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Evans Improved Mill:
by Oliver Evans



The grain is emptied into the spout A, by which it descends into the garner B; whence, by drawing the gate at C, it passes into the elevator CD, which raises it to D, and empties it into the crane spout E, which is so fixed on gudgeons that it may be turned to any of the surrounding garners, into the screen hopper F, for instance, (which has two parts, F and G,) out of which it is let inot the rolling screen at H, by drawing the small gate a. It passes through the fan I, and falls into the little sliding-hopper K, which may be moved, so as to guide it into either of the hanging garners, over the stones, L or M, and it is let into the stone-hoppers by the little bags b b, as fast as it can be ground. When ground, it falls into the conveyor N N, which carries it into the elevator at O O, this raises and empties it into the hopper boy at P, which is so constructed as to carry it round in a ring, gathering it gradually towards the center, till it sweeps into the bolting hoppers Q Q.

The tail flour, as it falls, is guided into the elevator to ascend with the meal, and, that a proper quantity may be elevated, there is a regulating board R, set under the superfine cloths, on a joint x, so that it will turn towards the head or tail of the reel, and send more or less into the elevator, as may be required.

There may be a piece of coarse cloth, or wire, put on the tails of the superfine reels, that will let all pass through except the bran which falls out at the tail, and a part of which is guided into the elevator with the tail flour, to assist the bolting in warm weather; the quantity is regulated by a small board r, set on a joint under the ends of the reels. Beans may be used to keep the cloths open, and still be returned into the elevator to ascend again. What passes through the coarse cloth or wire, and the remainder of the bran, are guided into the reel S, to be bolter.

To Clean wheat serveral times.

Suppose the grain to be in the screen hopper E; draw the gate a; shut the gate e; move the sliding hopper K, over the spout K e d; and let it run into the elevator to be raised again. Turn the crane spout over the empty hopper G, and the wheat will be all deposited there nearly as soon as it is out of the hopper F. Then draw the gate e, shut the gate a; and turn the crane spout over F; and so on, alternately, as often as necessary. When the grain is sufficiently cleaned, slide the hopper K over the hold that leads into the stones.

The screenings fall into a garner, hopperwise; to clean them, draw the gate f, and let them run into the elevator, to be elevated into the screen hopper F. Thgen proceed with them as with the wheat, till sufficently clean. To clean the fannings, draw the little gate h, and let them into the elevator, &c, as before.

Fig. II. is a perspective of the conveyor, as it lies in its troughs, at work: and shows the manner in which it is joined to the pulleys, at each side of the elevator.

Fig. III. exhibits a view of the pully of the meal elevator, as it is supported on each side, with the strap and buckets descending to be filled.

Fig. IV. is a persective view of the under side of the arms of the hopper-boy, with flights complete. The dotted line shows the track of the flights on one arm; those of the other following, and tracking between them. A A are sweepers. These carry the meal round in a ring, trailing it regularly all the way, the flights drawing it to the centre, as already mentioned. B B are the sweepers that drive it into the bolting hoppers.

Fig. V. is a perspective view of the buclket of the wheat elevator; and shows the manner in which it is fastened, by a board piece of leather, which passes through and under the elevator-strap, and is nailed to the sides with little tacks.

In 1787 Oliver Evans advertised on a broadside his mill in Delaware. This drawing above accompaned that handbill. It is the origin of the Young Mill-Wright & Miller's Guide, by Oliver Evans published in 1795. The illustration was originally entitled "Evans' improved Grist Mill."

"To the Millers."

"The subscribers have a Merchant-Mill on Red Clay Creek, 3 miles above Newport, New Castle County, Delaware, with Evans's new-invented Elevator and Hopperboys erected in her, which does the principal Part of the Work. One if the Elevators receives the Wheat at the Tail of the Wagon, and carries it up to the Garners, out of which it runs through Spouts into the Screen and Fan, through which it may be turned as often as necessary, till sufficiently cleaned, thence into a Garner over the Hopper which feeds the Stones regularly. Another Elevator receives the Meal when ground and carries it up, and it falls on the Meal-loft, where the Hopperboy receives it and spreads it aboard thin over the floor, and turns it over and over perhaps an hundred Times and cools it compleatly, then conveys it into the Boulting- Hopper, which it attends regularly; said Elevator also carries up the Tail Flour with a Portion of Bran, and mixes it with the ground Meal to be boulted over, by which means the Boulting is done to the greatest Perfection possible, and the Cloths will be keppt open by the Bran in the hottest Weather without Knockeers. All this is done without Labour, with much less Waste, and much better than is possible to be done by Hand, as the Miller has no need to trample in the Meal, nor any way to handle or move it from the Time it leaves the Waggoner's Bag, until it comes into the Superfine Chest ready for Packing. The whole Expence of the Materials and and erecting said Machinery will not exceed from Twenty to Forty Dollars, as the Mills may differ in Construction. One Hand can now do the Work that used to employ two or three, two Hands are able to attend a Mill with two Waterwheels and two Pair of Stones steady running, with very little Assistance, if the Machinery be well applied. They are simple and durable, and not subject to get out of Repair. If Millers will think on this when they are fatigued carrying heavy Bags, or with hoisting their Wheat or Meal, spreading to cool, and attending the Boulting-Hopper, Screean and Fan, and when they see the Meal scatered over the Stairs, & etc., wasting, or when they hoist their tail Flour with the Bran to boult over and when their Flour is scraped for neglect in Boulting, and when the Superfine is let run into the Middlings by over feeding, & etc., and consider that these Machiners will effectuall remedy all this, and save great Experence in Wages, Provisions, Brushes and Candles, and he may conclude that it is not best to continue in the old Way, while such excellent Improvements are extant. Those who chose to adopt them, may have Permission, with full Directions for erecting them, by applying to OLIVER EVANS, the inventor, who has an exclusive Right, or to either of the Subscribers. JOHN, THEOPHILUS, & OLIVER EVANS."

"N. B. Farmers and others may have Wheat ground during the Winter Season at said Mill (on good Burrs and all Things in the best Order) with great Care and Dispatch, at the low Rate of Thirty Shillings per 100 Bushels, or Eighteen Shillings per Load. Red Clay Creek, Dec. 19, 1787."


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