What Is Protein Synthesis?
First of all lets break down the
word protein synthesis.
The definition of protein is any of
a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of one or more chains
of amino acids.
The definition of synthesis is formation
of a compound from simpler compounds or elements.
The term protein synthesis refers
to the process of making proteins, which involves transcription of DNA and
translation of RNA.
The Process Of Protein Synthesis!
- The first step of protein synthesis is the copying
of three Nucleotides bases to a gene. During this step the DNA helix must
unwind and unzip onto a RNA copy of the DNA. This first process is called Transcription.
- The new RNA also known as the messenger RNA (mRNA)
will now move out of the nuclear membrane into the Cytoplasm where the
Ribosome's are located.
- The mRNA now attaches itself to a ribosome. Now a
new process begins called Translation. Translation is the
process of using coded mRNA instructions for a sequence of amino acids to
produce a polypeptide.
- A new type of RNA called transfer RNA (tRNa) brings
amino acids to the ribosome with the mRNA. The dissolved Amino Acids in the
Cytoplasm are brought by the tRNA.
- From this point the tRNA fixes its amino acids to
join the polypeptide chain. The tRNA and mRNA form a temporary bond at the
- As you may or may not ribosomes can only handle two
tRNA molecules at a time. The outgoing tRNA will set loose its amino acid
and then detaches from the mRNA.
- The process of translation ends when the ribosome
approaches the stop codon. The ribosome will reach the stop codon at the end
of the mRNA. It will then release the polypeptide which will eventually go
through the folding process, and then finally become a protein.