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ROOT LIVING THINGS - Cellular and (noncellular?):
Eukaryota, Eubacteria, Archaea and (Viruses, Viroids, and others?).
DOMAIN EUKARYOTA - Living organisms with nucleated cells and cytoskeleton:
Opisthokonts, Plantae, Chromista, and Protista.
OPISTHOKONTS - Eukaryotes with posterior location of flagellum and certain biologically comparative similarities:
Metazoa and Fungi.
KINGDOM METAZOA - (Animals) Opisthokonts with an extracellular matrix:
Eumetazoa, sponges, and parasites of invertebrates (Mesozoans).
BRANCH EUMETAZOA - Animals with more complexity than Mesozoans and sponges:
Bilateria, jellyfishes, and others.
GRADE BILATERIA - Eumetazoan animals with left/right embryonic symmetry:
Coelomata, worms, and others.
COELOMATA - Bilateral animals with an internal cavity coated by a mesodermic membrane:
Deuterostomia, mollusks, and others.
DIVISION DEUTEROSTOMIA - Coelomate animals with two openings:
Chordata, starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and others.
PHYLLUM CHORDATA - Deuterostome animals with notochords:
Craniata, tunicates, sea squirts, lancelets, and others.
CRANIATA - Chordate animals with skulls:
Vertebrata, hagfishes, and others.
SUBPHYLLUM VERTEBRATA - (Vertebrates) Skulled animals with backbones of bony or cartilaginous vertebrae:
Gnathostomata, lampreys, and others.
SUPERCLASS GNATHOSTOMATA - Vertebrates with upper and lower jaws:
Teleostomi, sharks, rays, sawfish, and extinct armored jawed vertebrates.
TELEOSTOMI - Jawed vertebrates with mouth terminal in position, narrow-based braincase, and three otoliths in ear:
Osteichthyes and extinct relatives.
OSTEICHTHYES - (Bony vertebrates) Teleostomi with endochondral bone and jaws differentiated by dentary, premaxillary, and maxillary divisions:
Sarcopterygii, ray-finned fishes, and extinct relatives.
SARCOPTERYGII - Bony vertebrates with limbs that bear digits:
Stegocephalians, lung fishes, and extinct relatives.
STEGOCEPHALIANS - (Terrestrial vertebrates) Sarcopterygii with various cranial and notochord changes, and fin losses:
Tetrapoda, some aquatic paired-finned Sarcopterygii, and extinct relatives.
TETRAPODA - Terrestrial vertebrates with four limbs:
Anthracosauria, amphibians, and extinct relatives.
ANTHRACOSAURIA - Tetrapods with pentadactyl condition (five digits):
Amniota and extinct relatives.
AMNIOTA - (Embolomeres) Anthracosaurs with membrane-covered embryonic egg:
Synapsida, Reptilia, and extinct relatives.
SYNAPSIDA - Embolomers with single large opening in the skull behind each eye socket:
Eupelycosauria and extinct Caseasauria.
EUPELYCOSAURIA - Synapsids with a long, narrow supratemporal and large frontal changes of the dorsal orbital margin:
Sphenacodontia and extinct relatives.
SPHENACODONTIA - Eupelycosaurs with maxillary supracanine buttress changes and premaxillary teeth in deep sockets:
Sphenacodontoidea and extinct relatives.
SPHENACODONTOIDEA - Sphenacodonts with lateral frontal orbitals, prefrontal pockets, and no vomerine teeth:
Therapsida and extinct Sphenacodontidae.
THERAPSIDA - Spenacodontoids with further refinements of bone, skull, and teeth:
Theriodontia and extinct relatives.
THERIODONTIA - Therapsids with smaller skulls and various teeth relationships:
Cynodontia and extinct relatives.
CYNODONTIA - Theriodonts with well developed specialized teeth:
Mammalia and cynodonts (extinct mammal-like reptiles).
CLASS MAMMALIA - (Mammals) Warm-blooded Cynodontia with mammary glands:
Theria, Monotremata, and extinct relatives.
SUBCLASS THERIA - Mammals that do not lay eggs:
Eutheria and Marsupialia.
INFRACLASS EUTHERIA - (Placentals) Therian mammals with placentas:
Artiodactyla and twenty-one other Orders (four extinct).
ORDER ARTIODACTYLA - Placental ungulates with cloven hooves and an even-number of toes:
Ruminantia, pigs, peccaries, hippos, camels, llamas, and extinct relatives.
SUBORDER RUMINANTIA - (Ruminants) Artiodactyls with four stomachs:
Pecora and nonhorned chevrotains.
INFRAORDER PECORA - Ruminants with horns or antlers:
Bovoidea, pronghorn, deer, okapi, and giraffes.
SUPERFAMILY BOVOIDEA - Pecora having horns with a bony matrix covered by a keratinous hollow case:
Bovidae, pronghorn, and extinct relatives.
FAMILY BOVIDAE - (Bovids) Bovoidea with non-branched perenial horns:
Bovinae and ten other Subfamilies: Cattle, oxen, bison, buffalo, kudu, goats, gazelles, duikers, and antelopes.
SUBFAMILY BOVINAE - Large, horned, ruminant bovids:
Bos and six other Genuses: Cattle, oxen, bison, buffalo, kudu, and extinct relatives.
GENUS BOS - Bovinae with refined cattle-like characteristics:
Bos taurus and ten other Species: Cattle, oxen, and extinct Aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius).
SPECIES BOS TAURUS - (Cows) European domestic cattle breeds and domesticated feral cattle:
Other names: Bos bovis, Bos primigenius taurus, bovine, domestic cow, domestic cattle, and cattle.