THE YOUNG MILL-WRIGHT and MILLER'S GUIDE,
by Oliver Evans
The grain is emptied into the spout A, by which it descends into the
garner B; whence, by drawing the gate at C, it passes into the elevator
CD, which raises it to D, and empties it into the crane spout E, which is
so fixed on gudgeons that it may be turned to any of the surrounding garners,
into the screen hopper F, for instance, (which has two parts, F and G,)
out of which it is let inot the rolling screen at H, by drawing the small
gate a. It passes through the fan I, and falls into the little sliding-hopper
K, which may be moved, so as to guide it into either of the hanging garners,
over the stones, L or M, and it is let into the stone-hoppers by the little
bags b b, as fast as it can be ground. When ground, it falls into the conveyor
N N, which carries it into the elevator at O O, this raises and empties
it into the hopper boy at P, which is so constructed as to carry it round
in a ring, gathering it gradually towards the center, till it sweeps into
the bolting hoppers Q Q.
The tail flour, as it falls, is guided into the elevator to ascend with
the meal, and, that a proper quantity may be elevated, there is a regulating
board R, set under the superfine cloths, on a joint x, so that it will turn
towards the head or tail of the reel, and send more or less into the elevator,
as may be required.
There may be a piece of coarse cloth, or wire, put on the tails of the superfine
reels, that will let all pass through except the bran which falls out at
the tail, and a part of which is guided into the elevator with the tail
flour, to assist the bolting in warm weather; the quantity is regulated
by a small board r, set on a joint under the ends of the reels. Beans may
be used to keep the cloths open, and still be returned into the elevator
to ascend again. What passes through the coarse cloth or wire, and the remainder
of the bran, are guided into the reel S, to be bolter.
Suppose the grain to be in the screen hopper E; draw the gate a; shut
the gate e; move the sliding hopper K, over the spout K e d; and let it
run into the elevator to be raised again. Turn the crane spout over the
empty hopper G, and the wheat will be all deposited there nearly as soon
as it is out of the hopper F. Then draw the gate e, shut the gate a; and
turn the crane spout over F; and so on, alternately, as often as necessary.
When the grain is sufficiently cleaned, slide the hopper K over the hold
that leads into the stones.
The screenings fall into a garner, hopperwise; to clean them, draw the gate
f, and let them run into the elevator, to be elevated into the screen hopper
F. Thgen proceed with them as with the wheat, till sufficently clean. To
clean the fannings, draw the little gate h, and let them into the elevator,
&c, as before.
Fig. II. is a perspective of the conveyor, as it lies in its troughs, at
work: and shows the manner in which it is joined to the pulleys, at each
side of the elevator.
Fig. III. exhibits a view of the pully of the meal elevator, as it is supported
on each side, with the strap and buckets descending to be filled.
Fig. IV. is a persective view of the under side of the arms of the hopper-boy,
with flights complete. The dotted line shows the track of the flights on
one arm; those of the other following, and tracking between them. A A are
sweepers. These carry the meal round in a ring, trailing it regularly all
the way, the flights drawing it to the centre, as already mentioned. B B
are the sweepers that drive it into the bolting hoppers.
Fig. V. is a perspective view of the buclket of the wheat elevator; and
shows the manner in which it is fastened, by a board piece of leather, which
passes through and under the elevator-strap, and is nailed to the sides
with little tacks.
In 1787 Oliver Evans advertised on a broadside his mill in Delaware.
This drawing above accompaned that handbill. It is the origin of the Young
Mill-Wright & Miller's Guide, by Oliver Evans published in 1795. The
illustration was originally entitled "Evans' improved Grist Mill."
"The subscribers have a Merchant-Mill on Red Clay Creek, 3 miles
above Newport, New Castle County, Delaware, with Evans's new-invented Elevator
and Hopperboys erected in her, which does the principal Part of the Work.
One if the Elevators receives the Wheat at the Tail of the Wagon, and carries
it up to the Garners, out of which it runs through Spouts into the Screen
and Fan, through which it may be turned as often as necessary, till sufficiently
cleaned, thence into a Garner over the Hopper which feeds the Stones regularly.
Another Elevator receives the Meal when ground and carries it up, and it
falls on the Meal-loft, where the Hopperboy receives it and spreads it aboard
thin over the floor, and turns it over and over perhaps an hundred Times
and cools it compleatly, then conveys it into the Boulting- Hopper, which
it attends regularly; said Elevator also carries up the Tail Flour with
a Portion of Bran, and mixes it with the ground Meal to be boulted over,
by which means the Boulting is done to the greatest Perfection possible,
and the Cloths will be keppt open by the Bran in the hottest Weather without
Knockeers. All this is done without Labour, with much less Waste, and much
better than is possible to be done by Hand, as the Miller has no need to
trample in the Meal, nor any way to handle or move it from the Time it leaves
the Waggoner's Bag, until it comes into the Superfine Chest ready for Packing.
The whole Expence of the Materials and and erecting said Machinery will
not exceed from Twenty to Forty Dollars, as the Mills may differ in Construction.
One Hand can now do the Work that used to employ two or three, two Hands
are able to attend a Mill with two Waterwheels and two Pair of Stones steady
running, with very little Assistance, if the Machinery be well applied.
They are simple and durable, and not subject to get out of Repair. If Millers
will think on this when they are fatigued carrying heavy Bags, or with hoisting
their Wheat or Meal, spreading to cool, and attending the Boulting-Hopper,
Screean and Fan, and when they see the Meal scatered over the Stairs, &
etc., wasting, or when they hoist their tail Flour with the Bran to boult
over and when their Flour is scraped for neglect in Boulting, and when the
Superfine is let run into the Middlings by over feeding, & etc., and
consider that these Machiners will effectuall remedy all this, and save
great Experence in Wages, Provisions, Brushes and Candles, and he may conclude
that it is not best to continue in the old Way, while such excellent Improvements
are extant. Those who chose to adopt them, may have Permission, with full
Directions for erecting them, by applying to OLIVER EVANS, the inventor,
who has an exclusive Right, or to either of the Subscribers. JOHN, THEOPHILUS,
& OLIVER EVANS."
"N. B. Farmers and others may have Wheat ground during the Winter Season
at said Mill (on good Burrs and all Things in the best Order) with great
Care and Dispatch, at the low Rate of Thirty Shillings per 100 Bushels,
or Eighteen Shillings per Load. Red Clay Creek, Dec. 19, 1787."