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Boucher-Crevier-Hertel

This page is dedicated to my 12th great-uncle, Pierre Boucher. His mother-in-law, Jeanne Évard, was my 11th great-grandmother. Jeanne drove Pierre to distraction, as you will read below. As a bit of good-natured teasing across the centuries, I am putting them on a page together. As an added touch of whimsy, I made the background bugs--as a symbol of how much Jeanne "bugged" Pierre.


BOUCHER

Gaspard and Marin, the two men from which our Boucher line originates, have caused a fair share of headaches for historians. Cyprien Tanguay links them together as brothers. However, in Volume 4 of "Our French Canadian Ancestors", it is pointed out that one Father Archange Godbout did "patient research" on what is known as the "Percheron Immigration". Father Godbout found that while Gaspard and Marin were indeed related, they were not brothers and are most likely cousins. Jeanne is the sister of Marin, not Gaspard. And Jacques BOUCHER & Françoise PAGINÉ are most likely the parents of Gaspard. Furthermore, on 24 August 1638, Marin was called to testify on the voyage of "his relative" Gaspard Boucher, who arrived in Canada in 1634. I have found a lot of family information online that shows Jacques and Françoise as the parents of all three of these children. However, I tend to lean toward the "patient research" (I really love that phrase from OFCA!) of Father Godbout.
However they are related, the three Boucher's contribute their share of humanity to our lineage. Marin's daughter Marie gave two direct-line ancestresses to this family. Jeanne contributes to the enrichment of this line by her connection through the LALONDE line. And Gaspard himself, not to be outdone, stakes his claim at a direct line descendancy to our family through the CHAMPOUX parade of descendants. How cozy!
Both Marin and Gaspard's contribution to our lineage is a daughter. To add to all the Boucher confusion, both of those daughters are named Marie.

Because Marin is older, we will focus on him first.

Marin BOUCHER - Juliane Baril - Perinne MALET

Marin was born between 1587-1589 in Lagny, Perche, France and was a mason by trade. Both of his marriages took place in France. His first wife, Juliane Baril, met Marin at the alter on 7 February 1611 in St.Langis-lez-Mortagne,Perche,France. They had 7 children before Juliane died on 15 December 1627.5
Marin next married Perrine MALET about 1629. Perrine was the daughter of Pierre MALET & Jacqueline LIGER from Courgeout, Orne, France, where Perrine was born between 1604-1606. Marin and Perrine had 2 children in France before leaving for Canada in 1634. Along with their own children, they were accompanied by Marin's son François from his previous marriage. They would have 5 more children after they settled in Canada; one of which would be our ancestress Marie BOUCHER.5

Upon arriving in New France, Marin settled his family on the St. Charles River on land abandoned by the Recollects. Marin seemed to fall into very good company after arriving in Canada. He was mentioned in Samuel Champlain's will as the lucky recipient of the newest suit that Champlain had made before his death! In a time when new clothes were real luxury items, this was a huge deal.5
Like many of our ancestors, Marin moved around a bit. He finally seemed to settle in or near Château-Richer, Quebec, where he died on 29 March 1671. He was given the last rites and sacraments by missionary priest F. Fillion and was subsequently buried at Château-Richer. Perrine lived until August of 1687, when she was buried at Quebec.5

Thomas HAYOT - Jeanne BOUCHER

Gaspard BOUCHER - Nicole LEMAINE

Gaspard was a carpenter from Lagny, Mortagne, Perche, France; born there about 1600. His parents are believed to be Jacques BOUCHER & Françoise PAIGNÉ; their names are all that is known. Gaspard married Nicole about 1619.5
The name of Nicole's father in unknown; he died sometime before 20 April 1635. On that date, Nicole's mother, Marie GASTRIE, was referred to as the "abandoned wife of Pierre Delorme" in an act that was drawn up to provide a larger inheritance for daughter Nicole and her husband Gaspard. It seems that Nicole and Gaspard had provided for Marie after her husband's desertion--and had done so freely and willingly without expecting repayment.5
Gaspard and Nicole immigrated to Canada in 1634 with their 5 children:
Charles- Born in France in 1620 and died as an infant.5
Antoinette- Born in France in 1621 and died in France.5
Pierre
MARIE
Marguerite- Born in Mortagne, France in 1631 and died in 1669 in Québec.5
Madeleine- Born in 1634, she is believed by historians to have been born at sea during the family's crossing to Canada. She died in Trois-Rivières in 1691.5

The Bouchers landed at Québec, lived on land owned by the Jésuit missionaries in Beauport for a time, and in 1644 settled at Trois-Rivières.5
The death records for Gaspard and Nicole have been lost. Historians are quite sure that Gaspard died sometime between 1662 and 1668. They also feel that he may have died in a fire that consumed his home. The exact date of that incident is not known. What is known is that on 27 June 1668, his daughter Madeleine claimed that the clear title to land that was in the family's possession was burned in the house. Nicole Lemaine was alive on 19 June 1652, when she was shown as godmother in a parish record--after that, nothing more can be located.5
A footnote in Tanguay's reads, "Gaspard Boucher counts among his descendants Governors, Bishops, Judges, and a great number of the most remarkable families of Canada."

Pierre Boucher - Madeleine Chrétienne- Jeanne Crevier

I usually don't have a section for a relative that is not in the direct line. But because Pierre was so instrumental in the successful settlement of Trois-Rivières and Canada in general--and because the page is dedicated to his memory--I give you my 12th great-uncle, Pierre Boucher

Pierre was baptized at Mortagne, France on 1 August 1622 and came to Canada in 1634 with his parents Gaspard & Nicole LEMAINE.5
As a young boy, Pierre worked with the Jésuit missionaries in Huronia, learning the customs and dialects of the Indians. In 1642, he helped found the Ville-Marie colony, which would later become Montreal. Two years later, he became the clerk and Indian interpreter at Trois-Rivières. He helped defend against Indian raids on the town; and when his parents moved to Trois-Rivières, he considered it his new home.5
On 8 April, 1649, Pierre married Marie Madeleine Chrétienne at Trois-Rivières. Her true surname was Ouebadinakoue and she was an Indian girl. Pierre felt that it would benefit the colony if the French and Indians could intermarry successfully. Pierre's family was supportive of the union, but it did not last long. A son named Jacques was born to them but died only days later; soon after, Marie Madeleine Chrétienne herself died.5
On 6 June 1651, Pierre was appointed the Commandant of Trois-Rivières. On 9 July of 1652, he wed Jeanne Crevier, daughter of Christophe & Jeanne ÉVARD or LENARD; she had been born in France in 1636.5
On 18 August of 1652, eight canoes of Iroquois Indians attacked a party of colonists crossing the Trois-Rivières River. Mathurin Guillet and notary Bonjonnier were killed instantly; the other two men were taken captive. The next day, despite Pierre Boucher's insistence that it was a bad idea, the little town found itself battling the Iroquois. Although the Iroquois did major damage, the colonists held them at bay for nine days. Pierre Boucher was the one who negotiated the truce between the warring factions; for this, he was awarded the position of Governor of Trois-Rivières, since the current governor had been killed during the fray.5
Pierre held this position for only five years due to, in no small part, the antics of his in-laws. In fact, the very first hearing of the new court of Trois-Rivières involved his mother in law, Jeanne Énard, who had fallen out with Marie Sedilot over a calf. Pierre considered the facts and rendered a judgment that did not favor his mother-in-law as much as she would have liked; this could not have sat well with her. Jeanne and her sons were also notorious for their dealings with the Indians. They would trade things such as firearms--along with the powder and shot!--as well as brandy to the Indians for furs. The brandy trade was frowned upon by the Church; and trading guns to the folks who might turn around and attack you with them--well, that simply makes no sense.
Pierre became more and more frustrated and unhappy with his in-laws' activities. Not only did they embarrass him and put him in an awkward position, but they troubled him deeply on a humanitarian level. He had put much effort into trying to live side by side with the Indians. Yes, he would defend his people against them if need be, but he preferred to try and get along with them; and he certainly did not want to see them exploited. Between the dealings of his in-laws and what I have to imagine would be the stomach-turning prospect of working with Quentin Moral on a regular basis in court, Pierre ended up leaving in 1657 to live on his land at what would come to be known as Boucherville. But in 1661, he was asked by the new Governor to sail to France to ask for assistance from the King for the beleaguered country. Pierre's audience with King Louis XIV was very successful in arousing greater interest in Canada from France. Because of Pierre's efforts, the Marquis de Tracy arrived with the Carignan-Salières Regiment for the defense of the colony and Intendant Jean Talon was dispatched to oversee the running of the colony.5
After his return from France, Pierre took another crack at governor. But he found his second tenure no more satisfying than the first; in fact, it was worse. In 1667, Pierre left Trois-Rivières once and for all. He threw his energies into his little corner of the world--Boucherville. He surrounded himself with like-minded settlers and raised his 15 children with Jeanne.5
Pierre Boucher died in the manorhouse at Boucherville on 19 April 1717, at the remarkable age of 95. Jeanne Crevier's death information is not known.


CREVIER

Hugues CREVIER - Hélène LEVASSEUR

Hugues was a baker; the son of Robert & Jeanne DAUPHIN. All that is known about Robert and Jeanne is that Robert died about 1583 and that they had another son, Vincent, who was also a baker in France.
Hugues married Hélène about 1560 in St. Croix-St. Ouen, Rouen, Normandy, France. Their marital home bore a sign that read, "La Tête Noire" or "The Black Head". Their son was Nicolas. Nothing else is known about this couple.5,7

Nicolas CREVIER - Anne BAZINET

Nicolas was baptized 19 April 1581 in St. Croix-St. Ouen, Rouen, France. His parents were Hugues & Helene LEVASSEUR; his godparents were Nicolas Roussel and Clemènce Letardif. He was a baker and a merchant. Nicolas married Anne about 1607 in Rouen, Normandy, France. Nothing about her origins are known. Their son was Christophe.
Nicolas Crevier was buried 15 October 1626; Anne Bazinet was buried 13 March 1651.5,7

Christophe CREVIER dit Lameslée - Jeanne EVARD

Christophe was the son of Nicolas & Anne BAZINET. He was baptized 17 November 1611 at St. Cande Le Jeune, Rouen, Normandy, France; his godparents were Christophe & Michel Harinel and Catherine Baziret.5
He married Jeanne 16 November 1633 in the above location. Nothing is known about Jeanne's parents or origins; only that her surname could be LENARD. Christophe was a baker and a merchant and the Sieur de Mëlée.5,7
Sometime before 1639, Nicolas, his wife Jeanne and their daughter by the same name, crossed the Atlantic to New France. Christopher worked as a baker and a fur trader. Christophe and Jeanne seemed to have good relations with the Indians, with each of them acting as godparent to an Indian boy and girl baby, respectively.; years later, Christophe would be given the responsibility of leading Iroquois prisoners from Trois-Rivières to Québec for questioning. Ironically, three of his sons would be murdered by Iroquois Indians.5
At some point in time, the family returned to France. Because sources conflict on the timeline of travel and where some of the children were born, I will not get into any detail about that here. Suffice it to say that the family crossed back and forth a total of 5 times before finally settling in Canada for good around 1651 or so. The nomadic family also moved several time while in Canada before finally settling on what is still known as St-Christophe.5
Christophe and Jeanne had the following children:
Jeanne
Antoine- Born about 1638, Antoine was killed by the Iroquois Indians. Although the dates found for this event have been conflicting, the most consistent date is 1653. The Jesuit Relations of 1661 reference a letter from François Hertel, who described the grisly fate of Antoine; being hunted down and killed with knife blows. If the 1653 date was correct, he was but a child of 15 years old.5
François- Born in 1640, he, too, was killed by the Iroquois Indians, on 25 May 1653. It does not seem that it was in the same attack that took the life of Antoine. But this child was even younger; only 13 years old.5
NICOLAS
Jean- Born 1642 and became the Seigneur of St.-François-du-Lac. On 26 November 1663, he married Marguerite Hertel, daughter of Jacques Hertel & Marie MARGUERIE and a carrier of the French W haplotype of mitochondrial DNA. Their son Louis was killed by Indians during François Hertel's 1690 attack at Salmon Falls. In August 1693, Jean was harvesting with some of his habitants when they were captured by the Iroquois and taken to Albany. Jean was tortured savagely, including having his fingernails torn out. He was being readied to be burned at the stake when he was ransomed by Colonel Peter Schuyler, commander of Fort Albany. Sadly, Jean died a short time later from the wounds.3,5
Marguerite- Born 1645. She married Jacques Fournier in 1657; surgeon Michel Gamelin in 1661; François Renou in 1683; and Robert Groston in 1692. She had children until she was 57 years old!5
Jérôme- Listed as a godfather in 1659 at Trois-Rivières; nothing else known.5
Joseph- Also listed as godfather at Trois-Rivières in 1661; nothing else known.5
Marie- Born 1649. She married clerk and fur trader Nicolas Gastineau in 1663. Nicolas was among the contingent with François Hertel the battle that killed Louis Crevier.5
Jean-Baptiste- Born 1651, he married Anne Charlotte Chorel d'Orvilliers. He was a merchant at Montreal. He died in 1708.5

Christophe Crevier died sometime between 1 December 1662 (when he had his will drawn up) and November 1663. It should also be noted that many of the records that deal with Christophe and his family may be recorded under the surname Lameslée or variations thereof.5
His wife, Jeanne (who must have been a character!), lived until at least 1681. She not only continued to deal in fur trading as her husband did, but also selling eau-de-vie, or alcohol and aggravating her son-in-law.5 Wonder which she most enjoyed doing?

Nicolas CREVIER dit Bellerive - Louise LECOUTRE

Nicolas was born about 1641 in St. Cande le Jeune, Rouen, Normandy, France to Christophe CREVIER and Jeanne ÉVARD or LENARD.5,7
Louise was a fille du roi who was born about 1648 in France; her parents are unknown.5,7
This couple married at Cap-de-la-Madeleine about 1665. Their one known child is Michel CREVIER dit Bellerive.
Louise Lecoutre died sometime after 2 February 1689. Death details for Nicolas Crevier are unknown.5,7

Michel CREVIER dit Bellerive & Angelique MASSE

Michel was born to Nicolas & Louise LECOUTURE; he was baptized 18 February 1680 in Batiscan, Quebec.2,7
He married Angelique MASSE on 3 June 1709 at Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Québec; nothing is known about her other than her name.2 Their known daughter was Marie Charlotte CREVIER dit Bellerive.1,2
No death information for this couple is available.


Hertel

This is another deviation from the norm, as Hertel is not a direct line name in this family. I do this out of respect for my grandmother, Marie Marguerie, who IS a direct line ancestor. Reading between the lines of everything that has been written about her, I think she truly mourned her first husband Jacques Hertel until the day she died. And so I do this in her memory; because she deserves it.

Jacques Hertel -Marie MARGUERIE - Quentin MORAL

Jacques was the son of Nicolas & Jeanne Miriot, about whom nothing else is known. Jacques was from the Fécamp, LeHavre, Rouen, Normandy (Pays de Caux section), France area; his birthdate is unknown.6
Marie was baptized in Rouen, Normandy, France on 12 September 1620 in St. Vincent's Cathedral. Proud godparents Nicolas Duchemin and Marie Marguerie held the new baby at the baptismal font. She was the last of the eight children that bourgeois François & Marthe ROMAIN would have. She possessed the French W haplotype of mtDNA.3,6
Marie's brother François Marguerie had already settled in Trois-Rivières by the time she arrived in 1639.6
Marie entered into a marriage contract with Jacques Hertel on 23 August 1641; the marriage act itself has been lost. She brought to the union a large dowry of 650 livres. They would have 3 children.6
Jacques Hertel was an interpreter and negotiator between the Indians and Jesuits, having lived with Indians for years and helping to discourage their doing business with the English during the time of the Kirke invasion. Having good relations with the Indians, Jesuits, and the French citizens of Trois-Rivières, indicates (at least to me) that he was a fair and peaceful man. Jacques' efforts were not in vain; he was granted 200 arpents of land at Trois-Riviëres known as the fief of Hertel, the arrière-fief of l'Arbre-à-ka-Croix (at Cap-de-Madeleine), and the seigneurie of Cournoyer near Gentilly.6
About 1649, he built a church at Trois-Rivières to thank God for sparing the settlement from an Iroquois attack. Marie would oversee the sacristy of this church for 50 years.6
Trois-Rivières suffered a great loss when Jacques Hertel died in some type of accident on 10 August 1651 and was buried at the church he built. Marie Marguerie and her children inherited Jacques' land, making her a woman of some means.6
The children of Jacques and Marie were:
Joseph François
Madeleine- Born 2 September 1645 in Trois Rivières.3,9 Married Louis Pinard, surgeon of the fort at Trois-Rivières.
Marguerite

Marie Marguerie married Quintin MORAL dit St. Quentin about a year after the death of her husband Jacques Hertel. Quintin Moral was born around 1622 in France; his parents are not known. He was first noted in Canada 22 December 1650 at Trois-Rivières. He was the judge of the Prévoté of Cap-de-la-Madeleine and also the civil and criminal judge at Trois-Rivières. Quentin and Marie had 4 girls, the youngest of which was Marie Marthe.3,6
Quentin Moral was buried 9 May 1686 at Trois-Rivières. Marie Marguerie lived for another 14 years before dying on 24 November 1700 at Trois-Rivières. Two days later she was buried in Trois-Rivières, next to her first husband Jacques Hertel--at her request.3,6

When I first read about Marie Marguerie in Peter Gagné's book "Before the King's Daughters", I remember having the feeling that Quentin Moral was a sinister sort of fellow. Although Mr. Gagné never said anything unflattering about him at all, I still felt the hair on the back of my neck go up whenever I read about him. It seems to be the belief of the author of the Descendants of Marie Marguerie Homepage that Quentin Moral seemed more smitten with Marie's land and what he could get out of it than he was with Marie. I realize that he used some of it to benefit his daughters; but I feel that his first priority was to benefit himself. Even in the movie "The Black Robe", the character of Quentin Moral comes off a bit shady.10 The fact that Marie ended up outliving Quentin means she probably ended up getting most of her original inheritence back anyway. I do love karma.....

François Hertel

I am really breaking the rules on this pages, aren't I? But no section that is titled "Hertel" would be complete without talking about François. This section is paraphrased from the "Dictionary of Canadian Biography" entry about François--go here to read the entry in its entirety. Any other sources for this information will be noted in the body.

François was baptized 3 July 1642 at Trois-Rivières; his parents were Jacques Hertel & Marie MARGUERIE4.
Jacques Hertel reared he and Marie's son François, named after Marie's brother, in the language and customs of the Indians. François Hertel's skill, not only in this arena but in that of fighting when it was necessary to defend the settlement would one day surpass his father's and cause him to be lauded as "The Hero of Trois-Rivières".3,4
The death of his father in 1651 and the subsequent remarriage of his mother to Quintin MORAL--not to mention constant attacks by the Iroquois on his hometown--caused François to walk in the shoes of an adult at a very young age. When he was but 12 years old, he was hard at work clearing the island left to them by his father; a property that he wanted to seed in order to provide for his mother and sisters. In a cruel twist of fate, the land ended up in the hands of his stepfather. At the age of 15, he was a soldier who had taken up arms to help defend his town from Indian attacks. At the age of 19, he was captured by the Iroquois after they found him outside the town's fortification. He was taken back to their village and tortured. Only the intervention of an old woman saved his life; and he remained under her protection for the time he was captive. During that time, he learned their language and customs, which would come in handy later.
Two years later, he escaped his captors and on 22 September 1664, he married Marguerite Thavenet at Montreal. Back in Trois-Rivières, he was an Iroquois interpreter and was dedicated to the protection of Trois-Rivières. He took part in two expeditions in 1666 and one in 1673, for the purposes of actively defending and building defenses that would benefit his town. Based on what he learned from his time as a captive, he devised war tactics and a method of surprise attack. François made sure that his sons were proficient in these maneuvers. "Hertel's raids" were considered some of the most successful of the time period.
In 1890, Governor Frontenac wanted to exact revenge on part of New England for their role in the horrible Lachine massacre the year before. François Hertel was given the task of attacking Fort Rollinsford at Salmon Falls, New Hampshire. While it was a sound military victory for François and the French army, it came at great personal sacrifice. François' nephew, Louis Crevier, was killed, along with another of his relatives, Jacques Maugras. François' own son, Zacharie-François was severely wounded; the delay in medical care for the wound left him a cripple. The word spread throughout the English army and Indian tribes: Hertel and his sons were a nightmare to do battle with. Son Zacharie-François, not one to be stopped by an injury, took part in a conflict in 1691. Like his father, he was taken prisoner by the Iroquois; they kept him for three years. From 1708-1712, Zacharie served as Commandant of Fort Frontenac. In the words of François Hertel himself, "During all the wars no party of men or expedition has been made ready that has not included the father and some of his sons." All seven of his sons took up arms in defense of Canada at one time or another.
François Hertel was finally recognized by the government and made a member of the nobility in 1716. François Hertel was buried 22 May 1716 at Boucherville.


The In-Laws

Even the in-laws section on this page is interesting! The in-laws are listed in alphabetical order by husband's surname.

François MARGUERIE - Marthe ROMAIN

François was born about 1590 in St. Vincent, Rouen, France to Thomas & Marie HOLLEVICQUE. Thomas was a marshall.
Marthe was born 25 July 1589 in St. Vincent, Rouen, France to Nicolas & Marie LEFEBVRE. She was baptized the same day; her godparents were Jehan Cincole, Marthe Brice, and Catherine de Crément. She also carries the French W haplotype of mtDNA.1,3,6
The couple were married about 1608 in Rouen, France. François was a paddlemaker and a merchant; he was considered a bougoise or a man of means.3,6
The couple had 8 children; the following two immigrated to New France:
MARIE-the baby of the family.
François- From St. Vincent, Rouen, Normandy, France; some sources fix his year of birth as 1612. His year of immigration to Canada has never been fixed, with some believeing that he was in the colony as early as 1626 and others feeling that 1636 is a more realistic time frame. He was a highly intelligent man who was able to speak, understand, and write three Latin-based languages--Latin, French, and English--as well as being able to do the same with the Indian dialects of Huron, Algonquin, and Iroquois. This made him invaluable to all sides as an interpreter.3
François Marguerie seemed to want to live peaceably among the people of the New World, regardless of who they were. He wanted to share his religion with them and work side by side with them to accomplish the tasks of everyday life.
In February 1641, François was captured by the Iroquois while out hunting with Thomas Godefroy. They were intended to be used as a bargaining chip with the French to keep them out of an attack that they were planning on the Huron and Algonquin Indians. François and Thomas were released that May as a goodwill gesture.3 In 1642, François replaced brother-in-law Jacques Hertel as the official translator for the trading post at Trois-Rivières. Three years later, on 26 October 1645, he married Louise Cloutier, daughter of Zacharie & Sainte DUPONT. Louise had been born in Mortagne, Perche, France in the St.-John-Baptiste-de-Mortagne parish on 18 March 1632; she arrived in New France with her family in 1634.1,3,5
On 23 May 1648, tragedy struck Louise Cloutier and the community of Trois-Rivières when François Marguerie and Jean Amiot were drowned in the St. Lawrence River due to their canoe coming apart when a sudden storm arose. While it goes without saying that the French community greatly mourned him, it seems as if he was held in high esteem by another people, as the Iroquois apparently had this to say about François:

"If Francois Marguerie and Thomas Godefroy had remained in our country, they would be married by this time; we would be but one Nation, and I would be one of you."
François Marguerie was buried 10 June 1648 at Québec, the day and place that his remains were found.1,3,5
François and Louise had no children together. Widowed at 17 years old, she subsequently married Jean Mignault and had 14 children with him.1,5
The information on François Marguerie comes from here. It is a bit lengthy, but a very interesting read.3

François Marguerie Sr. and Marthe Romaine both died in 1645 in St. Vincent, Rouen, Normandy, France.3

Nicolas ROMAIN - Marie LEFEBVRE

Nicolas was born about 1565 in Rouen, Normandy, France to unknown parents. He was a tailor.6
Marie was born about 1575 in Normandy, France. Her parents are unknown. She is the most remote carrier of the French W mtDNA haplotype in this line.3,6
This couple was married about 1588 in Rouen, Normandy, France.6 Nothing else is known.

Sources:
1. Tanguay's Dictionary
2. The Drouin Collection at Ancestry
3. The Descendants of Marie Marguerie
4. Dictionary of Canadian Biography-Joseph François Hertel de LaFresnière
5. "Our French Canadian Ancestors" by Thomas Laforest, Volumes 4,6,7
6. "Before the King's Daughters: The Filles à Marier" by Peter Gagne.
7. "King's Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi" by Peter Gagne.
8. Wikipedia's page on the Lachine massacre
9. Genealogy of Canada
10. "The Black Robe" movie.

This page was updated April 2009.

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Noel Family of Brockton, MA by Jolynn Noel Winland is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License
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Email: littleangeljw@yahoo.com