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Schizotypal Personality Disorder





Diagnostic criteria for 30l.22 Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder

A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

(1) ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)
(2) odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, believe in clairvoyance, telephaty, or “sixth sense”; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations)
(3) unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions
(4) odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped)
(5) suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
(6) inappropriate or constricted affect
(7) behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar
(8) lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
(9) excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self

Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (p. 645)





Associated Features and Disorders

Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often seek treatment for the associated symptoms of anxiety, depression, or other dysphoric affects rather than for the personality disorder features per se. Particularly in response to stress, individuals with this disorder may experience transient psychotic episodes (lasting minutes to hours), although they usually are insufficient in duration to warrant an additional diagnosis such as Brief Psychotic Disorder or Schizophreniform Disorder. In some cases, clinically significant psychotic symptoms may develop that meet criteria for Brief Psychotic Disorder, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Schizophrenia. Over half may have a history of at least one Major Depressive Episode. From 30% to 50% of individuals diagnosed with this disorder have a concurrent diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder when admitted to a clinical setting. There is considerable co-occurrence with Schizoid, Paranoid, Avoidant, and Borderline Personality Disorders. (p. 642)




(1994) American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association




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