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## Chords pt.2

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### Terms & Abbreviations Used

• "b" or (-) - means "flat" note.
• "#" or (+) - means "sharp" note.
• "R" - means "root" note.
• Maj or "M" - means "Major" chord.
• min or "m" - means "minor" chord.
• aug - means "augmented" chord.
• dim - means "diminished" chord.
• sus - means "suspended" chord.
• [????] - words enclosed by square parentheses means they are sometimes omitted.
• aka - abbreviation for "also known as".

### Inversions and Equivalents

An inverted chord occurs when a chord is not played as a "straight root" chord. Example: a C major triad uninverted is played as C,E,G (from lowest note to highest note). The first inversion is played as E,G,C and the second inversion is G,C,E.

The same applies to non triads as well. Example: Amin7 ; Straight root chord = A,C,E,G ; 1st inversion = C,E,G,A ; 2nd inversion = E,G,A,C ; 3rd inversion = G,A,C,E.

As it happens Amin7 (A,C,E,G) and C6 (C,E,G,A) are equivalents. When you play Amin7, it is also an inverted C6 (and vice-versa). As with all inversions, the basic difference is the perception of what the root note is.

Using inverted equivalents is very useful especially if the straight root chord is awkward or inconvenient to play.

The table below lists chords and their inverted equivalents. The "transpose" column denotes the root of the equivalent in semitones (from the starting chord). Example: With a starting chord of Amin7, the equivalent C6 is a transpose of "^+3/-9". All this means is that "C" is 3 semitones UP from "A" (or 9 semitones DOWN from "A").

Guitar chord notes within "{" and "}" (curly brackets) denote the root.

- Chord notes Chord E-A-D-G-B-E R b2 2 b3 3 4 b5 5 b6 6 b7 7 SYMMETRICAL CHORDS transpose R,b3,b5,bb7 Edim7 x x{2}3 2 3 R - - b3 - - b5 - - bb7 - - ^+3/-9 R,b3,b5,bb7 Gdim7 x x 2 3 2{3} bb7 R b3 b5 ^+6/-6 R,b3,b5,bb7 Bbdim7 x x 2{3}2 3 b5 bb7 R b3 ^+9/-3 R,b3,b5,bb7 C#dim7 x x 2 3{2}3 b3 b5 bb7 R transpose R,3,#5 Faug5 x x{3}2 2 1 R - - - 3 - - - #5 - - - ^+4/-8 R,3,#5 Aaug5 x x 3{2}2 1 #5 R 3 ^+8/-4 R,3,#5 C#aug5 x x 3 2{2}1 3 #5 R 3-NOTE CHORDS transpose R,b3,5 Amin o{0}2 2 1 0 R - - b3 - - - 5 - - - - ^+7/-5 R,4,#5 Eaug5sus4 {o}0{2}2 1 0 4 #5 R transpose R,2,5 Asus2 o{0}2 2 0 o R - 2 - - - - 5 - - - - ^+7/-5 R,4,5 Esus4 {o}0{2}2 0 o 4 5 R transpose R,2,#5 Aaug5sus2 x{0}3 2 0 x R - 2 - - - - - #5 - - - ^+8/-4 R,3,b5 F(-5) x 0{3}2 0 x 3 b5 R

For guitars, inversions are a way of life. On guitar, as long as the root is the bass-note and the 3rd and 5th appear later, it is a straight root chord. For additions, as long as they appear last, it is still a straight root chord. Even if an addition appears between the 3rd and 5th, it is considered as a small inversion.

The practical application of equivalents is interesting. Example: You can pass-off any song diatonic to C major (or A minor) by only using Amin7, Dmin7 and Emin7. This is because Amin7 = C6 ; Dmin7 = F6 ; Emin7 = G6 = Bmin(+5)add11 (For more on diatonics, see Chord Reference below). For guitar, I recommend using 575555, x57565 and x79787 respectively.

### More Naming Techniques

A "BiTonal Chord" is a chord played over a non-root bass. This is really a matter of perception. For example, if you were playing a Cmajor chord over a bass of "A", then the resultant chord is Amin7 (ie A,C,E,G). We can assume this because the perceived root will be the "A" bass-note.

But what if the song has a static chord over bass progression? Or what if the song has a chord progression over a static bassline?

In that instance, it is easier to use the "Chord-over-Bass" description. Example from above would be written as C/A (ie "Cmajor" over an "A" root/bass). In this way, a chord progression can be described as Amin, Amin/G, Amin/F, Amin/E (which conveys the message far better and easier than standard chord-naming).

Another use for the "Chord-over-Bass" method is where a chord doesn't have a 5th note. Example: C,D,F,A (R,2,4,6) - Using traditional or the chord-name system, it would be "C6 omit5 sus4 add9" (using "omit" is acceptable) or cheat using C6(--5)sus2 or C(++5)sus4 add9. In Chord-over-Bass, it's just Dmin/C.

### Chord Reference (mode diatonic)

It is nearly impossible to list every conceiveable chord in every root-key. Instead of repeating the chord listing from part 1 in different keys, I thought that it would be more useful to look at chords which are "mode diatonic".

In a scale, all of its notes are "diatonic" to that scale (ie they conform with that scale). Therefore, if all the notes of a Chord happen to belong to any Scales, then the Chord is "diatonic" to those Scales. Example: Chord "A minor" comprises A,C,E - so the "A minor" chord is diatonic to the scales of CMaj, Amin, FMaj, Dmin, GMaj and Emin (ie any scale with all those notes). If it does not conform, then it is "chromatic" to that scale.

Tabled below is a list of of chords which conforms to the C major and A minor scale. In music terminology, they are modal diatonic chords (Major and minor belong to a group called "Modes"; see article on Scales). In other words, all these chords only use the white-notes on a keyboard.

Chords for C Major and A minor K E Y B O A R D Notes G U I T A R
3-note MAIN Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
C C Major R 3 5 C E G x 3 5 5 5 3 x 3 2 0 1 0
F F Major 5 R 3 F A C 1 3 3 2 1 1 x 8 7 5 6 5
G G Major 5 R 3 G B D 3 5 5 4 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 3
F (-5) R 3 b5 F A B 1 2 3 2 0 x
D min Dm R b3 5 D F A x 5 7 7 6 5 x x 0 2 3 1
E min Em R b3 5 E G B 0 2 2 0 0 0 x 7 9 9 8 7
A min Am b3 5 R A C E x 0 2 2 1 0 5 7 7 5 5 5
B min(+5) b3 #5 R B D G x 2 0 0 0 3
B dim5 b3 b5 R B D F x 2 3 4 3 x 7 8 9 7 x x
3-note SUS Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
C sus4 R 4 5 C F G x 3 5 5 6 3 x 3 3 0 1 1
D sus4 R 4 5 D G A x 5 7 7 8 5 x x 0 2 3 3
E sus4 R 4 5 E A B 0 2 2 2 0 0
G sus4 4 5 R G C D 3 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 0 0 3 3
A sus4 4 5 R A D E x 0 2 2 3 0 5 7 7 7 5 5
E aug5 sus4 #5 R 4 E A C x 7 7 5 5 5
A aug5 sus4 4 #5 R A D F x 0 3 2 3 x
B aug5 sus4 4 #5 R B E G x 2 2 0 0 0
B dim5 sus4 4 b5 R B E F x 2 3 4 5 x
C sus2 R 2 5 C D G x 3 0 0 1 x x 3 5 5 3 3
D sus2 R 2 5 D E A x x 0 2 3 0 x 5 7 7 5 5
F sus2 5 R 2 F G C 1 3 3 0 x x x 8 5 5 6 x
G sus2 5 R 2 G A D 3 0 0 0 3 3 x x 5 2 3 3
A sus2 5 R 2 A B E x 0 2 2 0 0
A aug5 sus2 #5 R 2 A B F x 0 3 2 0 x

Chords for C Major and A minor K E Y B O A R D Notes G U I T A R
4-note MAJOR Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
C6 Cadd6 R 3 5 6 C E G A x 3 5 5 5 5 x 3 2 2 1 0
F6 Fadd6 5 6 R 3 F A C D x x 3 5 3 5
G6 Gadd6 5 6 R 3 G B D E 3 2 0 0 0 0 x x 5 4 3 0
G7 Gadd7 5 b7 R 3 G B D F 3 5 3 4 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 1
CM7 CaddMaj7 R 3 5 7 C E G B x 3 5 4 5 3 x 3 2 0 0 0
FM7 FaddMaj7 5 7 R 3 F A C E 1 3 2 2 1 1 x x 3 2 1 0
C add9 R 9 3 5 C E G D x 3 2 0 3 0
G add9 5 R 9 3 G B D A 3 2 0 2 0 x x x 5 4 3 5
C add11 R 3 11 5 C E G F x 3 2 0 1 1
G add11 11 5 R 3 G B D C 3 2 0 0 1 x
F6(-5) F6(b5) 6 R 3 b5 F A B D 1 0 0 2 0 x
FM7(-5) FM7(b5) 7 R 3 b5 F A B E x x 3 2 0 0
4-note MINOR Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
Amin(-6) Amin add(-6) b3 5 b6 R A C E F x 0 3 2 1 0 x 0 2 2 1 1
D min6 Dmin add6 R b3 5 6 D F A B x x 0 2 0 1
D min7 Dmin add7 b7 R b3 5 D F A C x 5 7 5 6 5 x x 0 2 1 1
E min7 Emin add7 b7 R b3 5 E G B D 0 2 0 0 0 0
A min7 Amin add7 b3 5 b7 R A C E G x 0 2 0 1 0 x 0 2 2 1 3
E min add(-9) Emin add(b9) R b9 b3 5 E G B F 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 o o
D min add9 R 9 b3 5 D F A E x 5 3 2 5 x
A min add9 b3 5 R 9 A C E B 5 7 7 5 5 7 x 0 2 4 1 0
D min add11 R b3 11 5 D F A G x 5 3 2 x 3
E min add11 R b3 11 5 E G B A 0 2 5 2 o o
A min add11 b3 11 5 R A C E D x 0 2 5 3 o
4-note DIM5 Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
B dim5/7 Bhalf-dim7 b3 b5 b7 R B D F A x 2 3 2 3 x
4-note SUS4 Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
E(-6) sus4 Esus4add(-6) b6 R 4 5 E A B C 0 2 2 0 1 o
A(-6) sus4 Asus4add(-6) 4 5 b6 R A D E F o 0 2 2 1 1
C6 sus4 Csus4add6 R 4 5 6 C F G A x 3 5 5 6 5
D6 sus4 Dsus4add6 R 4 5 6 D G A B x 5 7 7 8 7
G6 sus4 Gsus4add6 4 5 6 R G C D E 3 3 0 0 1 0 3 5 5 5 5 x
D7 sus4 Dsus4add7 b7 R 4 5 D G A C x 5 7 5 8 5 x x 0 2 1 3
E7 sus4 Esus4add7 b7 R 4 5 E A B D 0 2 0 2 0 0
G7 sus4 Gsus4add7 4 5 b7 R G C D F 3 5 3 5 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 1
A7 sus4 Asus4add7 4 5 b7 R A D E G x 0 2 0 3 0
CM7 sus4 Csus4addM7 R 4 5 7 C F G B x 3 3 0 0 x
E sus4 add(-9) R b9 4 5 E A B F o 0 2 3 3 0
C sus4 add9 R 9 4 5 C F G D x 3 3 0 3 x
D sus4 add9 R 9 4 5 D G A E x 5 5 2 5 x
G sus4 add9 4 5 R 9 G C D A 3 3 0 2 x x
A sus4 add9 4 5 R 9 A D E B 5 5 2 4 x x x 0 0 2 0 0
4-note SUS2 Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
A(-6) sus2 Asus2add(-6) 5 b6 R 2 A B E F o 0 2 2 0 1
C6 sus2 Csus2add6 R 2 5 6 C D G A x 3 5 5 3 5
D6 sus2 Dsus2add6 R 2 5 6 D E A B x 5 7 7 5 7 x x 0 2 0 0
F6 sus2 Fsus2add6 5 6 R 2 F G C D 1 3 3 0 3 x x x 3 5 3 3
G6 sus2 Gsus2add6 5 6 R 2 G A D E x x 5 7 5 5
D7 sus2 Dsus2add7 b7 R 2 5 D E A C x 5 7 7 5 8 x x 0 2 1 0
G7 sus2 Gsus2add7 5 b7 R 2 G A D F x x 5 7 6 5
A7 sus2 Asus2add7 5 b7 R 2 A B E G x 0 2 0 0 0
CM7 sus2 Csus2addM7 R 2 5 7 C D G B x 3 0 0 0 x
FM7 sus2 Fsus2addM7 5 7 R 2 F G C E x x 3 0 1 0

Chords for C Major and A minor K E Y B O A R D Notes G U I T A R
5-note MAJOR Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
C6 add9 C6/9 R 9 3 5 6 C E G A D x 3 2 2 3 3
F6 add9 F6/9 5 6 R 9 3 F A C D G 1 0 0 0 1 1
G6 add9 G6/9 5 6 R 9 6 G B D E A 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 0 2 0 0
C6 add11 R 3 11 5 6 C E G A F 8 7 5 5 6 5
G6 add11 11 5 6 R 3 G B D E C 3 2 0 0 1 0
G7 add9 G9 5 b7 R 9 3 G B D F A 3 0 0 0 0 1
G7 add11 11 5 b7 R 3 G B D F C 3 3 0 0 0 1
G7 add13 5 13 b7 R 3 G B D F E 3 5 3 4 5 3 3 2 3 0 3 0
CM7 add9 CM9 R 9 3 5 7 C E G B D x 3 0 0 0 0 x 3 5 4 3 0
FM7 add9 FM9 5 7 R 9 3 F A C E G x 8 5 5 5 5 1 0 3 0 1 0
CM7 add11 R 3 11 5 7 C E G B F o 3 2 0 0 1
CM7 add13 R 3 5 13 7 C E G B A x 3 5 4 5 5 x 3 2 2 0 3
FM7 add13 5 13 7 R 3 F A C E D 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 3 2 2 3 1
F6(-5) add9 6 R 9 3 b5 F A B D G 1 0 0 0 0 1 x 8 7 7 8 7
FM7(-5) add9 7 R 9 3 b5 F A B E G 1 0 2 0 0 o x 8 7 9 8 7
FM7(-5) add13 13 7 R 3 b5 F A B E D 1 0 0 2 0 0
5-note MINOR Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
Dmin6 add9 Dmin6/9 R 9 b3 5 6 D F A B E o 5 3 2 0 0
Dmin6 add11 R b3 11 5 6 D F A B G x 5 3 2 0 3
Dmin7 add9 Dmin9 b7 R 9 b3 5 D F A C E x 5 3 5 5 5
Amin7 add9 Amin9 b3 5 b7 R 9 A C E G B 5 7 5 5 5 7
Dmin7 add11 b7 R b3 11 5 D F A C G x 5 5 5 6 5
Emin7 add11 b7 R b3 11 5 E G B D A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 2 3 x
Amin7 add11 b3 11 5 b7 R A C E G D o 0 0 0 1 0 x 0 5 5 3 0
Emin7 add(-13) -13 b7 R b3 5 E G B D C 0 2 0 0 1 o x 7 9 7 8 8
Dmin7 add13 Dmin13 b7 R b3 5 13 D F A C B x 5 7 5 6 7
5-note DIM/SUS Other Names C D E F G A B - E A D G B E Alternative
Bdim5/7 add11 b3 11 b5 b7 R B D F A E o 2 3 2 3 0 o 2 2 2 3 1
C6sus4 add9 C6/9 sus4 R 9 4 5 6 C F G A D x 3 3 2 3 3 8 8 7 7 8 x
D6sus4 add9 D6/9 sus4 R 9 4 5 6 D G A B E o 5 5 4 5 5 o 5 7 0 0 0
G6sus4 add9 D6/9 sus4 4 5 6 R 9 G C D E A 3 3 2 2 3 x 3 0 0 0 1 0
G7sus4 add9 G9sus4 4 5 b7 R 9 G C D F A 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 3 0 2 1 1
D7sus4 add9 D9sus4 b7 R 9 4 5 D G A C E x 5 5 5 5 5
A7sus4 add9 A9sus4 4 5 b7 R 9 A D E G B x 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 2 4 3 3
G7sus4 add13 4 5 13 b7 R G C D F E 3 5 3 5 5 3
D7sus4 add13 b7 R 4 5 13 D G A C B x 5 7 5 8 7
CM7sus4 add9 R 9 4 5 7 C F G B D x 3 3 4 3 3 x 3 0 0 0 1
CM7sus4 add13 R 4 5 13 7 C F G B A x 3 3 0 0 5
D7sus2 add13 b7 R 2 5 13 D E A C B o 5 7 5 5 7
G7sus2 add13 5 13 b7 R 2 G A D F E 3 0 3 0 3 0
CM7sus2 add13 R 2 5 13 7 C D G B A x 3 5 4 3 5 x 3 0 0 0 5

For the guitar chords, I have tried as far as possible to present moveable chords (usually in the main guitar chord column). A moveable chord is a chord which can be transposed by moving the finger position up or down the neck. So to transpose a moveable chord up by one semitone is to move your hand (in the same hand-shape) up to the next fret.

Again for guitar, many moveable chords are "barre-chords" or "bar-chords". This is where the index-finger acts as a "bar" (like a "capo") pressing down on all strings of a fret. Basically you are emulating an open chord (max.= 3 finger chord) where the index-finger represents the open strings and the remaining 3 fingers take up the chord position.

For more on chords, see Chords pt1

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