By: Juan Luna
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One of the most popular painting in the Philippines, the Spolarium, depicts the 19th century horror experience by Filipinos. It emphasized the violation of Human Rights by the colonizers of Spain. Juan Luna, one of our National heroes expressed his patriotism by painting one such masterpiece to enlighten the Filipinos out of oppression.
In the Spolarium, he is able to unite his painting into expresing his message by correlating every element with one another. In the use of color, he creates a harmonious relationship between the red in the center of the painting and shade of green in the darkness. Light is also balanced because of light colors used in the left side of the painting against the grim-darkness of the right side. He creates a division because of this, one half shows the horror of dragged corpse and on the other, the mourning of a lady. Because of the contrast in color, the point of interest is able to draw attention.
The shape involved in the painting also creates a point of interest that harmoniously relates to the color of the painting. The color having expressed the center of the activity, the shape creates a more bolder scene. The corpses that are dragged is painted with a ratio 9:1, the body is nine times bigger than that of the head. The same also is true with regards to the aged man who watches at the side. This is because Juan Luna express life thru the body. By painting the body larger than any other parts emphasize life. And in doing so shows dominance to attract attention.
The lines in the painting also contributes to its unity. First, because the lines that are dominant in the painting are diagonal lines. Although diagonal lines inject excitement, in this painting movement is created. Also, peculiar to these diagonal lines is its formation of triangular patterns that emphasize stability.
The painting as a whole becomes a united one with an asymmetrical patterns of elements. The contrast in light, createst eh distinction between the point of interest against the background. The dominance of red in the point on interest is balanced by the shade of green. The shape is also used with alternation, a dominance in the shape of the body is given attraction. And of all the elements that are striking, composition is the most evident. Because of its asymmetrical patterns, it provides a comparison between light and darkness, the horror of dragged corpses against the mourning of a lady, the thin almost skeletal bodies of aged men versus muscular soldiers slaughtered in their prime. With everything pointing to the message : the carnage of human rights violation.


By: Vicente Manansala

This Manansala painting depicts a kind of abstract in the sense that the figures painted are very angular in form. Generally, the background colors used are kind of light except for the color of one of the cocks which is dark. One could also say that this color contrasts the color of the other cock which is white. It can also be observed that the whole painting is balanced because of the positioning of the figures.
Again what is peculiar with the painting are the shapes of the figures which could be considered edgy because of its angular form. One can immediately see that the focus of the painting is the four figures in it: the two men and the fighting cocks. It can also be observed that the texture is rough upo observing the shapes of the whole painting.
In totality, one could infer that the painting perfectly shows the intensity of cockfighting, which can be seen with the "action", or position of the two cocks. But what is ironic in the scene is that amidst the competition bet, the two cocks, their owners are busy talking to each other, mindless of the fight that is happening. Truly, the fighting of the two cocks catches the viewer's attention because of its intense action.


By: Jose Joya

Jose Joya's painting evicted light and bright colors with rough edges, seeming as if each part is detangling itself from the others, yet showing unity within the geometrical figures that were easy to identify in the painting. The use of the bright and even light gave an effect of peaceful chaos, making the sense of unreality stronger. Line patterns, which were implied and depicted minute movement, were arranged in such a way as to constitute a mix of soft and vague volume. The compositional lines, rendering those as the focal points of the painting created more stable shapes. The asymmetrical figure tended to balance each other out due to ambiguous space and some overlapping planes, thus making it look comfortable and giving a feeling of rhythm to the whole painting.

By: Felix Hidalgo

From the simplest attribute of nature, cool and refreshing colors are inevitable in the environment. The waterfalls being part of nature shares with such quality. Light, mid and dark ranges would sum up the value of the different colors of the painting. The liquid form constitutes the light range, the mid-range is exhibited by the skies as well as the leaves from the trees around the waterfalls. On the other hand, stone structures, which resemble a huge cave, create a dark range impression.
Texture conveys a combination among the three: soft, rough and hard. These characterize all the other elements in the artwork of Hidalgo. Soft would be the best texture for the clouds in the skies. The same goes with the liquid form at the bottom of the waterfalls itself. However, the waterfalls per se have this rough texture mainly because of the motion and action that this part is undergoing. Lastly, the big rocks just around the body of water have textured themselves as hard.
If the painting is to be assessed carefully as a whole, it will not even go far from how nature is viewed and appreciated. The subject is so close to the experience and actual knowledge of almost everyone primarily because people are instinctively attached to mother nature. Nature's beauty at its best still bears some mystery value especially on the part of the audience's interpretation. This can be seen in the different transformation illustration of the water form. That is from motion (waterfalls) to its placid state at the bottom part. Probably this is from noise to silence type of mechanism. Since nature is so rhythmic and dichotomous in some aspects, different opposite and/or complimentary attributions and meanings can be derived. This element is also evident on the leaves; the sun directly lights some while some are not.
All the above mentioned elements gathered together, the painting portrays a sound character and it houses significant and related elements necessary.

By: Fernando Amorsolo

This is again a genre painting of Amorsolo. The colors are relatively light since the painting depicts a scene very close to nature. Its color is bright and intense with soft edges on the part of the rice field but there was a radical defining of color when the volcano came. The colors are merged together and it contrasted when it reached the part of the volcano which makes it all the more realistic. The defined lines of the volcano definitely drew attention because it is one part of the painting where there is a real hard line accentuating the part. The water, which may be ignored most often than not brought more attention and reality to the viewer. There is an effect of realism on that water form especially with the two submerged carabao joining the scene. This combination makes the subjects alive in the canvass.
The painting looks smooth and clear. It shows things in exact details as detailed as the tail of the carabao, the smoke of the volcano, etc.
There is free form in shape. In this painting, the shapes are merged together therefore it is quite difficult to identify the shapes as they are drawn. The composition can be grouped into three parts: the rice field itself, the volcano in the background and the bushes on the side of the painting.
No doubt this painting relives a captured moment during the artist's quest to freeze up a very rare moment such as a moment planting rice.

1) http://www.filipinoarts.com/frames/spoliarium.htm
2) http://www.info.com.ph/~manansala1kahig.htm
3) http://www.info.com.ph/~edvee/joya2b.htm
4) http://www.pamana.com/wall1.htm

Compiled by:
De La Cruz, Glennda
Gatchalian, Ronnel
Inandan, Jeffrey (dieph_twin1@yahoo.com)
Jamora, Raul
Lim, Sundae (ksundael@tri-isys.com)
Roldan, Vanessa