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Blue One and Blue Three-Notes


I. Introduction

This kingdom could be called the “trash can” kingdom. It is where many of the unusual organisms of the biological world come to rest. These organisms may not share enough in common with other kingdoms so this is where they end up. It is a fascinating and easy kingdom to explore.

II. General Characteristics

A. First Eukaryotes to evolve (1.5 billion years ago)
B. Found anywhere there is moisture
C. Single celled, but many live in a colonial setting (more or less independently)
D. Many are unicellular, but some are multicellular (Algae and fungus-like protists)
E. They are heterotrophic or autotrophic and some can live in very harsh environments
F. Reproduction can be sexual (conjugation), asexual (binary fission), or a combination of both

III. Adaptions

A. Can monitor environment with a localized pigment that can detect light. It is called an “eyespot”
B. Some can detect chemical/toxic stimuli
C. Some live in harsh environments in a protective shell much like a bacterial endospore. It is called a “cyst”.
1. This cyst allows the protist to live between hosts
2. While in this “hybernation” the protists’ metabolic rate is drastically decreased.

IV. Let’s look at various unicellular phylums.

There are many more than this, but these give a good representation of this kingdom. These are often referred to as Protozoa (=Heterotrophic, “Animal-like” protists)

A. Sarcodina-The two most famous members are Amoebas and forams
1. Amoebas
a. Unicellular
b. They live anywhere it is moist including freshwater, saltwater, soil, mud, and on rocks.
c. Move using ameboid movement, which is a form of cytoplasmic streaming. Extending a pseudopodia.
d. These protist will use their psudopodia to engulf food to comsume it. This is called phagocytosis.
e. Most of this kingdom experiences life in a hypertonic situation. Water is constantly flowing in them. To remedy this, they have an organelle called a contractile vacuole (a bit like a central vacuole in plants) that constantly gets rid of water.
f. Can cause amebic dysenterey through contaminated food.

2. Foraminifera (forams)
a. Unicellular
b. Unlike many protists, forams have shells called tests. These shells are made out of calcium carbonate.
c. They are well represented in the fossil record and date back 600 million years according to evolutionists.
d. They are responsible for the production of chalk and coloring the white cliffs of dover in Europe.

B. Ciliophora-The most famous member being Paramecium.

a. Unicellular
b. Free-living freshwater and marine inhabitant
c. Moves by use of cilia
d. Can often be found living as “symbiont”. They digest cellulose in the guts of animals.
e. Will attach themselves to rocks and use cilia to beat food into it.
f. Reproduce by binary fission and conjugation. See pg. 515. You must be able to draw and indentify key structures in this organism.Try to get a picture.

C. Zoomastigina-“zooflagellates”

a. Diverse group of unicellular or colonial protists
b. Move by use of one or more flagella
c. May live in fresh or salt water
d. May be parasitic
e. Members include:
1. Typanosoma (Sleeping sickness)
2. Giardia (hiker’s nightmare)
3. Leishmania-(Leishmaniasis)

D. Sporozoa

a. Adults often do not have a means of locomotion. Use the hosts bloodstream as a means of transportation.
b. They absorb nutrients and destroy host cells.
c. Can cause toxoplasmosis in humans. Carried by birds, cats, and rodents. Adults may experience flu like symptoms, but the immune systems of newborns and fetus’ can be damaged by this protists.
d. Outline the life cycle of Plasmodium

BLUE ONE and THREE Protists guided directions: You will put this information directly on your Protista link!!!
Q:What are at least 5 common characteristics of this kingdom?

Q: What are some special adaptions?

Q: There is a division in this kingdom? Why?

Q: A) Please describe each of the four most common unicellular protists.

B) Provide a picture with each. (Be sure to give where you got into/picture)

C) Give at least 4 distinguishing characteristics.

D) Include how they affect human life/environment etc. Both good and bad.

E) Method of reproduction/specific lifecycles.

Q: Discuss the following multi-cellular/unicellular algae:


2) Phaeophyta

3) Chlorophyta

4) Euglenophyta

5) Dinofagellata

B) In your discussion include the same information as the previous question. Be sure to include weather they are multi-cellular or unicellular.

Q: Why are the members of this kingdom in this kingdom?

Helpful Links/Homework

General notes on Kingdom Protista
Great chart of different Phyla
Review Game
Protista Power Point