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A Mill on a Stream is Part of an Organic Process.

Governor Winthrop's Old Town Mill (circa 1650), Mill Brook, near Mill St., New London, New London County, Connecticut. From a stereograph view of New London, Connecticut.

A Mill on a Stream is Part of an Organic Process
by Theodore R. Hazen.

How about some history on the use of natural powered technology. I am sorry we have to deal with some basics first, before we can get down to Mr. Foshag concept of a mill being part of an "organic process."

First of all, the first naturally powered mills were built by the Persians about 3 thousand years ago. These were horizontal windmills. Where they are located in parts of ancient Persia, the wind only blew from one direction. So the building was built in a series of one windmill next to another, with a long vertical slot in each wind mill building for the wind to enter and on the opposite side a slot for the wind to exit.

Then the Persians conquered parts of Greece. On the island of Crete, they wanted to build their windmills, but the wind blew from many directions in stead of from one direction. It was impossible to make the top of the building with its slots to keep turned into the wind, so they decided to turn it around and adopt the windmill to be turned by water. The millstones that in the windmill was located in the bottom of the mill with its wind tunnel to blow the chaff from the grain was not located on the top of the mill. And the large horizontal wind wheel was greatly reduced in size so it blades could now be turned by water. The Persians came and went, and the Greeks were left with the mills they had built. The Greeks were more in to arts and architecture, and not into invention and technology. People who later conquered Greece found the Persian water mills and thought that they had been built by the Greeks, and they became know as Greek mills. When these mills reached the Scandinavian countries these mills became known as Norse mills. When they came to America, we put an open tub around the water wheels to cut down of the waste of water in an effort to make them more efficient, and these became known as tub mills. In the 1830's the French took our adaptation of the horizontal water wheel, and developed the modern water turbine.

Romans used water wheels mainly as a toy. They had too much of a slave economy to make a great use of water power. Most of the Roman millstones found in bakeries were powered by slaves or cattle. The Romans used the noria water wheel to lift water to the top of aqueducts. They had tidal powered mills in North Africa, and water powered mills powering different types of industries found throughout the empire. I should mention that the word "industry" did not come into existence until 1814.

The Crusaders took the idea of the windmills into Europe where the horizontal wind wheel became a vertical wind wheel where it could catch the wind from changing directions. About 1,200 years ago the tidal powered water mills was developed. In ancient Armenia which was part of Persia, about 2 thousand years ago, boat or floating mills were found on broad rivers where no dams were used. These ideas were also taken to Europe by the Crusaders and used on the broad river valleys of Central Europe. The Hungarians took the idea of the boat or floating mills to the broad rivers of Ohio. They were boats or barges with a water wheel attached anchored in the current, and they could be moved up or down stream with the harvest. It is difficult to build mill dams on broad rivers, and to maintain them. So the boat or floating mills was a solution where a dam was not needed.

Old Town Mill (circa 1650), Mill Brook, near Mill St., New London, New London County, Connecticut.

The first mills in America were windmills and tidal powered mills. It was easier to take the grain to the mill by water rather than cross the inland wilderness with no roads and only Indian trails. Originally people were clustered along the coast, and windmills were even shipped from England in kit form for to be put together with instructions. When people first came to America, it was difficult to get intelligent people to come here like millwrights. One solution was to build windmills in England, take them apart, shove them into holds of ships, and them assemble them in the New World.

When people moved away from the coast, and a road system was began to be developed the stream powered mills gradually replaced the numbers of wind and tidal powered mills in early America. In New England tower windmills were the most common windmill type, and in the Southern tidewater the post windmill was commonly found. The farther North up the American coast into Canada, the range of the tides increase, and the farther South into Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia, the tidal range become less. Tidal powered mills use breast shot water wheels, undershot water wheels and horizontal water wheels. Boat or floating mills use undershot water wheels.

The most common water mill found in early America up until the 1830's when the French developed the water turbine was the "breast shot water wheel." Not every mill site could operate an overshot water wheel. The water turbine replaced the breast shot water wheel in America, because they have the same power requirements for the amount of fall and the amount of water.

Undershot water wheels operate on falls less than 6 feet. Breast shot water wheels operate on falls between 6 to 10 feet. Overshot water wheels are used on falls of 10 feet or more.

Undershot water wheels have two types: the undershot which can be of diameters of 20 feet or more, and the flutter water wheels. Flutter water wheels are smaller diameters and make a bird wing fluttering sound when they rotate. They are usually 4 to 5 feet in diameter, and used to power up and down saw mill blades. Undershot water wheels have open wheels with flat paddles or floats so they stop when water rises too high to turn the water wheel. The undershot water wheel has open paddles or floats attached to the arms of the water wheel so water can turn the water wheel. The reason for this is that the undershot water wheels are often located in areas subject to sudden rise and fall of water wheels, and the water wheel would stop rotating if the water covers the water wheel so the machinery would not be damaged. Undershot water wheels in America never reached the high state of technical development as in Europe with the Poncelet water wheel, Zuppinger and Sagebien water wheels.

The breast shot water wheel has three types: the low breast shot water wheel, the middle breast shot water wheel and the high breast shot water wheel. Breast shot water wheels are built with closed buckets or elbow buckets. The low breast water is filled at 8 o'clock (or just below the axle of the water wheel), the middle breast water is filled at 9 o'clock (or at the axle of the water wheel), and a high breast is filled at 10 o'clock (or just above the axle of the water wheel). A breast shot water wheel can be large in diameter like that of the undershot to take advantage of the fly-wheel effect. A breast shot water wheel has an apron of either wood or stone just below where the water enters the wheel to just beyond the vertical center of the water wheel. The breast or apron hold the water in the buckets making the the breast shot water wheel much more efficient than the undershot water wheel. The breast shot water wheels have buckets to catch and hold the water in the wheel, often of the elbow shape, which has a front and bottom bucket parts.

The overshot water wheel has two types: the overshot and the pitch-back water wheel. Water fills the enclosed buckets a little behind the vertical center of the water wheel. A pitch-back water wheel is like an extreme high breast shot water wheel. The water fills the buckets at 11 o's clock and the water wheel then pitches backward like that of an breast shot water wheel. A pitch back water wheel has an apron (of stone, wood or metal) to keep the water in the buckets like the breast shot water wheel one inch away from the water wheel. Wooden breast shot and overshot water wheels have elbow shaped buckets, and metal water wheels have curved shaped buckets.

The most powerful water wheel ever built was the Burden Water Wheel. The Burden water wheel had a diameter in feet of 62.0, a breath or depth in feet of 22.0. Its bulk was 56,000 cubic feet, and its R.P.M. was 2.5. The final capacity or output in horsepower was 300 and the water wheel weighted 250.0 tons. It powered the Troy Iron and Nail Factory from 1851 to the 1890's.

The largest metal water wheel in the world is the Lady Isabella, which is a pitch-back water wheel diameter of 72 1/2 feet and a breadth of 6 feet and was capable of raising 250 gallons per minute from a depth of 1200 feet. It was used to pump air into the Great Laxey Mining Company on the Isle of Man.

The largest wooden water wheel in the world is the noria water wheels in Hama, Syria, the largest being 90 feet in diameter, and some of them being 900 years old. The largest wooden water wheel in the United States is the Berry College Water Wheel , 44 feet in diameter in Rome, Georgia, which powered a grist mill on campus.

The largest metal water wheel in the United States is the Fairwater Fitz Water Wheel. The Fairwater Electric Company, Fair Water, Wisconsin. The largest water wheel constructed by the Fitz Water Wheel Company, Hanover, Pennsylvania. It is 50 Feet in diameter Steel Overshoot Water Wheel. Built in 1924, the 29 ton wheel is 10 feet wide, and produced about 140 horsepower.

Grist Mill at the Wayside Inn, Sudbury, Massachusetts. Construction began in 1926 and the mill first ground grain on Thanksgiving day of 1929.

Basically a millwright knows that on falls of less than 6 or no falls at all he can use an undershot water wheel type, on falls of 6 to 10 feet he can use a breast shot water wheel type, and on falls of 10 feet or more he can use the overshot water wheel type. What was common in early America was also common in Europe. A millwright trained in Europe may have only ever built undershot water wheels or breast shot water wheels. They were trained and worked locally on the common water wheel to their locality. So it was not uncommon to find an undershot water wheel in early America powered by a 40 foot falls because in Europe that is all the millwright was trained to build or construct. He never learned as part of his apprenticeship how to construct other types of water wheels to take advantage of greater falls. all the millwright knew was learned by the apprentice system, with no plans, instruction books, or classrooms. Mills were like ships which were built by using models and the grid system. Each model was a scale down replica of the real thing. Centuries ago when you captured an enemy vessel, the first thing you did was take it apart, and build an exact model from the real thing. The lord, abbott or king did not understand plans or drawings, or abstract concepts in a builders head, but they could see that money could be spend on building things built from models. So a millwright's shop would have a shelf which contained models of different types of water wheels, or windmills, and various models of milling machinery.

Oliver Evans was born near Newport, Delaware, in 1755. At sixteen Oliver was apprenticed to a wheelwright and wagon maker in Newport. Then later Oliver and his brother Joseph moved to the Eastern Shore of Maryland, to open a general store. It was here on trips to purchase flour for his store Oliver realized that there were many problems in the milling industry. In 1783 he joined with two of his brothers in building a flour mill on land they had bought from their father on Red Clay Creek in Delaware.

The technology of flour mills had not changed in any essential aspect since water power had first been utilized hundreds of years earlier. To make flour, sacks of grain were carried, one by one, up to the top of the mill and poured into open bins in the mill's loft. The next step was that the wheat dropped through a chute to a lower floor, where it was ground into meal by millstones. The meal then dropped into a bin on the ground or basement floor of the mill, and was shoveled into a large bucket or tub to be hoisted back up to the third floor, where it was spread out on the floor to cool. If the mill did not have a hoist, the ground grain was shoveled into a sack and carried up a narrow ladder through trap doors to the top of the mill. The meal was then shoveled in opening a chute from which it fell into flour bolter or sifter. If the mill had such a device where many small mills still sifted using only a hand sifter. A bolting cylinder, is a device that separated it into flour, middlings, and bran. Finally the flour was packed into barrels, and was ready to ship.

The only parts of this complicated process that were powered by the water wheel or wind was the actual grinding and bolting. Everything else was accomplished by human muscle, being known as the back and bag method of grinding.

Oliver Evans in the 1782-83 designed, and put into successful operation a series of improvements in flour milling machinery. His improvements were laid out in a landmark book which was the first technical manual for any trade. A how-to book on mills, milling and milling machines which would soon revolutionized flour milling.

Oliver Evans five devices, the elevator, conveyor, hopper-boy, descender, and drill could be powered by wind or water wheels. The descender and drill were only used in special applications, so the elevator, conveyor, and hopper-boy were the main components of an Oliver Evans automatic flour milling system. What Oliver Evans had invented more than five mill devices was the conception of an integrated, automatic, industrial process. Automatic machinery, which worked without human operators, had been around for some time (the clock was perhaps the first). It was not until Oliver Evans who was the first to conceive of the factory itself as a machine. An Oliver Evans factor or flour was mill was just that, just a big machine, where you poured in raw grain, and flour came out the other end.

Oliver had invented a better mousetrap, Evans expected the world to beat a path to his door. He was very disappointed. Flour mills already in operation were profitable as they were, and their owners saw no reason to install expensive machinery. Millers at first were universally opposed to Evans' improvements. Most of flour milling operations of any size were family enterprises, and the owners feared they might put their own relatives out of work.

The first book to published as a technical handbook was "The Young Mill-Wright's and Miller's Guile," by Oliver Evans, 1795 in 15 editions to 1860. This book became known as the miller's and millwright's bible. The problem is understanding it, and having prior learned knowledge to make any sense of it. This is the sort of stuff that would have been learned though a millwright's apprenticeship. The art of the miller or the millwright, is also part of the secrets of the craft. Basically, "if I tell you, I will have to kill you!" A craftsman who learned his craft though apprenticeship did not practice his trade or craft in front of others, or shared that knowledge with others. This is the basic problem with interpretation of historical sites like an old mill, or Colonial Williamsburg. The miller saw someone coming down the road, he would turn off the mill. The visitor, farmer, or customer did not see the mill operating, or see anything apart. The mill told him to leave the grain, and come back later to get your finished product. Meanwhile, go fishing, swimming, picnicking or ice skating on the mill pond, but don't hang around here.

In "The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide," the plates in the original work are just not too clear. You can buy original editions of his book, and there are reprints that are available for purchase. Most people that purchase a copy are missing big parts of the puzzle for real understanding. This is the problem with people interpreting chapters, sections or illustrations in the book, they don't have total understanding to really know what they are talking about. For example, Oliver Evans (actually this section is written by Thomas Ellicott) tells you how to build mills which were state of the art at the time of his inventions. This does not mean that these mills are Oliver Evans mills, just what mills looked like before he developed his inventions and improvements. So they rather than holding up the plates or illustrations of an Oliver Evans mill, some they hold up a drawing of what a pre-Oliver Evans mill, and state in print (and in stone) that this is a "real" Oliver Evans mill (for all eternity). And it is just not the case, if they really knew what they were talking about.

Oliver Evans father was Charles Evans, a cordwainer (shoemaker) and farmer, and Ann Stalcop, the daughter of a prosperous miller. Oliver Evans's grandfather was Nathaniel Evans a miller, millwright and farmer who built in 1742 a mill on land that Oliver Evans and his brothers bought to built their automated flour mill on Red Clay Creek along the Faulkland Road. Oliver Evans like to call himself a millwright, and history books like to assume that he did not come by that title honestly because Oliver was apprenticed to a wheelwright, but being a millwright and miller were trades which where practiced by family members which he must have grew up around.

Oliver Evans spent much of his life either peddling his mill design or, once it was patented and in common use, he then spent his time suing millers to pay him for having adopted it. Despite Evans's grumpy attitude about people's reluctance to change, the Evans process gradually spread through the industry over the next twenty years while its essential idea of automaton spread to other industries as well. Its success was greatly helped by a book Evans wrote "The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide." A how-to book on building and running flour mills. In the its fifteen edition was last printed on the eve of the American Civil War, forty years after the author's death. Oliver Evans idea of "wooden millers" took years before most millers were willing to automatize their own business. Oliver Evans' flour mill inventions became a solid success, the license fees were not yet enough to earn a living, and Evans moved to Philadelphia and became a merchant, specializing in flour-mill equipment. There he would spend the rest of his life on his adolescent passion: steam. However, certain articles, history books and so-called historians would see him as the greedy Chaucerian miller, who took to rural countryside seeking out unlicensed millers to whom he direct his lawyers to assault. Steam engines for steamboats and licensing fees of his flour mill, made Evans's old age a prosperous one.

Mill technology does not work like the Theory of Continental Drift. Things don't always move in one direction, they don't always move in two directions, and sometimes they don't move at all. For example, Oliver Evans improvements. Milling originally came to America from France, England, Holland, and Spain. France readily accepted the technology, because by the date of the printing of "The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide," France was the source of most of our millstones. Germany stole the technology, and England would not accept it because of their arrogant idea that we could not know any more than what they originally taught us. "The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide," was translated into French, and when the collection of stolen ideas were published in Germany, the source was simply stated as "American." Then in Perry Country, Pennsylvania, many flour mills were built prior to Oliver Evans coming up with his so-called improvements, and they for the most-part missed this stage in flour milling development. They did not change until later with the addition of roller mills, and metal Fitz Water Wheels. Another example, is Enck's Mill on the Yellow Breeches Creek in Cumberland Country, Pennsylvania, above Barnitz Mill. Found on one of the illustrated forty-four engravings of Andrew Gray (millwright) book, "The Experienced Millwright; or, a treatise on the construction of some of the most useful machines, with the latest improvements," D. Williams, for Archibald Constable & Co., Edinburgh, 1806, is the exact plans for the Enck's Mill. It is just odd that the book which was printed in Scotland, is so far removed from the Yellow Breeches Creek in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, and why was not "The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide," considered as source material for the building of Enck's Mill, when it was used on the Barnitz Mill. The difference between Andrew Gray's mill and an Oliver Evans mill, is with the Oliver Evans mill there is a higher value set upon human labor in the American environment, as compared to that of the English. Then more than likely, the building of Enck's Mill was based on English tradition rather than contemporary considerations. Mill technology after all does not work like the Theory of Continental Drift, where things come back together at their original source. One exception is that millstones are now accepted as a better natural method of grinding grains than steel rollers.

Interior of Master Millwright John Blake Campbell's recreation of an Oliver Evans Mill at the Grist Mill at the Wayside Inn, Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Millwrights were even more secretive. The spit of a millwright was thought to be able to kill a toad. It was the millwright that knew the secrets of different kinds of wood, and what wood was best for making the various parts of the mill.

Basically the millwright knows the profile of a stream. Rather than looking down on a map which is an aerial view. The profile of a stream is looking at it in a cut-a-way side section through the earth showing the range in elevations of the stream from beginning to end.

Most streams have this profile: (1) In the beginning of the stream or the farthest reaches of a stream, the stream has this following characteristics: There is a lot of fall for any given distance with very little flow of water. Water is measured in cubic feet per second that passes a point in the stream. (2) In the middle of the stream or the middle reaches of a stream, the streams has the following characteristics: There is a little less fall than the upper reaches of a stream, but the flow of water has increased because there are more streams feeding into the main stream bed. (3) In the lower ends of the stream, or lower reaches of a stream, the streams has the following characteristics: There is now very little fall for any given distance like that once measured in the middle or upper reaches of a stream. However, there is a greater amount of water flowing in the stream because of the larger size of the watershed feeding into the stream.

The millwright put this basic information together with the basic information of water wheels types, and it now become the following. (1) The upper ends of the stream is where the overshot water wheel types are found because they require a greater fall and can be operated on less water. (2) The middle reaches of a stream is where the breast shot water wheels are found because they require less fall and a greater amount of water to operate than the overshot water wheel type. (3) The lower reaches of a stream to where it enters the sea, is where you find the low breast shot and undershot water wheel types because it requires much less fall than the middle breast shot type and requires a greater amount of water to operate.

The Conodqulnet Creek where William Foshag's Diller-Heishman's Mill, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, is just one mill that once stood along that stream. It is a mill on the middle reaches of that stream where a breast shot water wheel would have operated. The mill once was powered by Johnson Water Wheels which are like tub wheels, but are more like fore runners of the modern water turbine. The Johnson Water Wheels were removed, and two S. Morgan Smith water turbines were installed which is what is found there today.

The way I understand Mr. Foshag's concept of the "organic process" is that there was just not one mill built on each stream, but number of mills which were all interconnected to each other like the blood that made them operate. The first or mill that was built farthest up the stream waste water would become the life blood of the mill built below it. As the stream flow downward in its profile, the more number of mills could be built, because the flow of water increased. Originally at the head of the stream, the water in the stream was so small it could only operate one mill, but farther down the stream profile the amount of water increased, so at a single dam a mill could be build on each side of the dam. An example of any given point on a mill stream is St. Anthony's Falls, were 17 water powered mills operated there on the Mississippi River.

The problem with one mill being located above another on a single stream is they are like a living thing, each dependent upon the other, and effected by the other. When water levels become low, many of them will have problems finding the water in the stream to operate. Diller-Heishman's Mill had an engine that could power the mill when water levels were low during the summer months. The same was true during the winter months when one mill was locked tight in ice, many of them were that had wooden water wheels. Metal water wheels were not effected by the freezing ice and snow. A water turbine draws its operating water from below the frozen surface unlike the vertical water wheels that can become locked in ice. Too much of a good thing can be bad, so then, too much water can cause problems. Too much water or flood events on a stream can effect the operation of a mill. The streams flood to the point that you loose your fall and you cannot operate the mill. If a mill dam breaks the rushing water can break the mill dam below, and the increased water can "break the back" of a stream, taking out one mill dam and another until the water's power diminished or it encountered a stronger mill dam.

When water turns a water wheel, the water wheel mixes oxygen into the water which is good for aquatic life. A stream will die when it does not have mill dams and water wheels to increase the oxygen into the stream. The same is true when the stones are removed for either building or to make it smooth like a mill pond from one end to the other. This is like removing all of the trees and vegetation from the banks of a mill stream, then the destructive effects of a flood event become greater with out the obstructions that once slowed down and held the water. A cancer can have effects on more than one part of the body.

If you read Philip L. Lord's book, "Mills on the Tsatsawassa: Techniques for Documenting Early 19th Century Water-Power Industry in Rural New York, A case study illustrating the coordinated use of maps, deeds, and archeological survey to reconstruct the locations of interrelationships of early industrial sites and to reveal previously undocumented elements of local water power technology," mills become like patches on a patchwork quilt. Basically mills built in the 1600's and perhaps 1700's may come and go, and be replaced by mills built in the 1800's. Some of these are located on tracts where previous mills existed. or on tracts that are subdivisions of earlier tracts with more mills in a smaller area for once few mills existed. Again, it is an "organic process" where old cells are discarded, and new once replace them. In the "technical organic process" besides new mills replacing the old, older technology is replaced by newer advances in technology. The mills now can do a better job of cleaning and sifting grain into flour, and then can produce a greater amount. The problems that was encountered with "The Young Mill-Wright's and Miller's Guile," by Oliver Evans, was that milling made a great leap in technology before agriculture had come out of the stone age. For a while there was a glut in the market as a single mill could take in now grind 10 times or more the amount of grain that it once did. Milling did the leap of faith in technological advancement with Oliver Evans automated flour milling which was the beginning of America as millers to the world. So Minneapolis became the largest flour milling center in the world where at any time with 17 water powered mills working from St. Anthony's Falls on the Mississippi River.

Mills that spend the most on new technology to make the most, or operated longer than others that remained static in their operation. The big mills of Minneapolis set a standard for the American housewife for flour, and mills across the country to stay in business wanted to be able to also make Minneapolis style of flour, or be doomed to die a slow death. The railroads also put an end to the local flour mill business. The mills of Minneapolis because of government railroad subsidies could go out and get grain, mill it, and ship the flour to any point in the United States cheaper than a local mill could just go out and get its locally grown grain, and then haul the finished flour to the local stores and supply their local markets. A couple of other things were added to that mix, after World War Two the individual consumption of flour has greatly declined (even though flour in more products than ever before), and after the second World War you have State and Federal health regulations than never existed imposed upon mills that were built before those considerations or guidelines.

Heishman's Mill represents the world of the cottage industry. The miller and his family once lived in part of the mill, and then in the 1700's they often moved across the road to a separate miller's house. The mill ground grain that was locally grown, and one did not have to travel far for the various items that one need for everyday life. The mills originally used animal fats for lubrication, and water to lubricate the water wheel bearings. However, when the mills gradually shut down, the dams in time were breached by nature and gradually removed. Forests, farmlands and manure disappeared from around the streams and was replaced by house and development. Greater runoff during flood events from paved roads, parking lots cased problems on streams, mill dams and abandoned mills became death traps for the American teenagers. Besides flooding that was not held back by natural vegetation, you now had fertilized lawn chemicals, dog droppings, and oil from cars and trucks getting into the mill stream that once powered the mill.

If any farming remains, then it may have become industrial farming with chicken and hog farms that warehouse animals and have huge problems with animal waste into streams, etc. This is a problem is some counties of Pennsylvania, and underground mining that has stopped no longer adds "huge" amounts of water to the streams water shed has dropped water levels so mills remaining in operation today no longer have water to operate and have to rely upon nonrenewable resources such as oil.

The problems in removing the mill dams, is that you don't have the oxygen mixed from the water falls and water wheels. You don't have deep water behind dams and deep holes dug out below the mill dams where water churns. Silt is flushed out rather than collected in pockets. And in time the water temperature of the whole stream becomes the same, and fish loose interest in warm water. The stream beds become so aquatic creatures won't winter in the mud or silt. There are no deep cold holes for fish to congregate during warm summer months. The chemical run off from pastures and farmers fields is replaced with seepage from septic tanks and leech fields.

The mill now becomes a problem to local homeowners whose lawns now go down the edge of the mill stream and pond, whose rising and falling water associated with the daily grinding activities of the old mill now is seen as an unwanted neighbor. At one time for hundreds of years water powered mills was seen as a good thing, but now they have to connect up to the electrical grid that in many cases that generates its power from coal rather than natural hydro power.

Noxontown Mill circa 1740, Noxontown Road (County Rd. 38), Middletown vicinity, New Castle County, Delaware.

See the following:

"Mill Sites on the Eno River: A Geological Viewpoint," by Duncan Heron, Eno, Vol. 7 Special Issue, Papers from the seminar on water wheels and windmills held in Durham, North Carolina, July 1978, in the Bicentennial year of West Point on the Eno River, with The International Molinological Society (T.I.M.S.), Smithsonian Institution, Duke University, and the Hillsborough Historical Society.

"Construction of Mill Dams," by James Leffel, published in several editions by the James Leffel & Company, Springfield, Ohio, 1874, 1881, reprint Noyes Press series in History of Technology Vol. No. 1, Noyes Press, Park Ridge, New Jersey, 1992, 1881 edition reprinted by SPOOM 1999. It is a good book to tell you all about the different types of mill dams, but it does not attempt to tell you how to convey water to operate a water wheel. That information is locked in a millwright's head and he is not going to share it will anyone outside of his trade.

Historically: How to Site a Mill.

"Mills on the Tsatsawassa: Techniques for Documenting Early 19th Century Water-Power Industry in Rural New York, A case study illustrating the coordinated use of maps, deeds, and archeological survey to reconstruct the locations of interrelationships of early industrial sites and to reveal previously undocumented elements of local water power technology," by Philip L. Lord, The University of the State of New York, Purple Mountain Press, Fleischmanns, New York, 1983.

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Copyright 2006 by T. R. Hazen