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State

Capital

Somaliland*

Hargeisa

Currency unit

Somaliland shilling

Connections

East

Empire

Islam

Somalia

War

 Politics

 Economics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

History

The territory of part of the former British colony of British Somaliland. At independence the territory was united with the former Italian colony. However, the people had voted against the merger and the Constitution of the merged state but their vote was ignored.

For many years the united state seemed to be successful, mainly because it received lots of military aid, first from the Soviet Union as a counter to American presence in Ethiopia, then from the Americans when the Ethiopian revolution brought in the Soviet Union. However, eventually both Cold War sides abandoned Somalia and the regime became an undisguised tyranny.

The north was badly affected by the Siad Barre regime whose troops attacked towns and left them in ruins, bombing Hargeisa from the air.

The clans of the area proclaimed it in 1991 as an independent republic and wish to secede from the rest of the country, the former Italian colony.

Part of the territory declared itself independent and then joined with Puntland, another secessionist part of Somalia.

Can it get recognition from the rest of the world? So far the UN seems to be committed to keeping Somalia as one country. However, reports say that the government has disarmed the warring clans and that it is much more peaceful than the south where the UN's activities were not obviously a success. The African Union refuses to recognise the country, fearing other secessions throughout Africa.

Possibly, if the Transitional Federal Government re-establishes government in Somalia itself, Somaliland might be persuaded to rejoin. At present this is very speculative. The TF "government" is at present (2008) a puppet of Ethiopia and so unlikely to be favored by the clans of Somaliland.

With the south in a state of war under Ethiopian occupation reuinification looks very unlikely.

Languages

Somali

English

 History

 Economics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

Politics

Three successive presidents have been democratically elected. Consultative assembly and council of elders.

Unlike in Somalia there is a functioning government.

Parliamentary elections due later in 2005.

Article on Somaliland In Africa this past week a completely peaceful presidential election was held. International observers said it met all the western standards for a free election. What's more, the incumbent president fully accepted the result the minute it was announced and handed over power to his successor and bitter political rival and on accepting his victory, the president-elect thanked and congratulated the outgoing president for his services to his country.

 History

 Politics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

Economics

The economy is undermined by consumption of Qat - an amphetamine drug from Ethiopia.

Main income is from people working overseas, and from export of livestock. However, the main market for meat was Saudi Arabia which banned imports from 1998 until 2006, alleging disease. The livestock trade collapsed but may be reviving now.

But the country can't get loans from international organisations, as it is not recognised.

 History

 Politics

 Economics

 Rights

 Climate

Green/Ecology

The grazing seems to be becoming more arid.

 History

 Politics

 Economics

 Green

 Climate

Human Rights

Perhaps better than in Somalia.

Climate effects

Last revised 28/06/11


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