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State

Capital

Chad

Ndjamena

Tchad

Currency unit

CFA franc

Connections

Borders

Central

Francophonie

Libya

War

Sahel

 Politics

 Economics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

History

One of the countries which straddles the border between black Africa and the Arabs. The north is dry Sahara desert country, whereas the south is Sahel and Savannah.

Chad is a typical colonial construction, having no historic integrity or reason to exist. Surely, there is no "nation" (group feeling), merely a state or government - and not much of that. It is one of those states which are disputed between the Arabs of the north and the non-Arabs to the south. Perhaps the southern part should go with parts of Cameroon or Nigeria or Niger and the north with a central Saharan state.

800 Kingdom of Kanem, centered on northern Nigeria.

1891 the area was explored by the French. It became a colony in 1900. Independence came in 1960, since when there have been numerous civil wars. In 1977 Libya annexed a strip in the north (perhaps hoping for Uranium). There is some oil in the area near the lake but as long as the wars went on it was not possible to exploit it.

In December 1990 a rebel group based in Sudan and possibly assisted by Libya took over the government. It is quite likely that this too will prove transient but if it proves to consist of Islamic fundamentalists the southerners may revolt.

In May 1994 Libya was reported to have returned the Aouzo Strip.

The oil is now being developed. Where will the money go?

There is a French military presence in the country, presumably to safeguard French interests in the oil and uranium.

Languages

French and Arabic: languages of government.

 

Kanuri

other langs.

200 ethnic groups: Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad.

 History

 Economics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

Politics

The government is controlled by whichever ethnic military leader has seized it.

Currently Idriss Deby since 1990 (one of the longest serving presidents since independence in 1960). He is a former general who has been through a process of election against other candidates but who originally seized power from a rebellion based in Darfur.

A military attack on President Deby from eastern Chad was reported in April 2006. This may be connected with the Darfur problem in Sudan. The Janjaweed, armed by the Sudan government, are also operating in eastern Chad, burning African villages, belonging to people related to the people being ethnically cleansed in Darfur.

In February 2008 a rebel force briefly captured the capital, though were driven out again with the aid of French forces.

 History

 Politics

 Green

 Rights

 Climate

Economics

Allegedly there is Uranium, which may be why Libya has seized territory but none has been proved.

Oil has been found in the south. Pipelines will take it through Cameroon.

Who will get the benefit? The World Bank has made a condition of the money being used for a development plan, but the government is syphoning the money into military purchases.

 History

 Politics

 Economics

 Rights

 Climate

Green/Ecology

Yet another oil field is being developed. The Lake Chad has shrunk almost to nothing. Could the area produce solar energy in future? Those areas nearer the coast have advantages but clear skies should allow solar collection on a large scale.

 History

 Politics

 Economics

 Green

 Climate

Human Rights

None

Climate effects

The african monsoon belt is likely to move further north, thus making the southern area wetter.

Last revised 25/09/08


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