.missionaries had converted the peoples of Erope to Christianity
.serious abuse also had appeared in the church. The large administrative strusture of the church required a great deal of money to finance it.
.Italian author named Petrarch taught literature, history, and philosophy of the ancient Greece and Rome. He believed that by returning to the classics, they would began a new golden age of cultural
.Holy Roman Emperor clamed to be the secular head of Christianity
.Kings Ranked under emperor. followed by the princes, dukes, and counts
.in western Europe, the kings were increasing their power over the own people and against the Pope and the Emperor
.as cities grew wealthy and independent, they threw off the control of the local lords and prince-bishops. Many turned to the king or emperor for protection
Effects and Results
As a result of the Reformation Europe was divided between the Catholic countries of the south and the Protestant countries of the north. Many Protestant denominations developed, and they were organized in a variety of ways. In many parts of Europe, this diversity of religious life created a mood of religious toleration and a respect for the importance of the individual conscience. The Reformation also stimulated many reforms within the Catholic Church. The Church gained new purity and strength during the late 1500's and the 1600's in a movement called the counter Reformation.