of a heartache after someones death?

2. Which goddess had her hair cut off as a trick?

3. Who is the God of the Runes?

4. Who’s name means, “Harm”?

5. Skadi was married to whom, and why did they split up?

6. Who is one of the elder race of gods?

7. The country Scandinavia is named after her. Who is she?

8. Why did Tyr sacrifice his hand to the Fenris wolf?

9. Name the 3 norms that represent the past, present and future.

10. Which god/goddess on the list are we most familiar with today?

Don't forget, the first student to send me the correct answer to the Trivia question will receive an extra 10pts. for their house.
Assignments will be due on:

Please send your assignments to Professor Parson at the link below. Please click on Flying Harry