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Psychology 101 Practice Exam
(Answers at the bottom of the page

1.    When Joan touched her infants cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting the:

a)    Startle reaction
b)    Rooting reflex
c)    Grasping reflex
d)    Attachment reflex
e)    Attention reflex

2.    Which psychologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive development?

a)    B.F. Skinner
b)    Konrad Lorenz
c)    Jean Piaget
d)    Sigmund Freud
e)    Erik Erikson

3.    According to Piaget, an egocentric child can best be described as:

a)    Selfish
b)    Conceited
c)    Lacking in self-esteem
d)    Cognitively Limited

4.    At 12 months of age Jeremy shows no more desire to be held by his own parents than by complete strangers. His behaviour best illustrates:

a)    Object permanence
b)    Insecure attachment
c)    Habituation
d)    Conservation
e)    Egocentrism

5.    Psychologists describe child-rearing in which the rules are imposed without explanation as a(n) ___________ style.

a)    Authoritative
b)    Egocentric
c)    Disengaged
d)    Authoritarian

6.    Formal operational thought is most necessary for the development of ______ morality.

a)    Preoperational
b)    Conventional
c)    Preconventional
d)    Postconventional

7.    According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the achievement of:

a)    Integrity
b)    Autonomy
c)    Competence
d)    Initiative
e)    Identity

8.    Menopause is associated with a reduction in:

a)    Adrenaline
b)    Testosterone
c)    Estrogen
d)    Acetylcholine
e)    Dopamine

9.    An early sign of Alzheimer’s disease would most likely be:

a)    An inability to recognise oneself in a mirror.
b)    The use of profane and abusive language
c)    An increase in crystallized intelligence
d)    Difficulty in naming familiar objects or people

10.    Erik Erikson maintained that the two basic aspects of life that dominate adulthood are:

a)    Identity and Independence
b)    Intimacy and Identity
c)    Intimacy and generativity
d)    Independence and generativity

11.    In developing a test of intellectual ability for Parisian school children, Binet and Simon assumed that:

a)    The test would measure capacities that were determined by heredity and thus unalterable.
b)    The test would yield an intelligence quotient consisting of chronological age divided by mental age multiplied by 100
c)    A bright child would preform like a normal child of an older age
d)    Measures of physical and sensory skills would be good predictors of school achievement

12.    A Person with savant syndrome is one who:

a)    Is capable of becoming socially and vocationally successful
b)    Possesses an amazing specific skill
c)    Suffers no obvious physical or emotional defects
d)    Is unable to profit from special educational training
e)    Is born with an extra chromosome

13.    The Flynn effect best illustrates the process of intelligence testing requires up-to-date:

a)    Factor analyses
b)    Standardization samples
c)    Reliability indices
d)    Heritability estimates

14.    The stability of children’s intelligence test scores over time is most positively correlated with their:

a)    Chronological age
b)    Mental age
c)    Head size
d)    Brain size

15.    Intelligence tests are most likely to be considered culturally biased in terms of their:

a)    Content validity
b)    Predictive validity
c)    Normal distribution
d)    Reliability

16.    Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by environment?

a)    Fraternal twins are most similar in their intelligence scores than are ordinary siblings
b)    The intelligence scores of children are positively correlated with those of their parents
c)    Identical twins are more similar in their intelligence scores than are fraternal twins
d)    The intelligence scores of siblings reared together are positively correlated
e)    Different national groups have different average intelligence scores

17.    Prior to his use of free association, Freud had encouraged patients to retrieve their forgotten memoires by means of:
a)    Hypnosis
b)    Projective tests
c)    Psychoactive drugs
d)    Fixation

18.    According to Freud, our gender identity develops most rapidly during the _______stage.

a)    Anal
b)    Phallic
c)    Genital
d)    Oral

19.    Displacement refers to the process by which people

a)    Offer self-justifying explanations in place of real, but unacceptable, unconscious reasons for action.
b)    Consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable, unconscious impulses
c)    Disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
d)    Retreat to behaviour patterns characteristic if an earlier stage of development
e)    Redirect aggressive or sexual impulses towards less threatening targets

20.    According to Maslow, the psychological need that arises after all other needs have been met is the need for:

a)    Personal control
b)    Self-actualisation
c)    Self-esteem
d)    Unconditional positive regard

21.    When people compare themselves with others, they are most likely to experience:

a)    Reciprocal determinism
b)    Unconditional positive regard
c)    An external locus of control
d)    The Barnum effect
e)    Positive self-esteem

22.    Which perspective on human personality emphasizes reciprocal determinism?

a)    Psychoanalytic
b)    Social-cognitive
c)    Trait
d)    Humanistic

23.    The trait of optimism is most closely rated to a strong sense of:

a)    Conditional positive regard
b)    Gender identity
c)    Ideal self
d)    Personal control
e)    The pleasure principle

24.    According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the best ways to predict a person’s future behaviour is to:

a)    Identify that the person’s most central traits by having him or her take a personality inventory
b)    Observe the person’s behaviour in various relevant situations
c)    Assess that person’s general level of self-esteem
d)    Uncover that person’s hidden motives, as revealed by projective tests

25.    Psychoanalysts would suggest that resistance during therapy supports and maintains the process of

a)    Sublimation
b)    Transference
c)    Free association
d)    Dream interpretation
e)    Repression

26.    Counterconditioning techniques were derived from principles first developed by

a)    Aaron Beck
b)    Ivan Pavlov
c)    Carl Rogers
d)    B.F. Skinner
e)    Sigmund Freud

27.    To help Michael overcome hid fear of taking tests, his therapist instructs him to relax and then to imagine taking a quiz. The therapist is using:

a)    Psychoanalysis
b)    Client-centered therapy
c)    Cognitive therapy
d)    Systematic desensitisation
e)    Aversive conditioning

28.    A useful feature of group therapy is that it:

a)    Ensures that therapists will become more emotionally involves in a clients’ real-life problems
b)    Eliminates the possibility that clients will experience anxiety during therapy
c)    Encourages clients to develop active listening skills
d)    Enables severely disturbed individuals to quickly regain normal social functioning

29.    The biomedical treatment most widely used today is:

a)    Psychoanalysis
b)    Electroconvulsive therapy
c)    Psychosurgery
d)    Systematic desensitisation
e)    Drug therapy

30.    Alex feels so hopeless and depressed that he has recently thought about taking his own life. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to him is:

a)    Valium
b)    Prozac
c)    Librium
d)    Thorazine

31.    Aversive conditioning is to behaviour therapy as a lobotomy is to:

a)    Systematic desensitisation
b)    Electroconvulsive therapy
c)    Psychosurgery
d)    The placebo effect
e)    Drug therapy

32.    Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful of understanding:

a)    The mere exposure effect
b)    Group polarization
c)    The fundamental attribution error
d)    The foot-in-the-door phenomenon
e)    The bystander effect

33.    Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of_________tasks.

a)    Challenging
b)    Unenjoyable
c)    Novel
d)    Simple

34.    Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to:

a)    Perform a complex task more poorly when others are present
b)    Exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts towards a common goal
c)    Exert less effort when they are paid by the hour, not by the amount of work completed
d)    Become more distracted from their tasks when working with friends than when working with strangers
e)    Stop working once they have reached their goal

35.    The just-world phenomenon often leads people to:

a)    Dislike and distrust those who are wealthy
b)    Believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer
c)    Express higher levels of prejudice after suffering frustration
d)    Respond with kindness to those who mistreat them

36.    A stressor is a(n):

a)    Lower back muscle that frequently produces a feeling of physical tension
b)    Competitive, hard-driving, impatient person
c)    Environmental event that threatens or challenges us
d)    Exercise program designed to increase our ability to handle normal stress
e)    Hormone released by the adrenal gland during periods of stress

37.    What is the best example of a Type B personality?

a)    Tammy, an ambitious, self-confident waitress
b)    Mauriucca, a relaxed understanding social worker
c)    Tena, a time conscious, competitive lawyer
d)    Juanita, an impatient, pessimistic librarian

Questions 38 – 47 were missing on our exam

48. During the manic phase of a bi-polar disorder, individuals are most likely to experience:

a)    High self-esteem
b)    Delusions of persecution
c)    Uncontrollable grief and despair
d)    Visual or auditory hallucinations

49.  The medical model of psychologically disordered behaviour is most likely to be criticised for neglecting the importance of:

a)    Anxiety and depression
b)    Social circumstances
c)    Personality disorders
d)    The DSM-IV
e)    Genetic abnormalities

50.  The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions upon another’s behaviour is called:

a)    The bystander effect
b)    The fundamental attribution error
c)    Deindividuation
d)    Ingroup bias
e)    The mere exposure effect.


B 02. C 03. D 04. A 05. D 06. D 07. E 08. C 09. D
10. C 11. C 12. B 13. B 14. A 15. A 16. A 17. A 18. B
19. E 20. B 21. E 22. B 23. D 24. B 25. E 26. B 27. D
28. C 29. E 30. B 31. C 32. D 33. D 34. B 35. B 36. C
37. B
48. A 49. B 50. B