here to learn about the Creole of Louisiana.
Indefinite article is placed before the noun.........en
Definite article is attached by hyphen to the end of the noun
To nouns ending in a consonant add -la.
latab = table
en latab = a table
latab la = the table
latab yè = the tables
2. after a pronounced vowel add -a
ri = street
en ri = a street
ri a = the street
ri yè = the streets
Nouns have no gender
for plural hyphenate the plural article yè to the end of the noun.
bèf = cow
bèf yè = (the) cows
Cajun doesn't use 's to show possession, nor does it use "of". To express possession or
"of the", you place the thing possessed in front of the possessor.
chom Jean. Jean's room.
chwal nom la. the man's horse. / the horse of the man
There is only one form of the pronoun. Any change is caused for liaison and not for
1st||m' / mo||nous|
2nd||t'/to||' / vous|
3rd||l / li|| y / yè|
When the pronoun precedes a verb, it is the subject.
When it follows a verb, it is the direct object.
When two pronouns follow a verb, the first is the indirect object and the second is the direct
When the pronoun precedes a noun, it is the possessive adjective.
For the subject of a verb, you usually use the abbreviated form.
For the subject of an adjective or linking verb, use the full form.
For the object of the verb, hyphenate the full form to the end of the verb. For mo use
motchen||mine ||noutchen|| ours|
totchen|| yours||voutchen||you (pl)|
sotchen || his, hers, its||yètchen|| theirs|
Se mo liv. = It's my book.
Se motchen. = It's mine.
Se li chwal. = It's his horse.
Se sotchen. = It's his.
To use the demonstrative as an adjective, hyphenate it to the noun.
To use the demonstrative as an pronoun with the meaning this one",etc.,
you the demonstrative alone.
for "that" add la to the noun
for "this" add sila
for "those" add yè
for "these" add silayè
en chwal = a horse
chwal an = the horse
chwal la =that horse
chwal silaa = this horse
chwal yè = the horses
chwal yè = those horses
chwal silayè = these horses
M' wa chwal-saa. = I see that horse.
M' wa sila. = I see that one.
Adjectives require no verb and are translated as "to be..."
Adjectives follow their nouns.
malad = sick
Mwen malad. = I am sick.
Nou malad. = We are sick.
tro = too (much)
pli = more, most
place pli before the adjective = -er, more
Li vye = He is old.
Li pli vye = He is older.
Li pli vye.= He is oldest.
more..... than || pli .... pase|
less .... than || mo ... pase|
Li pli vye pase so frè. = He is older than his brother.
Li mo bel pase so sè. = He is less pretty than his sister.
In making adverbs from adjectives, -man is like the English -ly.
ra = rare
rareman = rarely
conplèt = whole
conplètman = wholly
Ga isit=Here is/are
Ga (la)=There is/are (Voila)
Enna=There is/are (Il y a)
The base verb is used as infinitive, as imperative, as
simple present and simple past with time
learned from context. Other tenses are made by adding
For "to be" use se between nouns in present, use t_ for past tense, sa for
future, and sé for conditional..
here to see the complete
a Louisiana Creole verb.There should be no irregular verbs.
The linking verbs se / yè connects two nouns in a
"to be" statement. Se is not
needed if there is
a noun and an adjective. Yè is used for emphasis.
See below for details.
Types of Sentences.
A. To be sentences with a noun and verbal adjective.
Mo la. = I am tired.
Yè en marchè. = They are at the market.
In this sentence, you may still use the verb particles even though the verb is understood (or
B. To be sentences with sè.
Use se if
1. predicate is a noun (it is a ...)
John se en jadinye. = John is a gardener.
2. subject is ki sa (that)
Ki sa se bon. = That is good.
3. predicate is non-inherent adjective/noun
4. emphatic statements with yè
Se kreyol mo yè.
= I am Cajun
move predicate to second position with subject in third
and add yè
C. To be sentence without the subject noun.
Se en lameson. = It's a house.
D. Transitive sentences.
These follow the "subject - verb - indirect object - direct object" format.
Vou a wa en gro bato. = You will see a big boat.
Li mont nom yè liv la. = She showed the men the book.( or the book
to the children).
Li mont yè liv la.= He showed them the book.
Li mont yè li. = He showed it to them.
E. Transitive/ Intransitive sentence.
Contains a noun phrase subject, a predicate containing an
intransitive verb, and, sometimes,
one or more adverbials.
Li vini jordi. = He came today.
Anita desann Nouvo Olean. = Anita is going down to ew Orleans.
For To (..Do) Phrases
Use pou, for.
Mo gen tann pou fe sila.
I have time to do this. (pou = for to...)
For (that) relative make two sentences
or add ke between the sentences
Li di li ke li pral. = He told him that he's going.
For the meaning "that which"or "what", you the same format
and ki sa in place of
Li di li ki sa li we. = He said what he knows
In if/then statements the if part uses tè
the then part uses ta
Si mo tè konnen ki sa, mo pa ta fe li. = If I had known that, I would not have done
Use ka, kap, or kapab (to be able)
Kann vou a vini, mo a travay. =
When you come, I'll be working.
Kann vou tè dormi, mo tè travay.=
While you slept, I worked.
To make a statement negative placepa before the verb.
pa || not|
jamen || never|
pa ____ aryen || not ____ anything (nothing)|
pa ____ pèsonn || not ____ anybody (nobody)|
M wa en nom. = I see a man.
M pa oua en nom. = I don't see a man.
Mo jamaen wa nom yè. = I never see men.
M pa wa aryen.= I don't see anything.
M pa wa pèsonn. = I don't see anyone.
To make a question without the use of question words, raise your tone at the end of the
sentence as in English.
Vou pele Paul. = Your name is Paul.
Vou pele Pal? = Is your name Paul?
Here are the question words.
ki || who|
ou || where|
ki sa, ki || what|
konmyen || how much|
ke || which, who|
Go here for the
numbers in Kreyol.
Ki le li yè? = What time is it?
Li en er. = It's 1:00.
Ki le li fenmen? = What time does it close?
Li fenmen a dè er. = It closes at 2:00.
1:00 = en er
2:00 = de er
3:00 = trwa er
4:00 = kat er
11:00 = onze er
matin = morning
du matin = in the morning
a midi = at noon
laprèmidi = afternoon
d laprèmidi = in the afternoon
Conjunctions of Time
kann = when
kann = while
anvan = before
aprè = after
Questions or Comments
Be sure to note which Creole you are asking about.