Sovereigns and Heads of State of Europe, 1903-05

(Top: King Leopold II of Belgium, King Alfonso XIII of Spain, President Emile Loubet of France, King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, King Carlos I of Portugal, King Christian IX of Denmark. Middle: Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary, King Oscar II of Sweden & Norway, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, King Victor Emanuel III of Italy, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. Bottom: Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire, King George I of Greece, King Peter I of Serbia, King Carol I of Romania, Prince Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Prince Nicholas I of Montenegro.)

Austria-Hungary Emperor Franz Joseph I 18 August 1830 2 December 1848
LiechtensteinPrince Johann II5 October184012 November1858
Montenegro Prince Nikola I 7 October 1841 13 August 1860
Greece King George I 24 December 1845 27 June 1863
Denmark King Christian IX8 April 181816 November1863
Belgium King Leopold II9 April 183517 December 1865
Romania King Carol I 20 April 1839 20 April 1866
Sweden & Norway King Oscar II21 January182918 September 1872
Ottoman EmpireSultan Abdul Hamid II22 September184231 August1876
Spain King Alfonso XIII 17 May 188617 May 1886
Bulgaria Prince Ferdinand I 26 February 1861 7 July 1887
Germany Emperor Wilhelm II 27 January 1859 15 June 1888
MonacoPrince Albert I13 November184810 September1889
Portugal King Carlos I28 September 1863 19 October 1889
LuxembourgGrand Duke Adolf24 July181723 November1890
NetherlandsQueen Wilhelmina31 August188023 November1890
Russia Emperor Nicholas II 18 May 1868 1 November 1894
FrancePresident Emile Loubet31 December183818 February1899
Italy King Vittorio Emanuele III11 November 186929 July1900
United Kingdom King Edward VII9 November184122 January1901
SerbiaKing Peter I 29 June 184415 June1903

King Carlos I of Portugal (1863-1908) welcomes King Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886-1941) (obscured) to Lisbon in December 1903.

Photograph of Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna (1830-1911) with her family in 1903 at the Palace of Strelna, the coastal residence of the Konstantinovich branch of the Russian Imperial family. She is sitting in a bath chair at the centre of the group, facing right and with a knitted blanket covering her legs. Standing beside her to the right linking arms are Queen Olga of the Hellenes (1851-1926), Grand Duchess Vera Constantinovna (1854-1912), Prince Gabriel Constantinovich (1887-1955), Grand Duchess Elisabeth Mavrikievna (1865-1927) and Prince John Constantinovich (1886-1918). Prince Christopher of Greece and Denmark (1888-1940) is sitting to the far right with a pram in the shape of a swan beside him. Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich (1858-1915) is standing to the left of the bath chair with his arm around Princess Tatiana Constantinovna (1890-1979). Grand Duke Dimitri Constantinovich (1860-1919) is sitting beside him to the far left. Sitting on the floor at the front of the group are Prince Constantine Constantinovich (1891-1918), Prince Igor Constantinovich (1894-1918) and Prince Oleg Constantinovich (1892-1914).

World Sovereigns, 1904
Belle Époque Rulers
European Sovereigns