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Short Stories: Fiction

By: Erica Harris & Violeta Avińa

 

 

Short Story Elements:

 

*  Fiction: a creation that is not real but seems real. Something that has been invented.

*  Setting: The description In which the story takes place.

*  Protagonist: The main character in a drama or other literary work.

*  Antagonist: A character in a book that opposes against another; an adversary.

*  First Person Point of View: Refers to the use of “I” in a letter or story.

*  Third Person Point of View: A story told by the author using ‘he’, ‘she’, and ‘they’.

*  Third Person Omniscient Narrator: Is when the author knows everything and allows the writer to mention thoughts and feelings.

*  Third Person Limited Narrator: The narrator is able to see into the mind of a single character.

*  Theme: The topic of discourse or discussion.

*  External Conflict: Are broken into six types-

* Person vs. Person

* Person vs. Society

* Person vs. Beast

* Person vs. Elements

* Person vs. Fate

* Person vs. Machine

*  Internal Conflict: Are conflicts within the character.

*  Exposition: A setting forth of meaning or intent.

*  Rising Action: The events of a dramatic story preceding the climax.

*  Climax: The ascending intensity following a series or progression.

*  Falling Action: The events of a dramatic story following the climax.

*  Resolution: The subsiding or termination of the climax.

 

Sample Short Story:

                                                                                    The Image Of The Lost Soul

                      By: Saki

There were a number of carved stone figures placed at intervals along the parapets of the old Cathedral; some of them represented angels, others kings and bishops, and nearly all were in attitudes of pious exaltation and composure. But one figure, low down on the cold north side of the building, had neither crown, mitre, not nimbus, and its face was hard and bitter and downcast; it must be a demon, declared the fat blue pigeons that roosted and sunned themselves all day on the ledges of the parapet; but the old belfry jackdaw, who was an authority on ecclesiastical architecture, said it was a lost soul. And there the matter rested.
     One autumn day there fluttered on to the Cathedral roof a slender, sweet-voiced bird that had wandered away from the bare fields and thinning hedgerows in search of a winter roosting-place. It tried to rest its tired feet under the shade of a great angel-wing or to nestle in the sculptured folds of a kingly robe, but the fat pigeons hustled it away from wherever it settled, and the noisy sparrow-folk drove it off the ledges. No respectable bird sang with so much feeling, they cheeped one to another, and the wanderer had to move on.
     Only the effigy of the Lost Soul offered a place of refuge. The pigeons did not consider it safe to perch on a projection that leaned so much out of the perpendicular, and was, besides, too much in the shadow. The figure did not cross its hands in the pious attitude of the other graven dignitaries, but its arms were folded as in defiance and their angle made a snug resting-place for the little bird. Every evening it crept trustfully into its corner against the stone breast of the image, and the darkling eyes seemed to keep watch over its slumbers. The lonely bird grew to love its lonely protector, and during the day it would sit from time to time on some rainshoot or other abutment and trill forth its sweetest music in grateful thanks for its nightly shelter. And, it may have been the work of wind and weather, or some other influence, but the wild drawn face seemed gradually to lose some of its hardness and unhappiness. Every day, through the long monotonous hours, the song of his little guest would come up in snatches to the lonely watcher, and at evening, when the vesper-bell was ringing and the great grey bats slid out of their hiding-places in the belfry roof, the bright eyed bird would return, twitter a few sleepy notes, and nestle into the arms that were waiting for him. Those were happy days for the Dark Image. Only the great bell of the Cathedral rang out daily its mocking message, "After joy . . . sorrow."

     The folk in the verger's lodge noticed a little brown bird flitting about the Cathedral precincts, and admired its beautiful singing. "But it is a pity," said they, "that all that warbling should be lost and wasted far out of hearing up on the parapet." They were poor, but they understood the principles of political economy. So they caught the bird and put it in a little wicker cage outside the lodge door.
     That night the little songster was missing from its accustomed haunt, and the Dark Image knew more than ever the bitterness of loneliness. Perhaps his little friend had been killed by a prowling cat or hurt by a stone. Perhaps . . . perhaps he had flown elsewhere. But when morning came there floated up to him, through the noise and bustle of the Cathedral world, a faint heart-aching message from the prisoner in the wicker cage far below. And every day, at high noon, when the fat pigeons were stupefied into silence after their midday meal and the sparrows were washing themselves in the street-puddles, the song of the little bird came up to the parapets -- a song of hunger and longing and hopelessness, a cry that could never be answered. The pigeons remarked, between mealtimes, that the figure leaned forward more than ever out of the perpendicular.
     One day no song came up from the little wicker cage. It was the coldest day of the winter, and the pigeons and sparrows on the Cathedral roof looked anxiously on all sides for the scraps of foodm, which they were dependent on in hard weather.
     "Have the lodge-folk thrown out anything on to the dust-heap?" inquired one pigeon of another, which was peering over the edge of the north parapet.
     "Only a little dead bird," was the answer.
     There was a crackling sound in the night on the Cathedral roof and a noise as of falling masonry. The belfry jackdaw said the frost was affecting the fabric, and as he had experienced many frosts it must have been so. In the morning it was seen that the Figure of the Lost Soul had toppled from its cornice and lay now in a broken mass on the dustheap outside the verger's lodge.
     "It is just as well," cooed the fat pigeons, after they had peered at the matter for some minutes; "now we shall have a nice angel put up there. Certainly they will put an angel there."
     "After joy . . . sorrow," rang out the great bell.

 

 

4 sites related to writing or reading short stories

 

·        http://www.writing.com/?rfrc=stories.com&rfrt=www

·        http://www.write101.com/shortstory.htm

·        http://www.redinkworks.com/strictly_short_stories.htm

·        http://www.smith.edu/english/courses/fall05/120ReadingWritingShortStories.htm

 

4 sites related to teaching short stories

 

·        http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Kasper-Algernon/

·        http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=401

·        http://64.233.161.104/search?q=cache:ZM2MbR0g84gJ:www.mde.k12.ms.us/ACAD/ID/Curriculum/LAER/short.pdf+teaching+short+stories&hl=en&ie=UTF-8%20target=nw

·        http://64.233.161.104/search?q=cache:ZM2MbR0g84gJ:www.mde.k12.ms.us/ACAD/ID/Curriculum/LAER/short.pdf+teaching+short+stories&hl=en&ie=UTF-8%20target=nw

 

 

Two Short Story Elements

 

The Masque of the Red Death by: Edgar Allan Poe

            http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/483/

 

A Sound of Thunder by: Ray Bradbury

            http://www.sba.muohio.edu/snavely/415/thunder.htm

 

Three Short Stories

 

Eva is Inside Her Cat by: Gabriel Garcia Marquez

            http://mbhs.bergtraum.k12.ny.us/cybereng/shorts/eva.html

 

An Affair of State by: Guy de Maupasssant

            http://mbhs.bergtraum.k12.ny.us/cybereng/shorts/aos.html

 

The Mouse by: Saki

            http://mbhs.bergtraum.k12.ny.us/cybereng/shorts/mouse.html

Author

 

Gabriel Garcia Marquez

            http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1982/marquez-bio.html

 

Guy de Maupassant

            http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/maupassa.htm

 

Saki

            http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/maupassa.htm

 

 

5-Question Quiz

 

Masque-

1.      Why was Prince Prospero afraid?

 

2.      What type of Architecture were the windows?

  1. Normal rectangular
  2. Victorian
  3. Gothic
  4. No Architecture

 

3.      Why were there different types of rooms?

  1. The Prince’s wife made him get colorful rooms
  2. He was bored one day so he decided to decorate his home
  3. What rooms?
  4. The Prince had a keen eye for decoration

 

4.      Why did the Prince decide to have a party for the rich people?

 

5.      What type of person was Prince Prospero?

 

 

Thunder:

 

1.      What was the name of the Company?

  1. “See a Dino!”
  2. “Safari Inc.”
  3. “Back to the Past”
  4. “Historical Adventure”

 

2.      What did Eckel do that changed the future?

  1. Ate a flower
  2. Killed the T. Rex
  3. Killed a butterfly
  4. Shot his friend

 

3.      What was the number one rule that Eckel couldn’t do while in the past?

 

4.      How do you know the future changed?

 

5.      How much did it cost for Eckel to go on the trip?

  1. 1 billion dollars
  2. 100 thousand dollars
  3. 10 thousand dollars
  4. 1 thousand dollars

 

 

Audio for short story

 

http://www.wiredforbooks.org/barryhannah/

 

Writing Assignment

 

            Write a 5-page research paper on Short Stories and how they affect the writes and readers today. Write its history and how it evolved from past to present. Give Short Story examples. Give famous Authors who changed the course of fictional writing. Make a Works Cited. Needs to have parenthetical citations. Everything needs to be in Standard Form (Times New Roman, 12 pt. Font, blah, blah).

 

50- 5+ pages

20- Standard Form

20- Parenthetical Citations

20- Works Cited

20- Examples of Famous Authors and Short Stories

20- Short Stories and their involvement in life and evolution.

 

*Plagiarism gets you a zero and the failing of this six weeks!*

 

Three Project Rubrics

 

1.      Write a fictional short story with 10 literary elements that are shown at the Main Page. Write your own original one and if there is any signs of coping, then it is an immediate zero. It has to be longer than 5 pages since a short story typically is. Draw pictures like a picture book for each page. Put a Cover Page and make it attractive.

 

2.      Write out and define all literary elements. Do an example paragraph for each and highlight where that element is found. Also, write about 3 different Short Story Fiction writers (they have to be famous) and research a short story on them and identify 5 different literary elements for each story.

 

3.      With a partner read 10 different short stories. Identify all the literary elements for each one. After reading and identifying, summarize each story. The length of the paper has to be 1-2 pages long. After that, each partner has to write a story of their own and each person will read their partners story and identify the elements.

 

 

Rubric

 


1.      50-Fictional Short Story

5- Literary Elements Defined

5- Elements found in story

15- 5+ pages (Standard Format)

10- Cover Page

10- attractive and artful

5- presentation

 

2.      30- Literary Elements Defined

25- Example paragraph for each element

5- Identified elements in paragraphs

25- 3+ different Authors researched

5- Short story for each Author

10-Literary elements defined in each story

 

3.      10- 10 different short stories read

30- literary elements defined for each story

30- Summarized stories

5-1-2 pages length

10- each partner writes a short story

10- the other partner defines the elements

5- presentation

 

 

Works Cited

 

http://teenwriting.about.com/library/weekly/aa111102e.htm

http://www.internetland.net/~bshull/NBTT/literary_elements.htm

http://radar.ngcsu.edu/~smcglaun/261Caut/pov.htm

http://www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/engl239/notes/notes/pov.html

http://www.sla.purdue.edu/academic/engl/theory/narratology/terms/omniscient.html