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Types Of American Indians

NAVAJO: Arizona

In Northeast Arizona, the Navajo are a pround and independent people. The Navajo are the largest of the remaining tribes today. The Navajo can adapt to the modern life but still somewhat nomadic. The Hopi Indians live in the center of the Navajo country.

The Havasupai live along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon (Indian America, Ney, 7).

The anciet home of the Walapai and the Yavapai Indians live in the northwest corner of Arizona (Indian America, Ney, 7).

The Hohokam Indians are more developed than the Cochise Men. The Hohokam Indians live along the Gila Valley. They built and used canals to irrigate their desert lands (Indian America, Ney, 7).

The Indian tribes of the Yuma, Mohave, and Cocopa are dependent on the south-flowing Colorado River.

The Yuma Indians forced the Maricopa Indians out from their original lands. The Marcicopa Indians joined the Pima and Papago Indians to the east of them (Indian America, Ney, 7).

The Apache Indians are linked to the Navajo by language (Indian America, Ney, 7). Both speak the language of Athabascan. The Apache Indians are scattered and nomadic people, since they don't have a strong central government like other Indian tribes (Indian America, Ney, 7).

Also, the Apache were war-like, roving, non-tribal people, but they are outstanding fighters. The Mescalero and the Chiricahua were also outstaind fighters (Indian America, Ney, 7).

The Chiricahua belonged to the famous Cochise, Nana, Geronimo, and Mangas Colorados (Indian America, Ney, 7).


The Mission Indians were known as happy people who lived in a temperate climate in California.

The Mission Indians were described joyously hospitable, free as birds, whose speech and colors were like the warbling and plumage of birds (Indian America, Ney, 9).

Oregon and Washington

The tribe living in Oregon and Washington is the Inland Tribe. The are the wealthiest Indians north of Mexico.

The Inland Tribe were wealthy with goods especially with salmon.

The tribes included the Klmath, Modoc, Makah, Quinault, Chnook, Kalapoola, and Suislaw. They lived along the present American-Candian border to the Oregon-California border (Indian America, Ney, 11).

The Colville, Spokan, Palouse, Walla-Walla, Cayuse, and Yakima lived further inland in Washington and Oregon (Indian America, Ney, 11).

Living along the Canadian coasts and along the panhandle of Alaska were the Maritime tribes who was related to the Inland Tribes. The tribes were Nootka, Haida, Bella Coola, Kwakiutl, and Tlingit (Indian America, Ney, 11).

"Potlatch" comes from the Noootka patshatl meaning "giving." The potlatches were feasts to celebrate any sort of occasions.

Canada and Alaska

Relations between the whites and the Indians were far less violent than in the U.S. (Indian America, Ney, 13).

The French put little pressure on the tribes and didn't want to feel superior like the Americans did to the Indians (Indian America, Ney, 13).

The two language groups in Canada and Alaska are Algonkian and Athabascan. The third group is the Eskimo-Aleut, but they are not regarded as Indians (Indian America, Ney, 13).


Montana was the home of the famous tribes as the Blackfeet, Cree, Crow, and Flathead. Also, there were the Atsina, Arikara, Kalispel and the Kutenai (Indian America, Ney, 15).

The Blackfeet had their onw confederacy. They were the most powerful Algonkian speaking group on the northern plains.

The Blackfeet Confederacy was divided into three independent tribes such as the Blackfeet proper, or Siksia, the Piegan or Pikun (the name means poorly dressed), and the Kainah or Blood Indians. The Kainah had a habit painting their bodies with red clay for certain ceremonies. The Gross Ventre, or Atsina, and the Sarsi were included in the Confederacy (Indian America, Ney 15).

Warriors were the Blackfeet.

The Blackfeet reservation in Montana is adjacent to the Glacier National Park. Their reservation is one of the most attractive in the U.S. (Indian America, Ney, 15).

The most handsome of the western Indians were the Crow for their long hair.

North and South Dakota

The Arikara Indians live in North Dakota.

The self-discipline imposed by the rigors of wild life, the sense of community, and the instinctive desire to live with nature combined to bring forth an even stronger religious and moral sense. The Sioux had an elaborate and sophisticated code of behavior understoody by all (Indian America, Ney, 17).

The Sioux lived in the southern part of North Dakota and northern part of South Dakota.

Wyoming and Idaho

Sacajawea helped the Lewis and Clark expedition. She was born in Idaho and is a Shoshone Indian woman.

The Shoshone Indians live at the borders of Idaho and Wyoming.

The Indians tribes of Idaho and Wyoming are Spoken, Paiute, Palouse, Bannock, Coeur d'Alene, and Nez Perce.

The Nez Perce Indians named the Wallowa Valley the valley of the winding waters.

Utah and Colorado

The Arapaho Indains came back to Utah and Colorado from the western shoer of Lake Superior.

The Arapaho name came from the Pawnee word tirapihu which means "he buys, or trades" (Indian America, Ney, 21).


The Natsoo, part of the Caddo group and the Nachitoches settled in Texas (Indian America, Ney, 25).

In the west central part of Texas, the Mescalers Apachers lived. While, the Comanches lived north of the Mescalero Apaches. The Kiowa-Apaches, by the 1700's, lived in northwest corner of Texas. The Tonkawas lived in the plains of Texas.

The original natives called themselves, "Tejas" or "Friendly People" (Indian America, Ney, 25).

Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska

Many tribes lived in this area. They are the Osage, Kansa (or Kaw), Kiowa, Omaha, Pawnee, Wichita, and Missouri.

The famous ballerina, Maria Tallchief, is an Osage (Indian America, Ney, 25).

Charles Curtis is a Kansa(or Kaw) and is the only Indian to serve as Vice President under Herbert Hoover from 1929-1933. He is a direct descendant from the Kansa Chief, White Plum, and of Pawhuska, the Osage chief. He was/is successful jockey and trial lawyer. He was elected to Congress in 1892. He was the author of the Curtis Bill which is for the protection of the Indians of the Indian Territory. Charles Curtis was responsible for the 1924 citizenship bill and other legislation to Indians (Indians America, Ney, 30).

Dr. Susan La Flesche is an Omaha, and the first Indian woman to become a physician. Joseph, her father, was the last Omaha Chief to be recognized. Susette, her older sister, was the first Indian woman to speak for the Indians internationally and nationally. Francis, her brother, is a famous anthropologist (Indian America, Ney, 30).

Minnesota and Iowa

There are many tribes in the west or Canada who is associated with Minnesota. The tribes are the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Assiniboine, Chippewa (Ojibway), and the Sioux (Lakota/Dakota) (Indian Americaa, Ney, 32).

Minnesota is the home of the Pipestone Quarry. This is the source from which the ceremonial pipes were made of. This is the most important single place in the Indian world. The Sioux controlled the quarry and traded with other tribes. The ownership was turned over to the Yankton Dakotaa, and they are the only Indian people to use the quarry (Indian America, Ney, 32).

The word Sioux came from the Chippewa epithet for the Sioux. The Chippewa called the Sioux "Nadessioux or snames or enemies." The French shortened to Sioux (Indian America, Ney, 32).

The Sioux rather to be known as Dakota or Lakota which means friends or allies (Indian America, Ney, 32).

Keokuk, Iowa was named after the Sioux chief who led his people in Iowa after the War of 1812 (Indian America, Ney, 32).

The Chippewa, Dakota, Santee Sioux, Wahpeton, the Sauk and Fox lived in Minnesota. The Sauk and Fox also lived in Iowa.

The Yankton Sioux, Omaha, Winnebago, and Iowa live in Iowa.


The tribes that lived in Oklahoma are the Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Osage, Comanche, and the Wichita.

Also, there were Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma. They are the Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Chickasaw.

There is an Indian Graveyard in Oklahomaa at Fort Sill. Geronimo, Setanka, Quanah Parker, and Kicking Bird are known to lie at this graveyard. This graveyard is known as the Indian Arlington (Indian America, Ney, 34).

Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indianaa, and Ohio

The Ojibwaay, Winnebago, and Sauk and Fox Indian Tribes lived in Wisconsin.

The Menomini, Ojibway, Ottaawa, and Potawatsmi Indian Tribes lives in Michigan.

The Kickapoo, Illinoisa, Peoria, Shawnee, Cahokia, and the Kashaskia Indian Tribes lives in Illinois.

The Miami, Wea, and Yuchi Indian Tribes live in Indiana.

The Wyndot, Erie, and Shawnee Indian Tribes live in Ohio.

Kentucky and Tennessee

Two major Indian Tribes in this area are the Cherokee and the Chickasaw (Indian America, Ney, 38).

North Carolina

Tuscarora, Cheraw, Cherokee, Sugeree, Catawba, Woccon, Pamlico, Hatteras, and Chowanoc are the tribes thta linve in North Carolina.

The Cherokee live mostly at the end of the Great Smoky Moutain National Park.


Pensacola, Appalachee, Timucua, Seminole, Calusa Tekesta, and Misccosukee are tribes who live in Florida.

The Tekesta and Misccosukee live near the Everglades National Park.

Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina

Yuchi, Tuskegge, Coose, Alabama, Creek, Seminole, Chatot, and Mobile tribes live in Alabama.

Cherokee, Cree, Okmulgee, Chatot, Yamassee, and Quale tribes live in Georgia.

The Chatot Tribles live on both Alabama and Georgia state borders.

The Quale Tribe lives near the Okefenokee Swamp.

The Coosa, Creek, Santee, Pee Dee, and Catawba tribes live in South Carolina.

Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas

The Caddo and Nachitoches Tribes live in Arkansas and Louisiana.

The Quapaw Tribe lives in Arkansas and Louisiana.

The Natchez Tribe lives in Louisiana and Mississippi.

The Washa Tribe lives in Louisiana.

The Yazoo, Pascagoula, Biloxi, Choctaw, and Chickasaw Tribes live in Mississippi.

Virginia and W. Virginia

There were three Indian Confederations in Virginia. They are the Manahoac, the Monacan, and the Powhatan (Mey, 48).

The Manahoac Tribe live in both Virginia and W. Virginia.

The Tutelo Tribe lives in both Virginia and W. Virginia.

The Manahoac Tribe who lives in Virginia lives near the Shenandoah National Park.

The Monacan, Mattaponi, Pamunkey, Tuscarjora, Chowanoc, and Chickahominery Tribes live in Virgina.

New York

The tribes who live in New York are the Algonkian, Adirondaks, Iroquois, Sineca, Mohawk, Mohican, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, Wappingei Manhatten, ahd Shinnecock Montauk Manhasset.

Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland

The Delware Indians live in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

The other tribes that live in Pennsylvania are Erie, Munsee, and Susquehanna.

The Naticoke Tribes lives in Maryland.

Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island

Pennacook Indians live in New Hampshire

Mohawk and Iroquois Indians live in Vermont

Peqout Indians live in Massachussetts.

Mahican Indians lives in Connecticut.

Penobscot, Algonkian, Abnaki, and Passamaquoddy Tribes live in Maine.

The information provided was from Indian America by Marian W. Ney.

Native Americans