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----J - A - P - A - N - E - S - E ------ A - M - E - R - I - C - A - N - S----
-+ Generations
-+ Alien Land Act
-+ Pearl Harbor
-----+Executive Order
-----+The Camps
-----+The Evacuation
-+Economic Aspect
-+Religion and Family

Japanese Flag

19th century = SOCIAL CHANGE

Generation Terms
Issei: first generation
Nisei: Issei's children - American born
Sansei: third generation
Yonsei: fourth generation

Kibei: Nisei sent back to Japan


[+]Enacted in 1913 by California

[+]prohibited anyone who was ineligible for citizenship from owning land & limited leases to 3yrs

[+]drove Issei into cities
-----------ran hotels
-----------grocery stores
-----------other medium-sized businesses

[+]government and union restrictions prevented large numbers from obtaining available jobs

Pearl Harbor

+ Japan attack US - December 7, 1941 = World War II = painful tragedy

+What about the Japanese Americans??

+Would they fight on behalf of Japan??

+must "do something" - public pressure

Executive Order 9066

//:Feb. 13, 1942 - Pres. Franklin Roosevelt

//:removal of any people considered threats to national security

//:these people were called - Evacuees

//:sent to evacuation camps

//:destroyed economically

The Camps

>>Ten camps in 7 States

>>Comparison to those in Nazi Germany???

>>able to work at wage labor - max=19$month

>>Forced community Life - Unchangeable

>>Strong becomes Weak

>>The Loyalty Test

>>Mitsuye Endo vs. United States

The Evacuation

:::policy cost the US taxpayers a quarter of a billion dollars in construction, transportation, and military expenses.

:::Japanese Americans lost several bilion dollars


:::1981 - The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians
:::1983 - the final commission
:::1988 - President Ronald Reagan - The Civil Liberties Act
:::1990 - First Checks

The Economic Aspect

=Occupation & academic standards = successful

=Some Popular Professions - architect, engineer, cook, film producer

=Population Today
....Mostly Hawaii, California, Washington, New York, & Illinois

....1,148,932 of Total Japanese Population - 2000 Census

....7.8% of America's Population

Religion and Family

_|Change is difficult to accept especially for Issei

_|Divorce rate, Crime, Delinquency, mental illness = low rates

_|demands politeness, in group unity, duty to community, respect for authority

_|Traditional Family, Modern Family, The Salaryman Family, The New Family, The Family in Transition

_|Religious beliefs Japan - Buddhist or Shinto
----- But once in the United States - Christianity