European Monarchs, Consorts, and Heirs, 1916

CountrySovereign or HeirBornAccededSpouseBornMarried
AlbaniaHH Sovereign Prince Vidi I (Skanderbeg II)
(HSH Prince Wilhelm of Wied)
26 Mar 18767 Mar 1914
(exiled 5 Sep)
HH Princess Consort Sophie
(HSH Princess Sophie of Schöburg-Waldenburg)
21 May 188530 Nov 1906
Hereditary Prince Carol Victor (Skënder)19 May 1913
Austria-Hungary HIM Emperor Franz Joseph I 18 Aug 1830 2 Dec 1848
HI&RH Archduke Karl17 Aug 1887HI&RH Archduchess Zita
(Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma)
9 May 189221 Oct 1911
HIR&H Archduke Otto20 Nov 1912
BelgiumHM King Albert I8 Apr 187523 Dec 1909HM Queen Elisabeth
(Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria)
25 Jul 18762 Oct 1900
HRH Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant3 Nov 1901
BulgariaHM King Ferdinand I 26 Feb 1861Prince 7 Jul 1887;
King 5 Oct 1908
HM Queen Eleonore
(Princess Eleonore Reuss-Köstritz)
22 Aug 186028 Feb 1908
HRH Crown Prince Boris 30 Jan 1894
Denmark HM Queen Lovisa
(Princess Louise of Sweden)
31 Oct 1851 28 Jul 1869
HM King Christian X 26 Sep 187014 May 1912HM Queen Alexandrine
(Duchess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin)
24 Dec 1879 26 Apr 1898
HRH Crown Prince Frederik 11 Mar 1899
Germany HIM Emperor Wilhelm II 27 Jan 1859 15 Jun 1888HIM Empress Auguste
(Princess Auguste Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg)
22 Oct 1858 27 Feb 1881
HI&RH Crown Prince Wilhelm 6 May 1882HI&RH Crown Princess Cecilie
(Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin)
20 Sep 18866 Jun 1905
HRH Prince Wilhelm4 Jul 1906
Greece HM Queen Olga
(Grand Duchess Olga of Russia)
3 Sep 1851 27 Oct 1867
HM King Constantine I 2 Aug 186818 Mar 1913HM Queen Sophia
(Princess Sophie of Prussia)
14 Jun 1870 27 Oct 1889
HRH Crown Prince George 19 Jul 1890
ItalyHM Queen Margherita
(Princess Margherita of Savoy)
20 Nov 185122 Apr 1868
HM King Vittorio Emanuele III 11 Nov 1869 29 Jul 1900HM Queen Helena
(Princess Elena of Montenegro)
8 Jan 1873 24 Oct 1896
HRH Crown Prince Umberto 6 Sep 1904
Liechtenstein HSH Prince Johannes II 5 Oct 1840 12 Nov 1858
HSH Prince Franz 28 Aug 1853
Luxembourg HRH Grand Duchess Marie Anne
(Infanta Maria Anna of Portugal)
13 Jul 1861 21 Jun 1893
HRH Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide14 Jun 189425 Feb 1912
HGDH Princess Charlotte23 Jan 1896
Monaco HSH Prince Albert 13 Nov 1848 10 Sep 1889(1) Princess Mary (Lady Mary Douglas-Hamilton)
(2) Princess Alice (Alice Heine, Duchesse de Richelieu)
11 Dec 1850
10 Feb 1858
21 Sep 1869 (div 1880)
30 Oct 1889 (sep 1902)
HSH Prince Louis 12 Jul 1870
MontenegroHM King Nikola I 7 Oct 1841 13 Aug 1860HM Queen Milena
(Milena Vukotic)
4 May 1847 8 Nov 1860
HRH Crown Prince Danilo 29 Jun 1871HRH Crown Princess Jutta
(Duchess Jutta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz)
24 Jan 1880 27 Jul 1899
NetherlandsHM Queen Emma
(Princess Emma of Waldeck & Pyrmont)
2 Aug 18587 Jan 1879
HM Queen Wilhelmina 31 Aug 1880 23 Nov 1890
(reached majority 31 Aug 1898)
HRH Prince Hendrik
(Duke Heinrich of Mecklenburg-Schwerin)
19 Apr 1876 7 Feb 1901
HRH Princess Juliana30 Apr 1909
NorwayHM King Haakon VII
(Prince Carl of Denmark)
3 Aug 187218 Nov 1905HM Queen Maud
(Princess Maud of Great Britain)
26 Nov 186922 Jul 1896
HRH Crown Prince Olav2 Jul 1903
Romania HM Queen Elisabeth
(Princess Elisabeth of Wied)
29 Dec 1843 15 Nov 1869
HM King Ferdinand I 24 Aug 186510 Oct 1914HM Queen Marie
(Princess Marie of Great Britain
and Saxe-Coburg & Gotha)
29 Oct 1875 10 Jan 1893
HRH Crown Prince Carol 16 Oct 1893
RussiaHIM Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna
(Princess Dagmar of Denmark)
26 Nov 18479 Nov 1866
HIM Tsar & Emperor Nicholas II 18 May 1868 1 Nov 1894HIM Empress Alexandra Feodorovna
(Princess Alix of Hesse)
6 Jun 1872 26 Nov 1894
HIH Tsarevich Alexei 12 Aug 1904
SerbiaHM King Peter I 11 Jul 1844 12 Jun 1903
HRH Crown Prince Alexander16 Dec 1888
SpainHM Queen Maria Cristina
(Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria)
21 Jul 185829 Nov 1879
HM King Alfonso XIII 17 May 1886 17 May 1886
(reached majority 17 May 1902)
HM Queen Victoria Eugenia
(Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg)
24 Oct 188731 May 1906
HRH Infante Don Alfonso, Prince of Asturias10 May 1907
SwedenHM King Gustaf V 16 Jun 18588 Dec 1907 HM Queen Victoria
(Princess Viktoria of Baden)
7 Aug 1862 20 Sep 1881
HRH Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf 11 November 1882HRH Crown Princess Margaret
(Princess Margaret of Great Britain)
15 Jan 188215 Jun 1905
HRH Prince Gustaf20 April 1906
United Kingdom HM Queen Alexandra
(Princess Alexandra of Denmark)
10 Dec 1844 10 Mar 1863
HM King George V 3 Jun 18656 May 1910 HM Queen Mary
(Princess May of Teck)
26 May 1867 6 Jul 1893
HRH Prince Edward, Prince of Wales 23 Jun 1894

Subsidiary German Kingdoms
BavariaHM King Ludwig III7 Jan 18455 Nov 1913HM Queen Maria Theresa
(Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Modena)
2 Jul 184920 Feb 1868
HRH Crown Prince Rupprecht18 May 1869HRH Crown Princess Marie Gabriele
(Duchess Marie Gabriele in Bavaria)
9 Oct 187810 Jul 1900
HRH Prince Luitpold8 May 1901
SaxonyHM King Friedrich August III25 May 186515 Oct 1904Luise, Countess of Montignoso
(Archduchess Luise of Austria-Tuscany)
2 Sep 187021 Nov 1891 (div 11 Feb 1903)
HRH Crown Prince Georg15 Jan 1893
WürttembergHM King Wilhelm II25 Feb 18486 Oct 1891HM Queen Charlotte
(Princess Charlotte zu Schaumburg-Lippe)
10 Oct 18648 Apr 1886


Former Kingdoms
FranceHIM Empress Eugenie
(Countess Eugenia de Montijo)
5 May 182630 Jan 1853
HRH the Countess of Paris
(Infanta Maria Isabel of Spain)
21 Sep 184830 May 1864
HRH Prince Philippe (VIII), Duke of Orléans6 Feb 18698 Sep 1894HRH the Duchess of Orléans
(Archduchess Maria Dorothea of Austria)
14 Jun 18675 Nov 1896
HannoverHRH Crown Prince Ernst August (II), Duke of Cumberland21 Sep 184512 Jun 1878HRH the Duchess of Cumberland
(Princess Thyra of Denmark)
29 Sep 185321 Dec 1878
HRH Prince Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick17 Nov 1887HRH the Duchess of Brunswick (Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia)13 Sep 189224 May 1913
Portugal HM Queen Amalia
(Princess Amalie of Orléans)
28 Sep 1865 22 May 1886
HM King Manuel II 19 Mar 18891 Feb 1908 - 4 Oct 1910HM Queen Augusta
(Princess Auguste of Hohenzollern)
19 Aug 18904 Sep 1913
Two SiciliesHM Queen Maria
(Duchess Maria in Bavaria)
4 Oct 18413 Feb 1859
HRH Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta28 Mar 184127 Dec 1894HRH the Countess of Caserta
(Princess Antonietta of the Two Sicilies)
16 Mar 18518 Jun 1868
HRH Prince Ferdinando, Duke of Calabria25 Jul 1869HRH the Duchess of Calabria
(Princess Marie of Bavaria)
6 Jul 187231 May 1897


European Sovereigns, 1915

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