1490 B.C.

Leviticus 5)

1: And if a soul sin (see 4:2), and hear (= because he heard) the voice of swearing (= adjuration), and is a witness, whether he has seen or known of it; if he does not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity (= perverseness, Heb. āvāh, from the root to be bent, or crooked. English wrong, i.e. wrung out of course, expresses it. Cp. 1 Sam. 20:30. 2 Sam. 19:19. 1 Kings 8:47. Job 33:37 &c.).
2: Or if a soul touch any unclean thing, whether it be a carcass of an unclean beast, or a carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean creeping things, and if it be hidden from him (i.e if he forgot his uncleanness. This clause "and if", &c., is omitted in the Sept. and included in v.3); he also shall be unclean, and guilty.
3: Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever uncleanness it be that a man shall be defiled withal, and it be hid from him; when he knows of it, then he shall be guilty.
4: Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips (= speaking heedlessly) to do evil (Heb. ra, wicked, injurious. From its root, which indicates its nature as breaking up all that is good or desirable; injurious to all other. In Greek poneros, evil, or kakos, bad. Hence especially of moral depravity and corruption, and lewdness. Englsh "good-for-nothing". See 1 Sam. 17:28, naughty 2 Kings 2:19. Prov.20:14. Jer. 24:2. Put here for the punishment due to it), or to do good ("evil....good" to include all human actions. Cp. Gen. 24:50; 31:29. Num. 24:13), whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knows of it, then he shall be guilty in one of these.
5: And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that he has sinned in that thing:
6: And he shall bring his trespass offering (see 4:3) to the Lord (Yahaveh) for his sin which he has sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin. (See Ex. 26:33)

7: And if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass, which he has committed, two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, to the Lord; one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering.
8: And he shall bring them to the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin offering first, and wring off his head from his neck, but shall not divide it asunder:
9: And he shall splash of the blood of the sin offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the bottom of the altar: it is a sin offering.
10: And he shall offer the second for a burnt offering, according to the manner (see 1:14 &c.): and the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin which he has sinned, and it shall be forgiven him.
11: But if he be not able to bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he that sinned shall bring for his admittance offering (for the poor only a little flour. Cp. 4:23 & 28. All equally forgiven. Cp. 4:26,31 & 5:15) the tenth part of an ephah (Heb. 1/10 = ohmer = a heap = approx. 3/4 gal. dry) of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon: for it is a sin offering.
12: Then shall he bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it, even a memorial thereof, and burn it (as incense) on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire to the Lord: it is a sin offering.
13: And the priest shall make an atonement for him as touching his sin that he has sinned in one of these (specified in vv.1-4. Cp v.5), and it shall be forgiven him: and the remnant shall be the priest's, as a meat offering.

14: And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, (This formula denotes another communication made at a different time, and gives a further development of the laws of the trespass offering. Note that in this book Yehovah "spoke" at 35 "sundry times", and in 10 "divers manners".

     1. To Moses alone [5:14; 6:1,19; 8:1; 14:1; 22:26; 23:26].
     2. To Moses, to speak to Aaron alone [16:1].
     3. To Moses, to speak to "Aaron and his sons" [6:8,24; 22:1].
     4. To Moses, to speak to "Aaron and his sons, and to all the children of Israel" [17:1; 21:16 {cp.v.24}; 22:17].
     5. To Moses, to speak to "the priests, the sons of Aaron" [21:1].
     6. To Moses, to speak to "the children of Israel" [1:1; 4:1; 7:22,28; 12:1; 18:1; 20:1; 23:1,9,23; 24:1,13; 25:1; 27:1].
     7. To Moses, to speak "to all the congregation of the children of Israel" [19:1].
     8. To Moses and Aaron co-jointly [13:1; 14:23].
     9. To Moses and Aaron, to speak to "the children of Israel" [11:1; 15:1].
     10. To Aaron alone [10:8].
The reason for these distinctions will be seen from the respective contexts. The number 10 = ordinal perfection, and the number 35 = 7 x 5 = spiritual perfection times grace. )

15: If a soul commit a trespass (Heb. mal, to act covertly; to be faithless, especially in covenant matters, either with God [Lev.26:40. Num.31:16. Deut.32:51 &c], or between husband and wife [Num.5:12,27]. Not the same word as in vv.6,7,15,16 and below in this verse. Also means treachery, breach of trust, also rendered transgression. It is used of Achan [Josh. 7:1; 22:20]. Cp. Josh. 22:16. 2 Chron. 26:18; 28:22. Ezra 9:2,4. Neh. 13:27 &c.), and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the Lord (such as first-fruits, firstborn &c. Ex. 28:28. See Ex .3:5); then he shall bring for his trespass to the Lord a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with your estimation (= valuation, made here by Moses, transferred by him to the priests. See 27:8,12. Num. 18:16) by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary (approx.1/2 oz.), for a trespass offering:
16: And he shall make amends for the harm that he has done in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto (in trespass in holy things sacrifice comes first [5:15], and addition afterwards. In human affairs the addition comes first [6:5], and sacrifice follows [6:7]), and give it to the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him.
17: And if a soul sin, and commit any (= any of these things specified in v.15) of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the Lord; though he knew it not (this effectually disposes of the fallacy that it only sincerity that matters. Note the repetitions of the words in 17-19 to emphasis this), yet is he guilty, and shall bear his perverseness (see 5:1).
18: And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, with your valuation, for a trespass offering, to the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he erred (see 4:13) and knew it not, and it shall be forgiven him.
19: It is a trespass offering: he has certainly trespassed against the Lord.

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