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State

Capital

Slovenia

Ljubljana

Slovenija

Currency unit

euro

Connections

Balkans

Borders

EU

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Yugoslavia

YugoslaviaMap

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History

Formerly one of the constituent republics of Yugoslavia. Once it was a province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire - one of the first areas to be reconquered from the Ottomans. It became part of Yugoslavia following the dissolution of the Empire in 1918. The language is Slavic and distinct from Serbo-Croat and written with the Latin alphabet. The people are mostly Catholic. During the second world war it was divided between Italy and Germany (Austria).

It now has a non-communist government which wishes to resume its European connections with a free market and multi-party politics.

A referendum of the citizens on December 23 1990 voted to allow the local government to negotiate independence from Yugoslavia. This allowed any of a range of options from complete independence - which seemed unlikely at the time - to a looser confederation within a reconstructed Jugoslavia. The Serbs did not resist independence except briefly and fought the Croats instead. This may have been because there were few Serbs living within the boundaries of the republic.

Independence was declared 26 June 1991. The European Community recognized it in January 1992 at the insistence of Germany. It illustrates the problems of creating new sovereignties in present day conditions and Slovenia stands as a European example of the world-wide problem of ethnic diversity within existing states. Yugoslavia was set up at the wish mainly of the Serbs and foreigners.

The Serb-dominated government of Yugoslavia allowed Slovenia to become completely independent and the Slovenes have mostly escaped the troubles after a very brief war. By June 1993 there were encouraging signs that independence would not be challenged, but also of political turbulence which could lead to military influence on government. Conflict with Croatia seemed possible at the time. Fascists in Italy were making ominous noises about recovery of some formerly Italian (once Venetian) territories in Slovenia.

It has been the first to join the European Union (referendum in March 2003 voted yes to joining both the EU and NATO) and joined in 2004.

Languages

Slovene 90%

Serbian 2.2%

Croatian 2.9%

 History

 Economics

 Green

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Politics

Although there have been free elections in which the Communist party was defeated, the resulting parliament and government were described as "authoritarian" by the late Milovan Djilas, the elder statesman of Yugoslav politics. He said that there has never been a liberal democracy in Yugoslavia and that there is therefore not a lot to choose between the Serbian, Communist, government and the non-Communist but Nationalist governments of Croatia and Slovenia. But Slovenia was the only former republic which seemed likely to achieve democracy easily, as there are greater signs of tolerance there.

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Economics

The most successful of the Yugoslav republics, formerly contributing 30% of the Yugoslav GNP. The Slovenians argued that the Federal government could only maintain the army that was attacking them as a result of their own taxes.

This republic includes the Alpine skiing areas. It will probably be dominated by Austrian and German interests. Negotiations for association with the EU ended successfully and it entered the EU in 2005 with Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic, Malta and Cyprus.

As it kept out of the war, its economy is still functioning.

The Tolar was changed for the euro on 1 January 2007.

 History

 Politics

 Economics

 Rights

 Climate

Green/Ecology

Less affected by industrial pollution than the other republics of former Yugoslavia.

 History

 Politics

 Economics

 Green

 Climate

Human Rights

Better than in the other former republics. Now adopting the European norm of the European Convention of Human Rights and the Council of Europe's Court of Human Rights.

Climate effects

Shares the same problems of the other Alpine states - melting of glaciers, instability of the mountains, danger of droughts.

Last revised 5/12/11


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