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Synthesizer Layouts

Roland Junos & Juno-106Roland SH-series & SH-101Korg Polys & EX-800Roland Jupiters & MKS-80Yamaha DX-100Yamaha DX-7DX algorithms

Introduction

This article is meant to be a walkthrough of a selection of synthesizers. It's a familiarisation of the layout, design and workings of popular synthesizers. As a bonus, it also reveals some synthesizer history and some idea of what things were like in "those days".

This article also includes parameter listings of the synths and the terms and abbreviations used are as follows:-

Most of the walkthroughs will be based on a flowchart. Although the flowcharts may initially look complicated, they are really quite simple when you know where to start and when you have identified the "core" flow (usually Oscillator ->- Filter ->- Amplifier). The flowcharts also use certain symbols as follows:-

[@] - variable Amount or Level
[#] - select from available choices/ presets
[/] - Switch : usually [on/off]
[%] - Polarity switch : usually [norm/inv.]

Roland Junos & Juno-106

If there is such a thing as a typical standard analogue synthesizer, the Juno-106 would be it. The Juno range is probably the simplest, easiest and most affordable "good" synthesizers made (There are "naff" synthesizers too, you know!).
• The Juno-6 was released in 1982... It was a programmable 6-voice, 1-oscillator/ voice synth with 1-envelope/ voice. In those days, programmable polyphonic synthesizers were rare and expensive. The Juno-6 was an instant hit because of it's sound and affordability. It only lacked memory (to store your patches).
• Within the same year, Roland released the Juno-60... the same synth but with memory and at the same price. This too was popular (although some Juno-6 owners were a little peeved).
• Around 1984, the Juno-106 was released... similarly priced, with minor design changes, improved user-interface and with MIDI (no velocity). Yet another hit for Roland.
• The Juno-106 was later replaced by the Alpha Juno-1 and Alpha Juno-2 (1986) which, by that time, had some major design changes (mainly incorporating digital technology).

I suppose the most endearing quality was the subtle "Juno sound". They were quite versatile and very good at synth strings and brass sounds (the standard fare of synthesizer sounds then). Capable of being quite lush, smooth and non-intrusive; slightly thin (1-Osc synths tend to be a bit thin sounding) but in a nice way.

Parameters • LFO : Rate [rate] - Delay [time] • DCO : Range [16'/8'/4'] - LFO [amount] - PulseWidthMod [amount] - PWM Type [LFO/manual] - Pulse [on/off] - Saw [on/off] - Sub.SquareOsc [amount] - Noise [amount] • FILTER : HPF[0/1/2/3] - Cut-Off [freq] - Resonance [amount] Env.Polarity [norm/invert] - Envelope [amount] - LFO [amount] - Keyboard Tracking [amount] • VCA : Type[env/gate] - Output [level] - Chorus[off/1/2] • ENV : Attack [time] - Decay [time] - Sustain [level] - Release [time]

ROLAND JUNO-106
                                           }NOISE       [@]+
KYBD=>=Octave[#]========+=======>=========+}SQ.(SubOsc) [@]+
 |                      |                 +}SAW wave    [/]+
 |   }Rate   [@]+  +->-[@]                +}PULSE wave  [/]+=>=+
 +---}Delay  [@]+--+->-----------[/][@]-----width              |
 |                 +->-[@]->-+                                 |
 |                           |             }HighPassFltr[#]+=<=+
 +---}KybdTrk[@]-->----------+->-----------}CUT-OFF FREQ[@]+
 |                           |             }Resonance   [@]+=>=+
 +---}Attack [@]+      [@]->-+                                 |
 |   }Decay  [@]+      [%]                                     |
 |   }Sustain[@]+       |                                      |
 |   }Release[@]+=>=====+===>===[#]========}AMPLIFIER   [@]+=<=+
 +-------------------------------+         }Chorus      [#]+
Very basically, the Juno-106 is a 1-osc/ voice, 6-voice synth and works as follows:-
You can select either Saw and/or Pulse waves using on/off switches. You can also add amounts of Square Sub-Osc and/or Noise to the wave mix.
This is routed into a fairly straightforward Filter with Cut-Off and Resonance. There's also a HPF with limited range.
The filtered signal is routed into a standard ADSR envelope.

In addition, the following is also available:-
One LFO (with Delay) can be used to (a) modulate the pitch of the VCOs (b) modulate the Pulse Width [otherwise it's a Square wave], and (c) modulate the LPF Cut-Off.
One Kybd Trk can be used to modulate the LPF Cut-Off.
The (one and only) ADSR Envelope can also be used to modulate the LPF Cut-Off.
A Chorus unit is also provided.

Roland SH-series & SH-101

The SH-series are all monophonic synthesizers before the MIDI era. While the Junos tended to be subtle, the SH-series were bold and brash. With only one voice, they were meant for bass and lead sounds... and they did just that! Affordable too. In those days, monophonic synths tended to have more routing possibilities and control than polyphonic synths. Unlike the Junos, each SH synth released was different (Those were "experimental" times for synths).
• In 1978, the SH-1 was released. It had 1-oscillator, 1-filter (24dB/Oct) and 1-envelope (pretty straightforward design). It had lots of knobs and sliders but is probably not one of Roland's best synths. It also included a sub-oscillator which could be set either 1 or 2 octaves below normal.
• In 1979, the SH-2 was released. Similar to the SH-1 concept (with Sub-Oscillator) but with 2 main oscillators. The control panel was cut-down but, with 2-oscillators, the SH-2 was a far more serious, versatile and powerful instrument... and expensive too. This was a "big league" synth and still a good synth by today's standards.
• In 1980, Roland released the more affordable SH-09. It's a 1-oscillator synth (like SH-1) but with a SH-2 type control panel. It maintained the strong sound specialising in bass and lead.
• In 1982, Roland released their last SH-synth, the SH-101... a 1-oscillator design with cleverly simplified control panel. Before the SH-101, the SH-synths offered a choice of waveform of Saw, Square or Pulse. The SH-101 allowed you to "mix" Saw, Pulse and Sub-Oscillator which means flexible waveform moulding. This was probably one of the most popular mono-synths ever.
• In 1983, the dual-sequencer version of the SH-101, the MC-202, was released with a few sonic parameters cut. Still a good bass synth though!

If you want synth bass, the SH-101 is the machine (sorry, no MIDI or memory). Capable of very hard bass sounds with huge bottom end, this synth was also famous for having a super-fast attack (ideal again for bass). Also capable of a wide variety of sounds (very good for weird effects noises too) but, being monophonic, you are limited in it's application.

Parameters • MOD : LFO [rate] - Waveform [Tri/Sq/Rnd/Noise] • VCO : Modulation [amount] - Range [16'/8'/4'/2'] - Pulse Width [width] - PWM [LFO/manual/Env] • SOURCE MIXER : Pulse [amount] - Saw [amount] - Sub.Osc [amount] - Sub.Osc.Type [-1oct.Sq/-2oct.Sq/-2oct.Pulse] • Noise [amount] • VCF : Cut-Off [freq] - Resonance [amount] - Envelope [amount] - Modulation [amount] - Kybd.Trk [amount] • VCA : Type [env/gate] • ENVELOPE : Source [gate+trigger/gate/LFO] - Attack [time] - Decay [time] - Sustain [level] - Release [time]

ROLAND SH-101
                                           }NOISE       [@]+
KYBD=>=Octave[#]==========+========>======+}SUB.OSC.[#] [@]+
 |                        |               +}SAW wave    [@]+
 |   }Rate   [@]+    +->-[@]              +}PULSE wave  [@]+=>=+
 |   }Wave   [#]+----+->-----+-[#][@]->-----width              |
 |                   +->-[@] |  |                              |
 |                        |  |  |                          +=<=+
 +---}KybdTrk[@]-->-------+->--------------}CUT-OFF FREQ[@]+
 |                        |  |  |          }Resonance   [@]+=>=+
 +---}Attack [@]+         |  |  |                              |
 |   }Decay  [@]+        [@] +--|-->--+                        |
 |   }Sustain[@]+         |     |     |                        |
 |   }Release[@]+=>=======+=>===+=[#][#]=>=}AMPLIFIER   [@]+=<=+
 +---------------------------------+
The core route for the monophonic SH-101 of VCO -to- VCF -to- VCA is pretty standard. The real difference is from the wave section where variable amounts of Saw, Pulse, Sub-Osc and Noise can be mixed. Sub-Osc has 3 choices and Pulse wave has a separate Width control.

The modulation section is quite thorough.
LFO can be used to modulate (a) VCO Pitch, (b) Pulse Width, and (c) VCF Cut-Off. The LFO can also be used to gate the VCA.
Kybd Trk is available for the VCF.
The (one and only) ADSR Envelope can also be used to modulate the VCF Cut-Off and/or modulate the Pulse Width too.

Korg Polys & EX-800

The Korg EX-800 is the expander/ module for the Poly-800 and they are identical, to all intents and purposes (minus the keyboard, of course). They were very popular polyphonic synths but, more than that, they were very unique in design (more on that below).
• Korg's Poly-range began in 1982 with the PolySix, an affordable 6-voice 1-oscillator/ voice and 1-envelope/ voice synth (similar price and features as Juno-6) with memory and lots of knobs. It was popular but overshadowed by the Junos probably because the PolySix sound was a bit thin.
• In 1983, Korg released the Poly-61 with 2-oscillators/ voice (1-envelope/ voice). It was a new design with used digital access control (no more knobs) for programming sounds. It was more versatile but the digital access controls were limited in range. But still a popular and affordable synth in those days.
• In 1984, Korg shocked the world with a complete re-think and re-design of the polyphonic synthesizer by the release of the Poly-800 (Priced at 40% less than the previous Polys. EX-800 was released later that year). The Poly-800 and EX-800 were selectable as either 8-voice (1-oscillator/ voice) or 4-voice (2-oscillators/ voice). They had separate envelopes for filter and amplifier. At nearly half the price of the PolySix, they had full digital access control and MIDI (no velocity). Furthermore, these synths had Korg's new ADBDSR envelopes (ADSR was standard then). Waveforms were Saw or Square but each harmonic (4 of them) also had on/off switches. But the biggest shock was... they only had ONE filter. It was normal to have one filter per voice but the 800s had one filter for the whole synth. This was fine for playing chords but, if you were playing arpeggios, either the filter would retrigger for every note or not retrigger at all. As luck would have it, the buying public didn't mind the limitation and loved the sound and price.
• In 1986, Korg released the Poly-800 II, essentially the same synth with improved MIDI and a digital-delay section.

As for sounds, the Poly-800/ EX-800 were great for strings and brass. Their unique design also yielded unique sounds (for those days). What was impressive was their filter-sweep sounds (using the ADBDSR envelopes) with very subtle detail. Playability was a litle hindered by the one-filter so it's not a jack-of-all-trades synth. But it is a master of one.

Parameters • MODE [Whole/Double] • DCO-1 : Octave [low/mid/hi] - Waveform [Square/Saw] - 16'[on/off] - 8'[on/off] - 4'[on/off] - 2'[on/off] - Level [level] • DEG-1 (Env.DCO-1) : Attack [time] - Decay [time] - BreakPt [level] - Slope [time] - Sustain [level] - Release [time] • DCO-2 : Octave [low/mid/hi] - Interval [semitones] - Detune [amount] - Waveform [Square/Saw] - 16'[on/off] - 8'[on/off] - 4'[on/off] -2'[on/off] - Level [level] • DEG-2 (Env.DCO-2) : Attack [time] - Decay [time] - BreakPt [level] - Slope [time] - Sustain [level] - Release [time] • Noise [amount] • VCF : Cut-Off [freq] - Resonance [amount] - Kybd.Trk [off/half/full] Env.Pol [norm/invert] Env-3 [amount] Trigger [single/multi] • DEG-3 (Env.DCA,VCF,Noise) : Attack [time] - Decay [time] - BreakPt [level] - Slope [time] - Sustain [level] - Release [time] • MOD.GEN. : LFO [rate] - Delay [time] - DCO [amount] - VCF [amount] • Chorus [on/off]

KORG EX-800 (POLY-800)
KYBD================================>=+==+
 +--}Attack [@]+                      |  +==}Octave [#]+==}WAVE[#]+
 |  }Decay  [@]+                      |  |  }Intervl[#]+  } 16'[/]+
 |  }BreakPt[@]+                      |  |  }Detune [@]+  }  8'[/]+
 |  }Slope  [@]+                      |  |                }  4'[/]+
 |  }Sustain[@]+                      |  |                }  2'[/]+
 |  }Release[@]+====================>=|==|=======================[@]=>=+
 +----------->----+                   |  |                             |
 +--}Attack [@]+  |                   |  +==}Octave [#]===}WAVE[#]+    |
 |  }Decay  [@]+  |                   |                   } 16'[/]+    |
 |  }BreakPt[@]+  |}Rate  [@]+ +[@]->-+                   }  8'[/]+    |
 |  }Slope  [@]+  +}Delay [@]+-+[@]->--+                  }  4'[/]+    |
 |  }Sustain[@]+                       |                  }  2'[/]+    |
 |  }Release[@]+====================>==|=========================[@]=>=+
 |                                     |                  }NOISE [@]->-+
 +--}Attack [@]+                       |                               |
 |  }Decay  [@]+                       |                     +=======<=+
 |  }BreakPt[@]+--->-----[%][@]----->--+-->--}CUT-OFF FREQ[@]+
 |  }Slope  [@]+                       |     }Resonance   [@]+=>=+
 |  }Sustain[@]+                       |                         |
 |  }Release[@]+                       |     }AMPLIFIER   [@]+=<=+
 +----------->-----}KybdTrk[#]------>--+     }Chorus      [#]
In Whole Mode, it becomes 1-osc/ voice and 8-voice polyphonic. In Double Mode, it becomes 2-osc/ voice and 4-voice polyphonic.

The EX-800 main routing is slightly different in that it's really DCO -to- DCA -to- DCF. This is because each of the oscillators has it's own amplitude envelope and don't forget that there's literally only one Filter for all oscillators. No HPF.
The wave section is sort of "additive" by switching 16', 8', 4', and 2' harmonics on/off.
The Envelopes are ADBDSR type (they call is ADBSSR... Slope is a second Decay).

The LFO can be used to modulate (a) DCO Pitch and (b) DCF Cut-Off.
Kybd Trk is available for DCF Cut-Off.
A Chorus unit is also provided.

Roland Jupiters & MKS-80

The Roland MKS-80 Super Jupiter module is one of the "grand classic" analogue synths. In this class of synth, the word "affordability" usually has a different meaning altogether (read as "expensive"). The classic Jupiter (or JP) range were all 2-oscillators/ voice polyphonic synths with separate ADSR envelopes for filter and amplifier. • The Jupiter range didn't start off well with the Jupiter-4 in 1978 (not quite a classic synth). It was 4-voice polyphonic with 1-oscillator/ voice but it did have separate filter envelopes. These were experimental days and the Jupiter-4 was something like a monophonic-design (but polyphonic).
• The first classic Jupiter appeared in 1981. The Jupiter 8 was 8-voice polyphonic with 2-osc/ voice and separate filter envelopes. It had memory plus the ability to play 2 patches simultaneously (as either split or layer) (no MIDI). It also had oscillator sync and switchable 12dB/oct or 24dB/oct filters. A grand synth with professional features.... at nearly 4 times the price of a Juno-106.
• In 1983, the Jupiter-6 was released (half the price of the JP-8) with 6-voice polyphony, 2-osc/ voice and separate filter ADSR. The filter was 24dB/oct selectable as HPF or LPF or a 12dB/oct band-pass filter (very rare). It also featured sync, cross-mod, patch split (no layer) and had MIDI (no velocity). A powerful and versatile synth.
• Released in 1984, the MKS-80 arrived as part of Roland's MIDI modular concept (separate sound modules, master keyboards, sequencers etc). The MKS-80 module was 8-voice poly, 2-osc/ voice with separate filter ADSR (priced at slightly below the JP-6). Features included oscillator sync; cross-modulation; MIDI velociy also assignable to Attack time; patch split or layer; plus a host of internal sound improvements. If you wanted knobs and sliders, you could buy the optional MPG-80 control panel.
• In 1985, Roland released the JX-8P (more modern and priced at 30% less than the JP-6) which later spawned the JX-10 (basically 2 JX-8Ps)and its MKS-70 module. The JX-range eventually replaced the Jupiter range.

The most endearing quality of the classic Jupiters were their sound. Capable of being very rich, lush or fat, they were truly professional instruments and very popular with studio musicians. Another feature was their unison mode (with unison detune) which switched ALL oscillators to the notes being played... great for very fat basslines (not quite as brash and thunderous as the SH-series but definitely more sexy).

Parameters • LFO : Rate [rate] - Delay [time] - Wave [Tri/Saw/Sq/Rnd] • VCO Mod. : LFO [amount] - Env-1 [amount] • VCO KF : KeyFollow [amount] - VCO Select [VCO1/Off/VCO2] • Cross Mod : Manual [amount] - Env-1 [amount] - Env-1 Pol [norm/invert] - Sync [1->2/Off/1<-2] • PWM : PW [width] - PW Mod [Amount] - PW Mode [ENV1/LFO/Kybd] - PW Pol [norm/invert] • VCO-1 : Modulation [norm/off/invert] - Range [32'/16'/8'/4'/2'] - Wave [Tri/Saw/Pulse/Sq] • VCO-2 : Modulation [norm/off/invert] - Range [32'~2'semitones] - Wave [Tri/Saw/Pulse/Sq] - Tune [tune] • Mixer [balance] • VCF: HPF [CutOffFreq] - LPF [CutOffFreq] - Resonance [amount] - Env Select [ENV1/ENV2] - Env.Pol [norm/invert] - Env.Mod [amount] - LFO Mod [amount] - KeyFollow [amount] • VCA : Env-2 Level [level] - LFO Mod [amount] • Dynamics : AttackTime [time] - Env.Level [level] - Env.Reset [on/off] • ENV-1 : Dynamics [on/off] - Attack [time] - Decay [time] - Sustain [level] - Release [time] - KeyFollow [amount] • ENV-2 : Dynamics [on/off] - Attack [time] - Decay [time] - Sustain [level] - Release [time] - KeyFollow [amount]

ROLAND MKS-80 SUPER JUPITER MODULE
KYBD=>========>=====}[/]+=>=+=>=[%]=====>======Range[#]==>=}WAVE-1 [#]=>=+
 |                  }[@]+   +=>=[%]=====>=+                 |  |  |      |
 +->-}Rate [@]+                  |        |                 |  |  |      |
 |   }Decay[@]+-->-+->---}[@]+->-+  +-----|->-[%][@]-PWidth[@] |  |      |
 |   }Wave [@]+    |   +-}[@]+      |  +--|->-[%][@]->-Xmod-|-[@] |  Mix[@]==+
 +-----------------|---|-->-----+   |  |  |            Sync-|--|-[#]     |   |
 +->-}Dyn    [@]+  +---|-->----[#]->+  |  |                 |  |  |      |   |
 +->-}KTrk   [@]+  |   |        |      |  +=>=}Range[@]+    |  |  |      |   |
 +->-}Attack [@]+  |   +-->-----+      |      }Tune [@]+=>=}WAVE-2 [#]=>=+   |
 |   }Decay  [@]+  |   +-->------------+                                     |
 |   }Sustain[@]+--|->-+-->-------------[#][/][@]->-+                        |
 |   }Release[@]+  |                     |          |    }HighPassFltr[@]+=<=+
 +->---KTrk[@]-----|---------------------|-------->-+-->-}CUT-OFF FREQ[@]+
 +->-}Dyn    [@]+  |                     |          |    }Resonance   [@]+=>=+
 +->-}KTrk   [@]+  +->-------------------|-->-[@]->-+                        |
 +->-}Attack [@]+  |                     |                                   |
     }Decay  [@]+  +->-------------------|-->-[@]->-+                        |
     }Sustain[@]+                        |          +==>=}AMPLIFIER   [@]+=<=+
     }Release[@]+====>===================+==>=[@]=>=+
The MKS-80 is 2-osc/ voice and 8-voice polyphonic. Each wave is selectable from Tri, Saw, Square or Pulse .
This is routed into the VCF (with HPF) then to the VCA (using ENV2).

The advanced features are pretty impressive even by today's standards. It's easier to look at them as Modulation Sources, Modulation Destinations, and Other Features.
(i) Modulation Sources :-
There are 2 separate ADSR envelopes (ENV2 is meant for VCA) which have Kybd Trk and Dynamics (Velocity) controls.
The LFO has Decay and Wave (choice of Tri, Saw, Sq and Random).
Kybd Trk available as modulation source.
(ii) Modulation Destinations :-
Pulse wave has it's own controls for width and modulation (choice of LFO, ENV1 and Kybd plus polarity).
There is a separate VCO Modulation section which allows a mix of LFO and ENV1 amounts. Both VCO-1 and VCO-2 have separate polarity controls (norm/off/invert) for this modulation input.
VCF Modulation has controls for selecting Envelope (either ENV1 or ENV2), Env. Amount, Env Polarity, LFO Amount and Kybd Trk Amount.
VCA Modulation has the usual ENV2 overall Level and LFO amount as well as Dynamics (Velocity) control over Level and Attack-Time.
(iii) Other Features :-
VCO Kybd Trk amount can be applied to VCO1 or VCO2. Normally, Kybd Trk for VCO's is full (ie you press middle-C and you get middle-C). Varying VCO Kybd Trk means you can have weird tunings less than full. 50% is quarter-note tuning which is the notes in between semitones.
Cross Modulation is where VCO2 modulates the pitch of VCO1 (like in FM synthesis). Controls provided are Manual amount and ENV-1 amount (with polarity).
Sync is where one oscillator is used to force a reset of the other. There's a choice of "VCO1 sync VCO2", "VCO2 sync VCO1" or "off".

Yamaha DX-100

For FM synthesizers, it isn't practical to show the routings as that depends on the alogrithms selected. As such, I shall only provide a parameter sheet for the Yamaha DX-100. Algorithms can be found below.
VOICE NAME :       Algrtm FeedBk Key Wave  Spd Dly  Sync PMD  PMS  AMD  AMS
                   +======+====+----+====+====+====+====+----+----+----+----+
__________________ |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
+==+==========+====+======+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+
|Op|FREQ .fine|dtun|OUTPUT| A  | D1 | S  | D2 | R  |Vel |RatS|LevS|EnvB| AM |
+==+==========+====+======+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+====+
|1 |     .    |    |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
+--+----------+----+------+====+====+====+====+====+----+----+----+----+----+
|2 |     .    |    |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
+--+----------+----+------+====+====+====+====+====+----+----+----+----+----+
|3 |     .    |    |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
+--+----------+----+------+====+====+====+====+====+----+----+----+----+----+
|4 |     .    |    |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
+--+----------+----+------+====+====+====+====+====+----+----+----+----+----+
                     Portamento  FootSwitch  WheelRange    BreathCtlrRange
    Mode    PBrange  Mode Time   Port Sust   Pitc Ampl   Pitc Ampl PitB EnvB
+---------+ +----+  +----+----+ +----+----+ +----+----+ +----+----+----+----+
|Poly/Mono| |    |  |    |    | |    |    | |    |    | |    |    |    |    |
+---------+ +----+  +----+----+ +----+----+ +----+----+ +----+----+----+----+

Yamaha DX-7

For FM synthesizers, it isn't practical to show the routings as that depends on the alogrithms selected. As such, I shall only provide a parameter sheet for the Yamaha DX-7. Algorithms can be found below.
VOICE NAME:_________________________________
   OpSync  Key  Feedback  Algorithm#           PMD   PMS   AMD  Wave Spd  Dly  Sync
   +-----+-----+=======+==============+      +-----+-----+-----+====+====+====+====+
   |     |     |       |              |      |     |     |     |    |    |    |    |
+==+=====+=====+=======+====+====+====+====+=+=====+=====+=====+----+----+----+----+
|Op|FREQ .fine |OUTPUT | L1 | L2 | L3 | L4 | |RateS|BrkPt|AmpMS| Pitch Envelope
+--+-----+-----+-----+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+ +----++--+--++----+   +---+---+---+---+
   |mode |dtun | Vel | R1 | R2 | R3 | R4 |   |LDep|LC | RC|RDep|   |   |   |   |   |
+==+=====+=====+=====+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+ +====++==+==++====+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1 |     .     |       |    |    |    |    | |     |     |     | |   |   |   |   |  
+--+-----+-----+-----+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+ +----++--+--++----+ +---+---+---+---+  
   |     |     |     |    |    |    |    |   |    |   |   |    | 
+==+=====+=====+=====+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+ +====++==+==++====+         +---------+
|2 |     .     |       |    |    |    |    | |     |     |     |         |Poly/Mono|
+--+-----+-----+-----+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+ +----++--+--++----+         +---------+
   |     |     |     |    |    |    |    |   |    |   |   |    |            Rng Step
+==+=====+=====+=====+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+ +====++==+==++====+           +---+---+
|3 |     .     |       |    |    |    |    | |     |     |     |  PitchBend|   |   |
+--+-----+-----+-----+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+ +----++--+--++----+           +---+---+
   |     |     |     |    |    |    |    |   |    |   |   |    |      Mode Glis Time
+==+=====+=====+=====+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+ +====++==+==++====+       +---+---+---+
|4 |     .     |       |    |    |    |    | |     |     |     | PortaM|   |   |   |
+--+-----+-----+-----+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+ +----++--+--++----+       +---+---+---+
   |     |     |     |    |    |    |    |   |    |   |   |    |    Rng Pit Amp EnvB
+==+=====+=====+=====+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+ +====++==+==++====+   +---+---+---+---+
|5 |     .     |       |    |    |    |    | |     |     |     | MW|   |   |   |   |
+--+-----+-----+-----+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+ +----++--+--++----+   +---+---+---+---+
   |     |     |     |    |    |    |    |   |    |   |   |    | FC|   |   |   |   |
+==+=====+=====+=====+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+==+=+ +====++==+==++====+   +---+---+---+---+
|6 |     .     |       |    |    |    |    | |     |     |     | BC|   |   |   |   |
+--+-----+-----+-----+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+--+-+ +----++--+--++----+   +---+---+---+---+
   |     |     |     |    |    |    |    |   |    |   |   |    | AT|   |   |   |   |
   +=====+=====+=====+====+====+====+====+   +====+===+===+====+   +---+---+---+---+

DX algorithms

       DX-9/ DX-21/ DX-27/ DX-100/ TX-81Z |                              CX-5/ FB-01
  4*   ---------------------------------- |  1*                          -----------
  |*                                      |  |*
  3     3   4*   3            4*          |  2     2   1*   2            1*
  |     +-+-+*   |            |*          |  |     +-+-+*   |            |*
  2       2      2   4*   2   3    2   4* |  3       3      3   1*   3   2    3   1*
  |       |      +-+-+*   +-+-+    |   |* |  |       |      +-+-+*   +-+-+    |   |*
  1       1        1        1      1   3  |  4       4        4        4      4   2
  +       +        +        +      +-+-+  |  +       +        +        +      +-+-+
Alg#1   Alg#2     Alg#3   Alg#4    Alg#5  |Alg#1   Alg#2    Alg#3    Alg#4    Alg#5
                                          |
     4*               4*                  |     1*               1*
 +---+*--+            |*                  | +---+*--+            |*
 1   2   3    1   2   3    1   2   3   4* | 4   3   2    4   3   2    4   3   2   1*
 +---+---+    +---+---+    +---+---+---+* | +---+---+    +---+---+    +---+---+---+*
   Alg#6        Alg#7          Alg#8      |   Alg#6        Alg#7          Alg#8
====================================================================================
                                              DX-1/ DX-5/ DX-7/ TX-7/ TX-802/ TX-816
    6*       6            6                   --------------------------------------
    |*       |            | 
    5        5            5    3   6*   3   6*           6*           6            6
    |        |            |    |   |*   |   |            |*           |            |
2   4    2*  4    2   3*  4    2   5    2   5    2   4   5    2   4*  5    2*  4   5
|   |    |*  |    +---+*--+    |   |    |   |    |   +-+-+    |   +*+-+    |*  +-+-+
1   3    1   3        1        1   4    1   4    1     3      1     3      1     3
+---+    +---+        +        +---+    +---+*   +-----+      +-----+      +-----+
Alg#1    Alg#2       Alg#18    Alg#3    Alg#4     Alg#7        Alg#8        Alg#9

3*          3                5   6*      5   6        4   6*      4   6    3
|*          |                +-+-+*      +-+-+        |   |*      |   |    |
2   5   6   2   5   6*   2     4     2*    4      2   3   5   2*  3   5    2     6*
|   +-+-+   |   +-+-+*   |     |     |*    |      +---+---+   +*--+---+    |   +-+*+
1     4     1     4      1     3     1     3          1           1        1   4   5
+-----+     +-----+      +-----+     +-----+          +           +        +---+---+
 Alg#10      Alg#11       Alg#14      Alg#15        Alg#16      Alg#17       Alg#19

    5*              5*       
    |*              |*       
2   4               4        2   4   6*  2   4   6*   2*  4   5   6   2   4   5   6*
|   |               |        |   |   |*  |   |   |    |*  +---+---+   |   +---+---+*
1   3   6   1   2   3   6    1   3   5   1   3   5    1       3       1       3
+---+---+   +---+---+---+    +---+---+   +---+---+*   +-------+       +-------+
  Alg#28        Alg#30         Alg#5       Alg#6        Alg#12          Alg#13

  3*    5   6      3*      6      2       6*           3     6*                6*
+-+*+   +-+-+    +-+*+   +-+-+    |   +---+*--+        |   +-+*+           +---+*--+
1   2     4      1   2   4   5    1   3   4   5    1   2   4   5   1   2   3   4   5
+---+-----+      +---+---+---+    +---+---+---+    +---+---+---+   +---+---+---+---+
  Alg#20            Alg#21           Alg#22           Alg#23            Alg#24

              6*         3   5   6*       3*  5   6            4   6*
            +-+*+        |   +-+-+*       |*  +-+-+            |   |*
1   2   3   4   5    1   2     4      1   2     4      1   2   3   5
+---+---+---+---+    +---+-----+      +---+-----+      +---+---+---+
     Alg#25             Alg#26           Alg#27           Alg#29

                6*   
                |*   
1   2   3   4   5    1   2   3   4   5   6*
+---+---+---+---+    +---+---+---+---+---+*
     Alg#31                 Alg#32


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