Sovereigns and Heads of State of Europe, 1903-05

(Top: King Leopold II of Belgium, King Alfonso XIII of Spain, President Emile Loubet of France, King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, King Carlos I of Portugal, King Christian IX of Denmark. Middle: Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary, King Oscar II of Sweden & Norway, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, King Victor Emanuel III of Italy, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. Bottom: Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire, King George I of Greece, King Peter I of Serbia, King Carol I of Romania, Prince Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Prince Nicholas I of Montenegro.)

Austria-Hungary Emperor Franz Joseph I 18 August 1830 2 December 1848
Montenegro Prince Nikola I 7 October 1841 13 August 1860
Greece King George I 24 December 1845 27 June 1863
Denmark King Christian IX8 April 181816 November1863
Belgium King Leopold II9 April 1835217 December 1865
Romania King Carol I 20 April 1839 20 April 1866
Sweden & Norway King Oscar II21 January182918 September 1872
Ottoman EmpireSultan Abdul Hamid II22 September184231 August1876
Spain King Alfonso XIII 17 May 188617 May 1886
Bulgaria Prince Ferdinand I 26 February 1861 7 July 1887
Germany Emperor Wilhelm II 27 January 1859 15 June 1888
Portugal King Carlos I28 September 1863 19 October 1889
Russia Emperor Nicholas II 18 May 1868 1 November 1894
FrancePresident Emile Loubet31 December183818 February1899
Italy King Vittorio Emanuele III11 November 186929 July1900
United Kingdom King Edward VII9 November184122 January1901
SerbiaKing Peter I 29 June 184415 June1903

Not pictured: Prince Johann II of Liechtenstein (b 1840, a 1858), Prince Albert of Monaco (b 1848, a 1889), Grand Duke Adolf of Luxembourg (b 1817, a 1890), Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands (b 1880, a 1890)

European Sovereigns