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The Page Begins Here

by Oliver Evans




PLATE VIII, is not meant to show the plan of a mill, but merely the application and use of the foregoing machines.

The grain is emptied from the wagon into the spour 1, which is set in the wall, and conveys it into the scale 2, that is made to hold 10, 20, 30, or 60 bushels, at pleasure.

There should for the convenience of counting, be weights of 60 lbs, each divided into 30, 15, 7 1/2 lbs.; then each large weight would show a bushel of wheat, and the smaller ones, halves, pecks, & etc., which any one could count with ease.

When the wheat is weighted, draw the gate at the bottom of the scale, and let it run into the garner 3; at the bottom of which there is a gate to let it into the elevator 4-5, which raises it to 5; the crane spout is to be turned over the great store garner 6, which comminicates from floor to floor, to garner 7, over the stones8, which may be intended for shelling or rubbing the wheat, before it is ground, to take off all dust that sticks to the grain, or to break smut, fly eaten grain, lumps of dust, & etc., As it is rubbed, it runs into 3 again; in its passage it goes through a current of wind, blowing into the tight room 9, having only the spout a, through the lower floor, for the wind to escape; all the chaff will settle in the room, but most of the dust will pass out with the wind at a. The wheat again runs into the elevator at 4, and the crane spout, at 5, is turned over the screen hoppers 10 or 11, and the grain lodged there, out of which it runs into the rolling screen 12, and decends through the current of wind made by the fan 13; the clean heavy grain decends, by 14 into the conveyor 15-16, which converys it into all the garners over the stones 7-17-18, and these regularly supply the stones 8-19-20, keeping always an equal quantity in the hoppers, which will casue them to feed regularly; as it is ground, the meal falls to the conveyor 21-22, which collects it to the meal elevator at 23, and it is raised to 24, whence it gently runs down the spout to the hopper-boy at 25, whihc spreads and coold it sufficiently, and gathers it into the bolting hoppers, both of which it attends regularly; as it passes through the superfine cloths 26, the superfine flour falls into the packing chest 28, which is on the second floor. If the flour is to be loaded on wagons, it should be packed on this floor, that it may conveniently be rolled into them; but if the flour is to be put on board a vessel, it will be more convenient to pack on the lower floor, out of chest 29, and thence roll it into the vessel at 30. The shorts and bran should be kept on the second floor, that they may be conveyed by spouts into the vessel's hold, to save labour.

The rubbings which fall from the tail of the 1st reel 26, are guided into the head of the 2nd reel 27, which is in the same chest, near the floor, to save both room and machinery. On the head of this reel is 6 or 7 feet of fine cloth, for tail flour; and next to it the middling stuff, & etc.

The tail flour which falls from the tail of the 1st reel 26, and head of the 2nd reel 27, and requires to be bolted over again, is guided by spout, as shown by dotted line 21-22, into the conveyor 22-23, to be hoisted again with the ground meal; a littel bran may be let in with it, to keep the cloth open in warm weather;-but if these be not a fall sufficient for the tail flour to run into the lower conveyor, there may be one set to convey it into the elevatorm as 31-32. There is a little regulating board, turning on the joint x, under the tail of the first reels, to guide more or less with the tail flour.

The middlings, as they fall, are conveyed into the eye of either pair of mill stones by the conveyor 31-32, and ground over with the wheat; this is the best way of grinding them, because the grain keeps them from being killed; there is no time lost in doing it, and they are reqularly mixed with the flour. There is a sliding board set slanting, to guide the middlings over the conveyor, that the miller may take only such part, for grinding over, as he shall judge fit; a little regulating board stands between the tail flour and middlings, to guide more or less into the stones, or elevator.

The light grains of wheat, screenings, & etc., after being blown by fan 13, fall into the screenings garner, 32' the chaff is driven farther on, and settles in the chaff room 33; the greater part of the dust will be carried out with the wind through the wall.

Description of Plate IX: Evans Improved Mill

Description of Plate VII: Hopper-Boy

Description of Plate VII:
A Grist-Mill for Grinding Very Small Parcels

Plate XXI:Ellicott's Plans for Building Mills

Appendix, Description of a Merchant Flour Mill

The Automation of Flour Milling in America

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