Axis II Disorders



Personality traits are enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts. Only when personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive and cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress do they constitute Personality Disorders. The essential feature of a Personality Disorder is shown below:




General diagnostic criteria for a Personality Disorder

A. An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. This pattern is manifested in two (or more) of the following areas:


    (1) cognition (i.e., ways of perceiving and interpreting     self, other people, and events)
(2) affectivity (i.e., the range, intensity, lability, and appropriateness of emotional response)
(3) interpersonal functioning
(4) impulsve control

B. The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations

C. The enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occoupational, or other important areas of functioning

D. The pattern is stable and of long duration and its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or eaerly adulthood

E. The enduring pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder

F. The enduring pattern is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medicatgion) or a general medical condition (e.g., head trauma) (p.633)








Below are the various types of Personality Disorders

Antisocial Personality disorder is a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others

Avoidant Personality Disorder is a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation

Borderline Personality Disorder is a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity

Dependent Personality Disorder is a pattern of submissive and clinging behavior related to an excessive ned to be taken care of

Histrionic Personality Disorder is a pattern of excessive emotionality and lack of empathy

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control

Paranoid Personality Disorder is a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such as that others' motives are interpreted as malevolent

Personality Disorder Not Otherwise Specified is a category provided for two situations: 1) the individual's personality pattern meets the general criteria for a Personality Disorder and traits of several different Personality Disorders are present, but the criteria for any specific Personality Disorder are not met; or 2) the individual's personality pattern meets the general criteria for a Personality Disorder, but the individual is considered to have a Personality Disorder that is not included in the Classification (e.g. passive-aggressive personality disorder)

Schizoid Personality Disorder is a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior(p.629)




(1994) American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association


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