These are lines that I haven't gotten around to researching in depth, so the information is a bit sparse. One of the good things about creating these pages is that it gives me a chance to see what areas need more attention!
I begin each family with the couple that is furthest back in the lineage and move forward.
Thomas GOULET & Antoinette FEILLARD & Marie CHAULMEL
Thomas was a miller by trade. He married Antoinette, daughter of David FEILLARD & Mathurine NAVARRE in Normandy, France on 2 August 1613; nothing else is known about David & Mathurine. Thomas & Antoinette's only known child is JACQUES. Sadly, Antoinette Feillard died sometime between 25 May 1622 and 17 August 1627. On the latter date, Thomas married Marie in Normandy, France. Thomas and Marie had a daughter, LOUISE .3,8
Thomas Goulet died between 29 September 1652 and 18 November 1659; this is also the time frame for the death of Marie Chaulmel.3,8
Jacques was born about 1615 to Thomas & Antoinette FEILLARD.1 He married Marguerite, the daughter of Jean & Catherine CHAUVIN (about whom nothing else is known) on 21 November 1645 in St. Pierre de Poterie, France.4 Marguerite's surname has been recorded as Mailler and Mulier. The couple had 12 children:
Genevieve- Baptized 28 October 1646 and buried 14 December 1646.3
Nicolas- Baptized 15 December 1647 at Québec City. Nicolas entered into a marriage contract with fille du roi Catherine Leroux on 3 September 1670. At some time between that date and 13 October that contract was annulled; and on 13 October, Catherine entered into another contract with and subsequently married René Goulet!!! Family gatherings may have been tense for awhile after that. Nicolas went on to find a more loyal mate in the form of Sainte Cloutier, daughter of Zacharie CLOUTIER & Madeleine ÉMARD; they married 24 November 1672 at Château-Richer, Québec. Their children of interest are:
Nicolas Goulet and Sainte Cloutier's death details are unknown.3,7
- Jean Baptiste- Born about 1677. He married Marguerite Blouard, daughter of Mathurin & Marguerite Paulet, on 12 January 1672 in Ste. Famille. Marguerite had been baptized in Québec on 25 January 1660. Their child was Marie Louise. Jean Baptiste Goulet was buried 10 April 1744 in St. Pierre.
Jacques- Baptized 12 April 1649 at Château-Richer.3
René- Baptized 27 October 1650 at Sillery, he is the one who stole Catherine Leroux from older brother Nicolas; they were married 29 October 1670 at Château-Richer; after which time, Catherine received the King's Gift of 50 livres. She was the daughter of Henri & Elisabeth Chardon and was born in 1653 in St. Sulpice, Paris, France; she came to Canada in 1670. It does not seem as if René got the better end of the deal; in 1680, Catherine decided to go back to France. The following year, René's father borrowed 800 livres so that René could join Catherine in France. The two returned to Canada in 1682. René, a carriage maker, was buried 28 July 1717 in Montreal. Catherine died at the Hôtel-Dieu in Montreal on 3 May 1728 and was buried two days later in Montreal.3,7
Charles- Born about 1648. Married Marie Anne Rancin 11 November 1686 in L'Ange-Gardien; her parents are not known.3
Jacques- Born about 1659.3
Thomas- Baptized 2 April 1661 at Château-Richer. Married Marie Pancatelin on 25 October 1683 at L'Ange-Gardien; her parents are unknown.3
François- Baptized 15 January 1664 at Château-Richer.3
Louis- Baptized 28 August 1664 at Sillery. Married Marie Godin 7 September 1682 at L'Ange-Gardien. Marie was the daughter of Charles & Marie Boucher. Louis Goulet died sometime before 8 October 1687, which is when Marie boucher married Pierre Denis.3
Antoine- Baptized 20 August 1666 at Château-Richer. Married Madeleine Guyon, daughter of Joseph & Genevieve CLOUTIER, on 19 February 1692 at L'Ange-Gardien. Madeleine Guyon was buried 12 May 1758 at L'Ange-Gardien.3
Jean- Baptized 5 March 1715 at L'Ange-Gardien.3
Jacques Goulet was buried 26 November 1688 in L'Ange-Gardien. Jeanne Maillier's death details are not known.3
Louise was born in La Poterie-au-Perche, Orne, Perche, France on 26 July 1628. Her parents were Thomas GOULET & Marie CHALUMEL. René was born about 1627, probably in the same area as Louise; his parents names are unknown.1 The couple were married at St. Pierre-de-la-Poterie, Orne, Perche, France about 16521 or 16543. It is not known when this couple immigrated to Canada.
René and Louise had 4 known children:
Anne- Born 1654 in France. Married butcher Jean Mathieu on 3 November 1669 in Château-Richer, Québec. Jean's place of origin and parents are unknown. They had 3 known children; Anne, Marie, and Jean.
Anne was buried 14 April 1696 and Jean was buried 1 May 1699, both at L'Ange-Gardien.1
Marie- Born 1655 in France. Married Mathurin Huot, who was born in France about 1646; parents are not known. They were married 25 November 1671 in L'Ange-Gardien.1 Their son, Pierre was a clerk and royal notary of Beaupré. Pierre married Marie Anne Parent; their daughter was Marie Josette Huot.1,2
Mathurin died sometime before 26 February 1710, the date of his son's wedding; he was listed as "defunct" in that record. Marie Letartre's death details are unknown.2
Charles- Born about 1657 in France; he made his living as a cobbler. On 8 November 1678, he married Marie Maheu, the daughter of Pierre Maheu & Jeanne Drouin; Marie was baptized 24 January 1663 at Château-Richer. Their daughter was Marie Letartre. No death information is available for Charles and Marie.1
René Letartre was buried 2 September 1699 at L'Ange-Gardien. Louise Goulet's death details are unknown.1
Joseph was the son of Jacques GOULET & Marguerite MAILLER or MULIER. He was baptized in Château-Richer on 30 March 1669.1
Anne was the daughter of Jean JULIEN & Madeleine GUÉRIN. She was presented for baptism on 26 October 1672 at L'Ange-Gardien by godparents Étienne Brin dit Lapensee and Anne Vezina.1,5
This couple married 20 July 1682 in L'Ange-Gardien. The week before, on 13 July, Anne received her share of the value of her parents' estate from her brother Nicolas, who bought out Anne and her sister. The total price paid was 300 livres; it is assumed that each sister received 150 livres.1,5
Of the couple's 9 children, Antoine GOULET , the second youngest, was our ancestor.1,2
The death information for this couple is unknown.
Antoine was born 30 August 1711 in L'Ange-Gardien, Quebec to Joseph GOULET & Anne JULIEN.1,2
Marie Angelique was baptized 7 Jan 1734 in L'Ange-Gardien; her parents were Jacques LABERGE & Marguerite GAGNON.2
Antoine married Marie Angelique, 23 years his junior, on 9 November 1744 in L'Ange-Gardien. Marie Angelique's signature appears on the marriage record; Antoine's is missing.2,9,10 This couple had 8 children; Agnes GOULET was 4th in the order.2
Marie Anne Laberge died 14 September 1765 at L'Ange-Gardien, where she was buried the next day. Antoine's death details are unknown.2
Michel JULIEN - Perrine CONTANT
Only their names and that they lived in Sainte-Verge de Poitiers, France, are know about this couple. Their son was Jean JULIEN.1,5
Jean was born about 1641 in Ste. Verge, Bressuire, Deux-Sevres, Poitou, France; his parents were Michel JULIEN & Perrine CONTANT. He is believed to have arrived in Canada about 1659. He made his confirmation on 20 February 1660 in Quebec City at Notre-Dame; the sacrament was administered by Monsignor de Laval. Jean was 19 years old.5
Five years later, on 20 October 1665, Jean entered into a marriage contract with Madeleine, a fille du roi from Vauxaillon, Picardy, France. She had been born there in 1646 or 1647 to Simon GUÉRIN & Nicole LEDUC; nothing else known about her parents. She arrived in Quebec about 1665 w/a dowry of 100 livres.5,7 The wedding between Jean and Madeleine took place 10 November 1665 in Quebec City; among the guests were Pierre Martin, Jean Normand and Jean Marchand.1,5,7 The following spring, Jean paid 120 livres tournois to Pierre Cartel for the purchase of land at L'Ange-Gardien that was known at the time as simply "#18". This land was on the Beaupre Coast, east of the Montmorency River and included some frontage on the St. Lawrence River. Their 3 children were born here; their two youngest children, Nicolas and Anne, would enrich our lineage with their descendants. The oldest child, Marie Madeleine, born in 1667 at L'Ange-Gardien, would go on to marry shoemaker Pierre Riopel on 4 November 1687 at L'Ange-Gardien. She would die in December 1702, a victim of the 1702-1703 epidemic.5
On 23 June 1673, an inventory of property of "the late Jean Julien" was completed by notary Paul Vachon. No death record has been found for Jean; historians assume that this was due to a sudden death.5
Madeleine went on to marry Pierre Boivin and to reside in both L'Ange-Gardien and Neuville, Quebec--indeed, the couple is listed in the 1681 census in both of those places.5
Madeleine Guérin died sometime after January 1699.5
Nicolas was born to Jean JULIEN & Madeleine GUÉRIN on 3 November 1669 at L'Ange-Gardien and baptized 9 November at Château-Richer.1,5
As mentioned earlier, Nicolas bought the Julien family land from his sisters on 13 June 1692. In an interesting glimpse of the time in which they lived, it was noted that Nicolas paid the husbands of his sisters for the property. Such a move would not fly in today's society!5
Now that he had his land, Nicolas needed a wife. On 14 February 1695, Nicolas wed Marie at L'Ange-Gardien.1,2,5 Marie was born about 1675, the daughter of René BRISSON & Anne VEZINA, about whom nothing else is known.2,5 This couple had 3 known children; Jean is the one that most concerns us.
Nicolas Julien died in 1716. His widow Marie married Ange Prevost in 1719. Marie Brisson was buried 21 October 1750 in Charlesbourg, Quebec.1,5
Jean was baptized 14 September 1698 at L'Ange-Gardien, the son of Nicolas JULIEN & Marie BRISSON.1 His wedding to Louise took place on 8 February 1717 at L'Ange-Gardien.1 Louise was the daughter of Nicolas TRUDEl & Barbe LETARTRE, and had been baptized at L'Ange-Gardien a year before her husband, on 20 December 1697.1
Nicolas and Louise's only known child is Barbe.
Death details for Jean Julien and Louise Trudel are not known.
Nothing more than their names are known. Their son is Jean.6
Plowman Jean Trudel's place of origin in France and date of birth is unknown; his parents are Jacques TRUDEL & Françoise REVEL. We know that he married Marguerite, but the date and place of that event is a mystery, as are the parents and place of origin of Marguerite. Her surname may also be Royer.6
The couple had one known child, Jean. And while we do not know exactly where the child Jean was born, we do know that the ancestral home for this family was located in the Perche area of France outside a town called Parfondeval, near Courgeoust at La Basse Cheverye. It is in Courgeoust that Jean Trudel, husband of Marguerite, was buried on 30 December 1652. Marguerite's date/place of death are unknown.6
In 1911, the descendants of the son of Jean and Marguerite made a pilgrimage to this ancestral land. They noted that the foundation of the original home was still visible, even after 258 years or more. Then, they erected a monument to honor Jean Trudel, son of Jean and Marguerite Noyer. Would you like to see it for yourself? Go through Parfondeval on the D931 route. After going through Parfondeval, take the first left (toward Courgeoust) to La Basse Cheverye. If anyone does actually go there, I'd love for you to send me a picture that I could put up on the site! 6
Jean's parents are Jean TRUDEL & Marguerite NOYER and he was born at La Basse Cheverye about 1629. Jean was a weaver of linen and canvas. He immigrated to Canada about 1655 with his lifelong best friend, Pierre Maheust, who was also a linen weaver.6
On 13 November 1655, Jean made his way to notary Badeau in Québec City to have a marriage contract drawn up. His intended was one of the fille a marier, which was not in and of itself unusual. However, this girl--one Marguerite THOMAS--was not from France. She had come to Canada from Stavelot, Liège, Belgium, where she had been born in 1633 to Jean & Marguerite FREDRY, about whom nothing else is known. At only 4 years younger then her husband, Marguerite was no child bride! And so the contract was penned, although neither one of the couple could sign it. And, anxious to start their new life together, the couple were married the very next day in Québec City.6
The couple started married life in Beauport on a little slice of heaven called "La Chesnaye". But by 1657, they left that land to settle on the Beaupré coast--a lovely little spot with river frontage, as well as being conveniently located next to his friend Pierre Maheust.
By 1661, they were living within the boundaries of the parish of Château-Richer. But in 1664, they were part of the community of l'Ange-Gardien. How on earth did the family stand all this moving around?
They didn't--they didn't move at all!! As more and more people moved to the area, the need for more parishes arose. In fact, the Trudel household was the site of the first church warden election for l'Ange-Gardien, as well as having the first Mass for the new parish celebrated there. 5,6
Jean and Marguerite had 3 known children; their son Nicolas contributes to our lineage.
On 30 August 1695, Marguerite Thomas died at L'Ange-Gardien and was buried there on 1 September. The couple had been married almost 40 years. Five years later, Jean Trudel died on 25 November 1699 at L'Ange-Gardien. He was buried there the next day--presumably with his wife.6
Nicolas was baptized 12 April 1662 at Château-Richer, Québec; his parents were Jean TRUDEL & Marguerite THOMAS.6 It is not known where or when Barbe was born; her parents were René LETARTRE & Louise GOULET.1 Nicolas and Barbe were married on 7 January 1684 in L'Ange-Gardien.1
The couple had 4 known children, all girls:
Therese- Her date/place of birth is unknown. She married Guillaume Nolin on 8 October 1715 on the Île d'Orleans at St. Pierre. He was the son of Jacques & Françoise Chalifour; he was baptized 17 May 1693 at St. Pierre.
Guillaume and Therese had two children of note:
Guillaume Nolin was buried 8 May 1759 at St. Pierre. Therese Trudel's death details are unknown.1
- Marie Marthe- Born about 1722. She connected to two direct line families by first marrying François Noël; after his death, she married François Leclerc. It is not known when Marie-Marthe died.1,10
- Guillaume- Baptized 2 December 1718 at St. Pierre. He married Marie Madeleine Leclerc on 18 July 1746 at St. Pierre. She was baptized 7 August 1729 at St. Pierre, the daughter of Adrien Leclerc & Ursule Noël.1
It is unknown when Nicolas Trudel or Barbe Letartre died.
I have listed the couples in alphabetical order of the husband's last name. Some of the in-laws are featured on other pages; simply click on the names to take you directly to their information.
Jacques DAVID dit Pontife - Marie GRANDRY
Pierre Denis' surname is also spelled Aloignon. That is all that is known about him. Françoise was the daughter of JEAN & Madeleine GIGUÈRE; she was born about 1636, probably in France. The couple were married on 8 October 1652 in Québec City. They had the following children:
Françoise Roussin was buried 4 December 1691. Pierre Denis Loignon's death information is as mysterious as his birth.1
- Françoise- Born about 1659. Married Pierre Roberge on 3 July 1679 at Ste. Famille. He was born about 1637; his parents and origins are unknown. Their known child is Ambroise. Pierre Roberge was buried 17 June 1710 at St. Laurent. Françoise Loignon's death information is unknown.
- Marie- Born about 1659. Married Nicolas Drouin, son of Robert Drouin & Marie Chapelier; his baptism took place 7 January 1652 at Québec. The wedding of Nicolas and Marie happened on 6 November 1674 in Québec. Marie Loignon was buried 13 September 1717 at Ste. Famille. Nicolas Drouin was buried in the same place on 7 October 1723.
- Sébastienne- Date and place of birth unknown. She signed a marriage contract with Louis Lepage on 24 August 1667; the date of the actual marriage is not known. Louis was from Notre Dame d'Ouenne, Auxerre, France, where he was born about 1636 to Ètienne & Nicole Berthelot. He came to Canada with his brother Germain and sister Constance; they settled on the Île d'Orléans in the parish of St. François. Sébastienne Loignon was buried 3 December 1702 at St. François. Louis Lepage was buried there as well, on 27 November 1710.
The parents of this couple are not known. Pierre was born about 1602 in Fribourg, Switzerland. A notation in Tanguay claims that Pierre had an ancestor that died in Louisiana at 120 years old!
Genealogy of Canada shows that Charlotte was born about 1607 in St. Germaine, Saintonge, France; Tanguay says 1581.
The couple were married either about 1629 in Fribourg, Switzerland or 1631 at Brouage, France; two of their 4 children were born in France.
The family had arrived in Canada by 1650, the year of their oldest daughter's marriage in Québec. Pierre was a master carpenter as well as being captain of the militia of the Lauzon coast.
The children of Pierre and Charlotte are:
On 16 Jul 1665, Pierre, along with sons Jacques and François, were granted the "Canton des Suisses Fribourgeois" at La Pocatière, Québec. Pierre would not live there for long; he died 14 October 1669 at Lauzon, Québec. Charlotte Maugis would live seven more years before her burial "in the church known as Cote de Lauzon" at Levis, Québec.
- Marie- Born 13 December 1632 in Brouage, France. She married Mathieu Amyot 22 November 1650 in Québec City. Mathieu was born about 1628 in Soissons, France, one of 3 known children of Philippe Amyot & Anne Convent. Philippe & Anne were married about 1627 in France. Philippe's parents and date of birth are unknown; Anne was born about 1601 in Estre, France to Guillaume Convent & Antoinette De Longval. Philippe Amyot died sometime before September 1639, when Anne married Jacques Maheu. After Jacques' death in Quebec in 1663, Anne went on to marry Etienne Blanchon before she died in December 1675. It is not clear if Philippe & Anne immigrated to Canada together with one or more of their children, of if Anne made the crossing as a widow. It is not known when Mathieu immigrated to Canada. Mathieu & Marie had 15 children; the one we are concerned with is Anne Marie.
Mathieu Amyot was buried 19 December 1688 at Québec City. Marie Miville died at the Hôtel Dieu du Québec 5 September 1702.
- Jacques- Born 2 May 1639 in St.Hilaire d'Hiers-Brouage, Rochefort, Saintes, Saintonge, France.
- Suzanne- Born about 1632. She married Antoine Paulet, son of Antoine & Marie Deshayes, on 12 April 1655 in Québec. Antoine had been born in Dieppe, Normandy, France. Antoine and Suzanne had two known children, Antoine and Marguerite
- François- Born about 1630. He married Marie Langlois, daughter of Noël Langlois & Françoise Grenier; Marie was baptized 19 August 1636 in Québec. Their daughter is Michelle.
Jacques was born about 1641 in St. Jean de Perot, LaRochelle, France to parents Jacques & Marguerite Gaillard, about whom nothing else is known. Françoise was baptized 16 December 1657, daughter of Paul & Jacquette Archambeault. They were married 18 November 1671 at Québec City. Their child of note was Guillaume.
Françoise died sometime before Guillaume & Therese married in 1715 as she was listed as "defunct". Jacques Nolin was buried 15 February 1729 at St. Pierre.1
Had this couple been in the direct line, they would have certainly had their own page. Here, I give them their own little section as two of their sons married Trudel girls.
Pierre Parent or Parant was a native of France--the Mortagne-sur-Gironde, Cozes area in the Charente-Maritime. He was born to André Parent & Marie Coudret; when this occurred is in question. His actual death certificate, from 1698,. claims that he was 88 years old when he died, which would have his year of birth about 1610. Volume 19 of "Our French-Canadian Ancestors" shows a birth year of 1638. I don't know which is correct. Pierre probably came to Canada about 1649 or 1650. He was a butcher by trade, but limited in formal education; he made his mark on documents by drawing an axe.1,5
In 1653, Pierre moved to a plot of land at Beauport. This was near Jean Badeau & Anne Ardouin, parents of his future wife, Jeanne Badeau.5
Jean Badeau and Anne Ardouin were married in France in 1631 and had come to Canada from La Rochelle, France, about 1647.5 The known Badeau children were:
- Madeleine- Baptized 24 April 1634 at Ste. Marguerite in La Rochelle, she died in France.5
- Jeanne- Born at La Rochelle about 1638 and 1639. She was an accomplished young girl of 15 or 16 years old and a former student of the Ursulines when she turned the head of Pierre Parent.5
- François- Also born in France, he became a notary.5
- Jean- Born in France, he married Marguerite Chalifour, daughter of Paul & Jacquette Archambault, on 28 October 1665 at Québec. Marguerite was buried 28 December 1705; Jean was buried 27 August 1711, both in Québec City.5
- Suzanne- Baptized 18 August 1651 in Québec, she married Jean DeRainville, son of Paul DeRainville & Roline Poete. Suzanne died about 1669.5
Pierre Parent and Jeanne Badeau's February wedding was accompanied by all the pomp and circumstance of the day. The banns were published; on 20 December 1653, 11 January 1654, and 18 January 1654. The customary marriage contract was also penned, on 2 February 1654, in the presence of and signed by notary François Badeau, brother of the bride-to-be. And on 9 February 1654--on a Monday, again according to the custom of the times--Pierre and Jeanne appeared at the home of Robert Giffard, Sieur of Beauport, and were married by Jesuit Father Barthélemi Vimont.5
By 1681, Pierre and Jeanne had a large farm with four hired hands. Over the years, Pierre not only plied his trade as a butcher, but as a lime merchant and quarryman. Pierre had acquired a quarry in 1660 and began producing "Beauport stone". He seemed a man who didn't have enough hours in the day to do everything he wanted to do! Perhaps this is why Jeanne handled some of the family's business matters as well. And they were indeed successful; so much so that in November 1688, Jeanne contracted to have a small "sky-scraper" built in Québe's Lower Town on the Rue Sault-au-Matelot. This 3-story house was build with Beauport stone, 45 x 30 feet, with openings chiseled in stone. Two cut stone chimneys, side by side, were the finishing touch.
There may have been a reason for the hard work of this couple--they had a whopping 18 children, which included a set of triplets! The triplets all survived to adulthood; no small feat in the 1600's! But to save space, we will only detail those children who impact our family, as follows:
- Pierre- Child number three in the birth order, Pierre was born about 1660. His marriage to Marguerite Baugis took place 23 November 1683 in Beauport. Their son, Pierre, married the beleagured Catherine Noël.5
- Étienne- One of the triplets, he was 11th in birth order; he and his brothers were born about 1674 at Beauport. Étienne was a mason by trade. After being widowed by Marie Thèrése Chevalier, he married Genevieve Trudel, daughter of Nicolas TRUDEL & Barbe LETARTRE who was baptized 2 March 1696 at L'Ange-Gardien, Québec. They were married 28 April 1727 at L'Ange-Gardien. Étienne died about 1756.1,5
- Antoine- Born 3 September 1683 in Beauport, he is the baby of the family. Antoine married Marie Barbe Trudel on 16 April 1708 in L'Ange-Gardien. She was also a daughter of Nicolas TRUDEL & Barbe LETARTRE and was baptized 11 October 1689 in L'Ange-Gardien.1,5
At some point in time, Pierre fell victim to a prolonged illness. He died on 5 August 1698 in Beauport, where he was buried the next day.5
Jeanne Badeau became ill in 1702; so ill that she had her will drawn up that October. Happily, she rallied and enjoyed relatively good health for the next four years. On 18 November 1706, she once again made a will. And none too soon, for she died 4 days later on 22 November. She was buried the next day in the Beauport cemetery.5
Antoine is the son of Antoine & Suzanne Miville, baptized 23 January 1656 at Ste. Famille. Anne was born about 1653, the daughter of Pierre Denis & Françoise Roussin. Prior to this marriage, she had been widowed by Jean Choret.
Wedding bells rang out for this couple on 13 February 1685 in St. Pierre.1
Antoine & Anne had the following children:
Antoine Paulet was buried 25 November 1722 at St. Pierre. Nothing is known about the death of Anne Loignon.
- Jean Baptiste- Baptized 7 November 1700 at St. Pierre. He married Marie Joseph Roy, daughter of Jean & Catherine Nadeau, on 6 August 1726 at St. Laurent. Neither of them could sign the marriage record. Their known child was Jean François. It is not known when Jean Baptiste Paulet or Marie Joseph Roy died.
Sources for this page are:
1. Tanguay's Dictionary
2. The Drouin Collection at Ancestry
3. Genealogy of Canada
4. Passenger Lists
5. "Our French-Canadian Ancestors", Volumes 3,8,19 by Thomas J. Laforest
6. "Before the Kings Daughters: The Filles à Marier" by Peter J. Gagné
7. "Kings Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi" by Peter J. Gagné
8. Ann R.
9. "Repertoire de Marriage de Trois-Rivières"
10. Isle of Orleans Catholic Church Marriages, 1666-1963 on CD-Rom ISBN: 1-58211-241-X
This page was updated January 2012 .
Noel Family of Brockton, MA by Jolynn Noel Winland is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License
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