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State

Capital

Euzkadi*

Guernica

Basque country

Currency unit

euro

Connections

Borders

France

Georgia

Spain

War

 Politics

 Economics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

History

An ancient people whose language is unrelated to any other in Europe. Possibly they are descended from ancient inhabitants of Europe before the Indo-Europeans arrived. The language has a small area of overlap with Sakartvelan from Georgia in the Caucasus.

The Basques now straddle the frontier between France and Spain. In Spain they formerly had ancient rights to their own customs and laws - the Fueros. At one time they were the people of the kingdom of Navarre which came under French control. They were also the people of Gascony though their language is extinct there now. Under the Franco dictatorship (1936-75) their language was forbidden public use and their rights were suppressed. A resistance force, ETA (Basque Land and Liberty) was formed and used terrorist methods, including the assassination of policemen and Franco's designated successor Admiral Carrera Blanca.

Under the present democratic government the Basques in Spain have a devolved government with its own local police. Their language can be used in their parliament. But some of the resistance forces who fought the Franco dictatorship have continued to use terrorism in the name of complete independence. This remains one of the main problems of the present Spanish government. ETA (Euzkadi Ta Azkatasuna) shows many similarities to the IRA in Northern Ireland.

The French Basques show fewer signs of wishing to have independence or to join up with those of Spain. Independence for either group is unlikely. The language shows some signs of declining but will probably survive.

Languages

Basque

Spanish

French

 History

 Economics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

Politics

Devolved government in Spanish part. No autonomy in France. As in Northern Ireland politics is mainly about constitutional status.

 History

 Politics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

Economics

Formerly one of the main heavy industrial areas of Spain. Now famous for originating the Mondragon Corporation, a network of industrial and retail cooperatives.

 History

 Politics

 Economics

 Rights

 Climate

Green/Ecology

 History

 Politics

 Economics

 Green

 Climate

Human Rights

The repression of the Franco period has come to an end.

Climate effects

Last revised 6/10/11


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