19:1-37. Unlawful Practices.

x  W  1-8. Sundry commands and prohibitions.
     X  9,10. Gleanings.
    W  11-22. Sundry commands and prohibitions.
     X  23-25. First-fruits.
    W  26-37. Sundry commands and prohibitions.

1490 B.C.

Leviticus 19)

1: And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, (see 5:14)
2: "Speak to all the congregation of the sons of Israel (only here in Leviticus, and once more in Ex. 12:3), and say to them, 'You all shall be holy (= set apart, see Ex. 3:5): for I the Lord your God am holy. (There are 15 groups in this body of laws, ch.19, 7 ending with the longer formula "I am Yehovah your Elohim" [4,10,23,25,31,34,36], and 8 with the shorter formula "I am Yehovah" [12,14,16,18,28,30,32,37].)
3: You all shall fear (= revere or love) every man his mother, and his father, and keep My sabbaths: I am the Lord your God.
4: Turn you all not to idols (see 26:1), nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the Lord your God.
5: And if you all slay for a sacrifice a sacrifice of peace offerings to the Lord, you all shall offer it at your own will. (Heb. ="for your acceptance", or "that you all may be accepted".)
6: It shall be eaten the same day you all offer it, and on the next day: and if any remain until the third day, it shall be burnt (down) in the fire.
7: And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it is abominable; it shall not be accepted.
8: Therefore every one that eats it shall bear his perverseness, because he has profaned the set apart thing of the Lord: and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. (See 7:20)

9,10. Gleanings.
(Cp. Ruth 2:14-16.)

9: And when you all reap the harvest of your land, you shall not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shall you gather the gleanings of your harvest.
10: And you shall not glean your vineyard, neither shall you gather every grape of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the poor and stranger: I am the Lord your God.

11-22. Sundry Commands and Prohibitions.

11: You all shall not steal, neither deal falsely, neither lie one to another.
12: And you all shall not swear by My name falsely, neither shall you profane the name of your God: I am the Lord.
13: You shall not defraud your neighbor, neither rob him: the wages of him that is hired shall not abide with you all night until the morning. (Heb. work, for wage earned by it. Note the Divine care for the laborer [Deut. 24:14,15. Jer. 22:13. Mal. 3:5. Jas. 5:4].)
14: You shall not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but shall revere (or love) your God: I am the Lord.
15: You all shall do no unrighteousness in judgment: you shall not respect the person of the poor, nor honor the person of the mighty: but in righteousness shall you judge your neighbor.
16: You shall not go up and down as a talebearer among your people (a solemn warning here. Rendered "slandering" in Jer.6:28; 9:4. Esek. 22:9. Cp. 1 Sam. 22:9-18): neither shall you stand against the blood of your neighbor: I am the Lord.
17: You shall not hate your brother in your heart: you shall in any wise rebuke your neighbor, and not suffer sin upon him. (Or continence him in his sin; or, lest on his account you bear sin. This is the Divine method, and the best.)
18: You shall not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the sons of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord. ( See Matt. 7:12; 22:39,40. Luke 6:31. Not merely one who is "near", but any one with whom one has dealings. This is the point of Luke 10:29. Cp. John 4:9.)
19: You shall keep My statutes. You shall not let your cattle gender with a different kind (everything created "after his kind". See Gen.1:11; a deep, moral, and spiritual lesson is contained in this prohibition): you shall not sow your field with mingled seed (another lesson here as to mingling the clean and unclean, human and Divine, flesh and spirit, &c. This law relates only to "seeds" which are used for food and actually eaten. Cp. Luke 13:6): neither shall a garment mingled of linen and woolen come upon you.
20: And whosoever lies carnally with a woman, that is a bond-maid, betrothed to an husband, and not at all redeemed (= set free, by power. See Ex. 13:13), nor freedom given her; she shall be scourged; they shall not be put to death, because she was not free. (Otherwise death. Deut. 22:24.)
21: And he shall bring his trespass offering to the Lord, to the entrance of the tent of the assembly, even a ram for a trespass offering.
22: And the priest shall make an atonement (see Ex. 29:33) for him with the ram of the trespass offering before the Lord for his sin which he has done: and the sin which he has done shall be forgiven him.

23: And when you all shall come into the land (the second of 4 prospective laws. See 14:34. Cp. 19:23; 23:10; 25), and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then you shall count the fruit thereof as uncircumcised (or uncovenented): three years shall it be as uncircumcised to you: it shall not be eaten of.
24: But in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy to praise the LORD withal. (= for a sacred and great praise to Yehovah)
25: And in the fifth year shall you all eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield to you the increase thereof: I am the Lord your God.

26: You all shall not eat any thing with the blood: neither shall you all use enchantment, nor observe times. (i.e.watch clouds, or days, for good or ill luck, e.g. not commencing a journey on a Friday. See v.31.)
27: You all shall not round the corners of your heads (i.e. to round cut, so as to have a tuft of hair, like the Canaanitish priests. Cp. Jer. 9:26; 25:23; 49:32), neither shall you mar the corners of your beard. (As Egyptians did. See Gen. 41:14.)
28: You all shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you: I am the Lord. (A practice of Canaanitish heathen worship. Cp.21:5. Deut. 14:1. 1 Kings 18:28. Jer. 48:37. Thus there is such a thing as a "dead soul" as well as a "living soul" [Gen. 2:2]; so also in 21:1; 22:4. Num. 5:2; 6:11. Nephesh is incorrectly rendered "body" in 21:11. Num. 6:6; 19:11,13; and "dead body" in Num. 9:6,7,10. Hag. 2:13. In all these passages the Heb. nephesh, soul, is rendered thus, and yet it is rendered "life" in 17:14 and elsewhere.)
29: Do not prostitute your daughter, to cause her to be a whore; lest the land fall to whoredom, and the land become full of wickedness. (The common practice, as a religious act, by the Canaanite and other ancient forms of idolatry.)
30: You all shall keep My sabbaths (not man's), and reverence My sanctuary: I am the Lord.
31: Regard not them that have familiar spirits (these are evil spirits impersonating dead human beings, and attaching themselves only to "mediums" and those who give up their own will to them. A dread reality is provided against these enactments. Cp. 20:27. Deut. 18:10-12. 1 Chron. 10:13-14. Isa.8:19. The Heb. 'ob, borrowed from an Akkadian word, ubi = a charm, used of one who was mistress of the spell, or spirit. Isa. 29:4. See Acts 16:16, where it is defined as "a spirit of Python" = Pythius Apollo, i.e. the devil), neither seek after wizards (= knowing ones, those having occult knowledge), to be defiled by them: I am the Lord your God.
32: You shall rise up before the hoary head, and honor the face of the old man, and love your God (perhaps an ellipsis, "love a visitation from your Elohim"): I am the Lord.
33: And if a stranger sojourn with you in your land, you all shall not vex him. (= oppress.)
34: But the stranger that dwells with you shall be to you as one born among you, and you shall love him as yourself (cp. v.18); for you all were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.
35: You all shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in measures of length and dimension, in measures of weight, or in measure of capacity.
36: Just balances (= balance of justice, genitive of character. So with other measures in this verse. Cp. Deut. 25:13-16. Prov. 11:1; 16:11; 20:10,23), just weights, a just ephah (about 3 pecks), and a just hin (about 1 gal.), shall you all have: I am the Lord your God, Which brought you out of the land of Egypt.
37: Therefore shall you all observe all My statutes, and all My regulations, and do them: I am the Lord.' "

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