The Effects of Extasy
And other Club Drugs
What are the affects of "X"
Slang or Street Names: Ecstasy, XTC, X, Adam, Clarity, Lover's Speed
MDMA was developed and patented in the early 1900's as a chemical precursor in the
synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Chemically, MDMA is similar to the stimulant amphetamine
and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA can produce both stimulant and psychedelic effects.
Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA)
are drugs chemically similar to MDMA.
MDMA is taken orally, usually in a tablet or a capsule. MDMA's effects last
approximately 3 to 6 hours, though confusion, depression, sleep problems, anxiety,
and paranoia have been reported to occur even weeks after the drug is taken.
MDMA can produce a significant increase in heart rate and blood pressure and a
sense of alertness like that associated with amphetamine use.
The stimulant effects of MDMA, which enable users to dance for extended periods,
may also lead to dehydration, hypertension, and heart or kidney failure.
MDMA can be extremely dangerous in high doses. It can cause a marked increase in body
temperature (malignant hyperthermia) leading to the muscle breakdown and kidney and
cardiovascular system failure reported in some fatal cases at raves. MDMA use may also
lead to heart attacks, strokes, and seizures in some users.
MDMA is neurotoxic. Chronic use of MDMA was found, first in laboratory animals and
more recently in humans, to produce long-lasting, perhaps permanent, damage to the
neurons that release serotonin, and consequent memory impairment.
*MDMA use has been reported across the country, including many of the 21 cities that
comprise NIDA's Community Epidimiology Work Group (CEWG), a network of
researchers that provide ongoing community-level surveillance of drug abuse.
*CEWG cities in which MDMA use has been reported inlcude: Chicago, Denver, Miami,
Atlanta, New Orleans, San Francisco, Austin, Seattle, Boston, Detroit, New York, St.
Louis, Dallas, and Washington, D.C.
Slang or Street Names: Grievous Bodily Harm, G, Liquid Ecstasy, Georgia Home
GHB can be produced in clear liquid, white powder, tablet, and capsule forms, and it is
often used in combination with alcohol, making it even more dangerous. GHB has been
increasingly involved in poisonings, overdoses, "date rapes," and fatalities. The drug is used
predominantly by adolescents and young adults, often when they attend nightclubs and
raves. GHB is often manufactured in homes with recipes and ingredients found and
purchased on the Internet.
GHB is usually abused either for its intoxicating/sedative/euphoriant properties or for
its growth hormone-releasing effects, which can build muscles.
Some individuals are synthesizing GHB in home laboratories. Ingredients in GHB,
gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol, can also be converted by the body
into GHB. These ingredients are found in a number of dietary supplements available in
health food stores and gymnasiums to induce sleep, build muscles, and enhance sexual
GHB is a central nervous system depressant that can relax or sedate the body. At
higher doses it can slow breathing and heart rate to dangerous levels.
GHB's intoxicating effects begin 10 to 20 minutes after the drug is taken. The effects
typically last up to 4 hours, depending on the dosage. At lower doses, GHB can
relieve anxiety and produce relaxation; however, as the dose increases, the sedative
effects may result in sleep and eventual coma or death.
Overdose of GHB can occur rather quickly, and the signs are similar to those of other
sedatives: drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, headache, loss of consciousness, loss of
reflexes, impaired breathing, and ultimately death.
GHB is cleared from the body relatively quickly, so it is sometimes difficult to detect
in emergency rooms and other treatment facilities.
*CEWG cities in which GHB use has been reported include: Detroit, Phoenix,
Honolulu, Miami, New York , Atlanta, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Dallas, Seattle, San
Francisco, San Diego, New Orleans, Newark, Los Angeles, Baltimore, Boston, and
Slang or Street Names: Special K, K, Vitamin K, Cat Valiums
Ketamine is an injectable anesthetic that has been approved for both human and animal use
in medical settings since 1970. About 90 percent of the ketamine legally sold today is
intended for veterinary use.
Ketamine gained popularity for abuse in the 1980s, when it was realized that large
doses cause reactions similar to those associated with use of phencyclidine (PCP),
such as dream-like states and hallucinations.
Ketamine is produced in liquid form or as a white powder that is often snorted or
smoked with marijuana or tobacco products. In some cities (Boston, New Orleans,
and Minneapolis/St. Paul, for example), ketamine is reportedly being injected
At higher doses, ketamine can cause delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function, high
blood pressure, depression, and potentially fatal respiratory problems.
Low-dose intoxication from ketamine results in impaired attention, learning ability, and
*CEWG cities in which Ketamine use has been reported include: Seattle, Miami, New
York, Chicago, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Newark, Boston, Detroit, New Orleans, and San
Slang or Street Names: Speed, Ice, Chalk, Meth, Crystal, Crank, Fire, Glass
Methamphetamine is a toxic, addictive stimulant that affects many areas of the central
nervous system. The drug is often made in clandestine laboratories from relatively
inexpensive over-the-counter ingredients. It is being used by diverse groups, including young
adults who attend raves, in many regions of the country.
Available in many forms, methamphetamine can be smoked, snorted, injected, or orally
Methamphetamine is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder that easily
dissolves in beverages.
Methamphetamine is not sold in the same way as many other illicit drugs; it is typically
sold through networks, not on the street.
Methamphetamine use is associated with serious health consequences, including
memory loss, aggression, violence, psychotic behavior, and potential cardiac and
Methamphetamine abusers typically display signs of agitation, excited speech,
decreased appetite, and increased physical activity levels.
Methamphetamine is neurotoxic. Methamphetamine abusers may have significant
reductions in dopamine transporters.
Methamphetamine use can contribute to higher rates of transmission of infectious
diseases, especially hepatitis and HIV/AIDS.
*CEWG cities in which Methamphetamine use has been reported include: San Diego,
San Francisco, Phoenix, Atlanta, St. Louis, Denver, Honolulu, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis/St. Paul, Philadelphia, Seattle, Dallas, and many rural regions of the
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
Slang or Street Names: Acid, Boomers, Yellow Sunshines
LSD is a hallucinogen. It induces abnormalities in sensory perceptions. The effects of LSD
are unpredictable depending on the amount taken, on the surroundings in which the drug is
used, and on the user's personality, mood, and expectations.
LSD is typically taken by mouth. It is sold in tablet, capsule, and liquid forms as well
as in pieces of blotter paper that have absorbed the drug.
Typically an LSD user feels the effects of the drug 30 to 90 minutes after taking it.
The physical effects include dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart
rate and blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, and
LSD users report numbness, weakness, or trembling, and nausea is common.
There are two long-term disorders associated with LSD, persistent psychosis and
hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (which used to be called "flashbacks").
*CEWG cities in which LSD use has been reported include: Boston, Detroit, Seattle,
Chicago, Denver, New Orleans, San Francisco, Atlanta, and Phoenix.
Lookie what they say
Now it's your turn