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There have been many different interpretations of Egypts' "Dynasties" and the chronological order of its rulers'. I have tried to put together as much detail as possible from a number of different sources.

I have found that during the early years of Egypts history, many of the rulers are not known or very little information about them exists. I would glady appreciate any additional facts or comments to add to this section.


First Dynasty, c.3100-2890 b.c.

NARMER... According to information discovered on the Necropoilis Seal of Den, this was the first ruler of the first dynasty.

Aha... He may have been the founder of Memphis- The Capital City of Egypt in ancient times. He was also the first King to erect a tomb at Saggara.

Djer... It was on his mummified arm, that the earliest surviving piece of royal jewelry was discovered.

Djet...No info. available

Den...He was the first King to use the title "He of the Sedge and Bee".

Adjib...No info. available. info. available. info. available.

Second Dynasty,c.2890-2686 b.c. info. available. info. available info. available.

Peribsen... He was buried at Abydos.

Sekhemib...This may be the Horus name of Peribsen, or another unknown ruler.

Khasekham...Buried at Abydos.

Third Dynasty,c.2686-2613 b.c.

Netjerikhet.... He was the builder of the step pyramid but, during the New Kingdom, visitors left grafitti at the site, which name King Djoser as its' builder. A possible explanation for this is that Djoser may have been the birth name of Netjerikhet.

Sekhemkhet...His tomb was also in the form of a step pyramid, but it was never completed.

Sanakht... He was buried at Saggara.


Fourth Dynasty, c2613-2494 b.c.

Sneferu...He was the first Pharoah to use a "cartouche" and the first to build a true pyramid. He actually built three. One is located at Meidum and 2 more are at Dashur.

Khufu... He is credited by most Egyptologists as the builder of the Great Pyramid.Unfortunately, nothing from his burial survives, or has ever been discovered.However, it is known that his mother, the Queen Hetepheres had her tomb robbed shortly after she was buried. Many of the remaining treasures were reburied in ancient times and rediscovered in 1925. They are now on display in the Cairo Museum in Egypt.

Djedefra...He was the eldest son of Khufu. The first Pharoah to use the title "Son of Ra". He died before completing his own pyramid at Abu Roash (North o Giza).

Khafra...He was the second son of Khufu and builder of the second pyramid at Giza.

Menkaura...He built the third pyramid at Giza. Although this pyramid is smaller than the other two, it was beautifully decorated inside and it was once covered in a casing of granite.

Shepsekaf...There is no evidence of his relationship to Khufu or his sons that preceded him, but a decree was discovered exempting his temple of Menkauru from any state dues, so their may have been a connection.

Fifth Dynasty,c.2494-2345 b.c.

Userkaf, Sahura and Neferirkara...These were triplets that ruled in sucession and opened a new royal blood line. They also built a number of royal Sun-Temples at Abusir which were all beautifully decorated. Fragments of these decorations still exist today.

Neuserra...No info. available.

Djedkara...He ended the practice of building Sun-Temples.

Unas...He began the custom of inscribing the funerary texts within the chambers of the pyramids.

Teti...He may have been related to Pepy I.

Pepy I...He left behind life size statues of himself and his infant son.

Merenra...No info. available.

Pepy II...He is credited with ruling Egypt for 94 years! There is some debate however, about wether or not a mistake was made in translating the herectic script with this information and he may have actually ruled for 64 years. Either one is still an accomplishment. During his reign, he extended the borders of Egypt both to the south in Nubia, and the east in the Sinai.

Sixth and Seventh Dynasties, c. 2345-2181 b.c.

No Accurate information is available.

Eighth Dynasty, c. 2181-2130 b.c.

Kings list exists for this period. However, a royal exemption decree was discovered that mentions the name of King Wadjkara. There is also a very small pyramid from this dynasty of a King, Qakara.


Ninth and Tenth Dynasties, c. 2130-2040 b.c.

These Dynasties were ruled by Kings that were from Heracleopolis. Their tombs have never been found and very little information is known about them. The only official names known are two: Meryibra Khety & Merykara

Eleventh Dynasty, c. 2130-1991 b.c.

Sehertawwy Intef... He ruled when Egypt was split into 2 lands, Upper and lower, He ruled only Upper Egypt

Wahankn Intef...He also ruled only Upper Egypt. His tomb was rock cut and located in Thebes.

Nakhtnebtephefer Intef...No Info. available.

Nebhepetra...He achieved the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. He was buried in a tomb located in Thebes at Deir-el-Bahri, this tomb had a terraced temple built over it. Perhaps this gave some inspiration to Hatchepsut 600 years later when she built her temple at the same location.

Sanhara...No info. available

Nebtawyra...His name is only known from minor objects discovered and from a record of a quarrying expedition that speaks of 2 "miracles" occurring. One of these miracles was rain, and the other of a gazelle that offered itself for sacrifice.

Twelfth Dynasty, c. 1991-1782 b.c.

Sehetepibra (Amenemhat)...There is an inscription discovered called "The Instruction of Amenermhat I" it is suppose to contain the words spoken by the King after his death to his son, Senusret I in a dream. In the dream, he describes an attempt on his life that occured at a time when his son was not yet designated hi heir. This may have been the first reference to a co-regency in which the Pharoahs' heir reigned alongside him to ensure a smooth succession.

Kheperkara (Senusret I)...Son and successor of Amenemhat. He completed his fathers' military campaign to subdue lower Nubia.

Nubkaura (Amenemhat II)...He sent an expedition to the exotic land of Punt to obtain incense. His pyramid complex is at Dahshur. At this complex, jewelry of his 2 daughters, Princess Khnumet & Ita were discovered in 1895.

Khakheperra(Sensusret II)...His pyramid was built at Lahur, where an original uraeus from his crown was discovered along with other exquisite jewelry that belonged to his daughter, Princess Sithathoriunet.

Khakaura(Senusret III)...He extended the southern borders in Nubia by erecting a number of fortresses. In 1895, jewelry belonging to his daughter, Princess Sithathor and his Queen, Mereret was discovered.

Maakherura(Amenemhat IV) ...Last King of the twelfth dynasty. His burial has not been located yet.

Sobekara(Sobekneferu)...Th is was a Queen who became the last ruler of this dynasty. It is assumed but not proven that she became a Queen because Amenemhat IV, died without a male heir. Her tomb has never been found.

Thirteenth Dynasy, c. 1782-1674 b.c.

Khutawyra (Wegaf)...No info. available.

Sankhibra(Ameny Intef Amenehat)...No info. available.

Auibra(Hor)...Only ruled for a few months. His intact burial was discovered in a modest tomb at Dahshur at the pyramid of Amenemhat III.

Sekhemra-Sewadjtawy(Sobekho tep),Khasekhemra(N eferhotep) and Khaneferra (Sobekhotep)...These were three bothers that ruled in succesion.

Merneferra (Ay)... Many of his monuments still survive today, both in Upper and Lower Egypt.

Sekhemera-Sankhtawy(Iykhernofret) ...No info. available.

Fourteenth through Seventeenth Dynasties, c.1640 b.c to 1570 b.c.

During these dynasties, very few names and information exists. It was a time during Egypts' history that the Hyksos were begining to threaten their rule. One king however does stand out due to his mummy being discovered, Taa...He ruled during the late 17th dynasty and undertook a war against the Hyksos. Studies of his skull have shown an imprint of an axe of the type used by the Hyksos.


Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1570 b.c. to 1320 b.c.

Ahmose I... He was the son of Taa and completed his fathers' victory at Avaris.

Amenhotep I...He was the founder and patron deity of the Valley of the Kings.

Thutmose I...He did not belong to the same family as Ahmose I and Amenhotep I. How he came to be heir is unknown. He made extensive restorations to the Amun temple at Karnak during his reign.He was the father of Hatshepsut.

Thutmose II...He was the stepbrother of Hatshepsut, reigned briefly between Thutmose I and Hatshepsut.

Thutmose III... He ruled as co-regent with his stepmother, Hatshepsut. He was a very young boy when he rose to the throne and therefore this gave Hatshepsut the opportunity to be appointed co-regent. He stood in silence for many years, however upon Hatshepsuts' death, he had her name erased from history and become the sole ruler of Egypt. He also went on to conduct a number of successful military campaigns to secure both the northern and southern borders of Egypt.

Hatshepsut...The most powereful and controversial Female ruler of Egypt. See "Pharoahs and Queens for more information.

Amenhotep II...He continued with his fathers' military campaigns and was also an accomplished archer.

Thutmose IV...He place a stela in between the paws of the great Sphinx telling the story of a dream he had while sleeping beneath this monument. The story says the Sphinx spoke to him and promised to make him King of Egypt if he cleard the sand engulfing him. Thutmose IV did as he was asked and indeed became ruler of Egypt.

Amenhotep III...He was fortunate to rule Egypt at the height of her prosperity. In letters written to foreign Kings, he claimed that gold was as plentiful as dust! He used this wealth to build and restore a number of beautiful temples and monuments throughout Egypt.

Amenhotep IV... He changed his name to Akhenaton and became known as a heretic for trying to change Egypts' religious beliefs. See "Pharoahs and Queens for more information on this controversial ruler.

Smenkhare...Although he was appointed heir to the throne by Akhenaton and a number of portraits exist depicting them in affectionate poses, his true identity is unknown. Some speculate the he was a homosexual lover, others claim he was actually Akhenatons royal wife, Nefertiti as she ruled beside him. He only ruled for a very short time, perhaps as little as a year

Tutankhamun...The discovery of his tomb and the wealth of treasure it contained has made him the most well known Egyptian Pharoah in its history. Yet, he was nothing more than a mere boy. See "Pharoahs and Queens" for more information on this "boy King".

Ay...A senior member of te royal court, who buried Tut and claimed the throne. He died a short time afterwards and did nothing significant during his rule.

Horemheb...He was a powerful general in Tutankhamuns' army. When he came in to power, he restored a number of monuments and had both Tuts' and Ays' names replaced with his own.

Ninteenth Dynasty, c.1320-1200 b.c.

Ramses I..He was not a member of the royal family, but a military officer in Horemhebs' army who was chosen to succeed him to the throne.

Seti I...He was a poweful ruler of Egypt and led a number of armies abroad to secure Egypts' boundaries. His tomb is considered by many to be the most beautiful. It is adorned with lavishly decorated paintings, and is also the deepest and longest in the Valley of the Kings. He was the father of Ramesses II and had him appointed as co-regent during his reign.

Ramesses II...Considered my many to be the most powerful King in all of Egypts' history. He ruled for over 60 years and fathered over 100 children. See "Pharoahs and Queens" for more information on this mighty ruler..