- Astronomy (PHYS100)
- General Physics I (PHYS105)
- General Physics II (PHYS110)
- General Physics Laboratory I (PHYS135)
- General Physics Laboratory II (PHYS140)
- General Physics II for Biology Students (PHYS150)
- Intermediate Physics laboratory II (PHYS210)
- Thermal Physics (PHYS215)
- Statistical Physics (PHYS312)
- Classical mechanics I (PHYS322)
- Classical Mechanics II (PHYS423)
- Electronics I (PHYS230)
- Intermediate Physics Laboratory IV (PHYS320)
- Electromagnetic Theory I (PHYS336)
- Electromagnetic Theory II
- Intermediate Physics Laboratory I (PHYS205)
- Vibration and Waves (PHYS240)
- Optics (PHYS245)
- Laser Physics (PHYS348)
- Advanced Optics (PHYS447)
- Modern Physics I (PHYS250)
- Intermediate Physics Laboratory (PHYS315)
- Atomic and Molecular Physics (PHYS343)
- Modern Physics II (PHYS352)
- Quantum Mechanics I (PHYS353)
- Quantum Mechanics II (PHYS454)
- Mathematical Physics I (PHYS361)
- Mathematical Physics II (PHYS362)
- Computational Physics (PHYS463)
- Physics and Engineering Applications I (PHYS115)
- Physics and Engineering Applications II (PHYS120)
- Experimental Physics I (PHYS404)
- Solid State Physics (PHYS471)
- Radiation Physics (PHYS382)
- Experimental Physics II (PHYS406)
- Nuclear Physics (PHYS483)
- Astrophysics (PHYS294)
- Biophysics (PHYS392)
- Experimental Applied Physics (PHYS407)
- Special Topics in Physics (PHYS493)
- Research Project (PHYS495)
- Practical Training (PHYS498)

**PHYS100: Astronomy -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

A historical introduction stressing the role of Muslim scientists in astronomy, the earth and its atmosphere, the solar system, stars and galaxies, the life story of stars, applications (the weather, the ozone hole, prayer times, solar and lunar eclipses, sea tides)(Prerequisite: -)

**PHYS105: General Physics I -- 3 Credits(2+2)**

Units and dimensions of physics quantities, vectors, kinematics, Newton's laws of motion and its applications, work and energy, elasticity, fluid mechanics, temperature and thermal expansion, quantity of heat, heat transfer. (Prerequisite : -)

**PHYS110: General Physics II -- 3 Credits(2+2)**

Coulomb's law, the electrostatic field, the electrostatic potential, capacitance and dielectrics, electric current, resistance and electromotive force, direct current circuits, magnetic field and magnetic forces, sources of magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction. (Prerequisite: PHYS105)

**PHYS135: General Physics Laboratory I -- 1 Credit(0+3)**

Experiments dealing with the basic laws of mechanics, vibrational and circular motion, fluids, elasticity, heat, thermal properties of materials. Error analysis and the concept of computer-controlled experiments are stressed. (Prerequisite: PHYS105 or concurrent)

**PHYS140: General Physics Laboratory II -- 1 Credit(0+3)**

Experiments dealing with: electrostatics, electric current, magnetism, electrical measurements, reactive circuits. (Prerequisite: PHYS110 or concurrent)

**PHYS150: General Physics II for Biology Students -- 3 Credits(2+3)**

The electrostatic field, the electrostatic potential, capacitors and dielectrics, current and resistance, direct current circuits, applications to cell membranes, RC circuit, pacemaker, nerve conduction, magnetic forces and fields, applications. Experimental part: experiments dealing with electrostatics, electric circuits, magnetism, electrical measurements. (Prerequisite: PHYS105)

**PHYS210: Intermediate Physics Laboratory II -- 1 Credit(0+3)**

Experiments in thermal physics and modern physics including platinum thermometer, Stefan-Boltzmann's law, the ideal gas equation, determining & for air, critical temperature, change of water vapor pressure with temperature, the photoelectric effect, electron diffraction, measuring the specific charge to mass ratio e/m for electrons, measuring the speed of light, half-life of thoron. (Prerequisites: PHYS215 or concurrent and PHYS250 or concurrent)

**PHYS215: Thermal Physics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Fundamental concepts, equations of state for ideal and real gases, the first law of thermodynamics, heat engines, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic functions and relations, the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the third law of thermodynamics, the kinetic theory of gases. (Prerequisite: PHYS105)

**PHYS312: Statistical Physics - 2 Credits(2+0)**

Scope of statistical physics, probability, statistical equilibrium , the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, applications to ideal gases and electromagnetic properties of material, statistical interpretation of the laws of thermodynamics, the Fermi-Dirac distribution, application to electrons in metals, the Bose-Einstein distribution, application to blackbody radiation and crystal lattice vibrations. (Prerequisite: PHYS215)

**PHYS322: Classical Mechanics I - 3 Credits(3+0)**

Particle kinematics in various coordinate systems, particle dynamics, work and energy, momentum and impulse, central forces, angular momentum, planetary motion and Rutherford scattering, dynamics of a system of particles, center of mass and moments of inertia, rigid body mechanics. (Prerequisites: PHYS105 and (MATH230 or MATH275))

**PHYS423: Classical Mechanics II -- 3 Credits( 3+0)**

Constrained systems, generalized coordinates, principle of virtual work, Lagrange's equations and applications, Canonical variables and Hamilton's equations, Poisson's brackets, constants of motion, Hamilton's least action principle, canonical transformations, Liouville's theorem, small oscillations, stability. (Prerequisite: PHYS322)

**PHYS230: Electronics I -- 2 Credits(2+0)**

Semiconductor diodes and applications, bipolar junction transistors, field-effect transistors, biasing of bipolar and field-effect transistors, transistor small-signal analysis, integrated circuits, operational amplifiers, feedback amplifiers and oscillators. (Prerequisite: PHYS110)

**PHYS320: Intermediate Physics Laboratory IV -- 1 Credit(0+3)**

Experiments in analog electronics dealing with : direct-current and alternating current circuits, semiconductor diode characteristics and applications, bipolar junction transistor characteristics and amplifier circuits, field-effect transistor characteristics and amplifier circuits, feedback circuits and oscillators, operational amplifiers. (Prerequisite: PHYS230 or concurrent)

**PHYS336: Electromagnetic Theory I -- 3 Credits 3+0)**

Electrostatics: Poisson's equation, energy in the electric filed, electrostatics of materials. Magneto-static : Vector potential, energy in the magnetic field, magneto-static of materials; Faraday's law, inductance; Solutions to the Laplace equation, Maxwell equations. (Prerequisite: PHYS361)

**PHYS437: Electromagnetic Theory II -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Wave equation; Boundary conditions; Propagation of electromagnetic waves in non-conducting media; Polarization. Waves in bounded regions: Reflection and refraction at dielectric interface; Guided waves. Radiation emission : Radiation from an oscillating dipole, a half wave antenna and a group of moving charges; Radiation damping. (Prerequisite: PHYS336)

**PHYS205: Intermediate Physics Laboratory I -- 1 Credit(0+3)**

Experiments in vibrations, waves and optics dealing with : free and forced vibrations, addition of simple harmonic motions, standing waves, interference and diffraction by narrow slits, Newton's rings, Michelson's interferometer, diffraction grating, polarization of light, the spectrometer. (Prerequisite: PHYS245 or concurrent)

**PHYS240: Vibrations and Waves -- 2 Credits(2+0)**

Periodic motions, addition of simple harmonic motions, vibrations of physical systems, forced vibrations and resonance, coupled oscillations and normal modes, normal modes of continuous systems, longitudinal and transverse wave motion, transmission lines, electromagnetic waves, boundary effects and standing waves, interference, multidimensional waves. (Prerequisite: PHYS105)

**PHYS245: Optics -- 2 Credits(2+0)**

The nature and speed of light, laws of geometrical optics (reflection, refraction and dispersion), image formation by lenses and mirrors, light aberration, some optical instruments, interference of light, thin films, Michelson's interferometer, diffraction of light, resolving power, the diffraction grating, X-ray diffraction, polarization of light. (Prerequisite: PHYS240 or concurrent)

**PHYS348: Laser Physics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation, Einstein's coefficients, population inversion, laser amplification and oscillation, laser frequencies, laser rate equation, laser types (gas lasers, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers, Excimer lasers, chemical lasers, tunable dye lasers), laser light characteristics, laser applications. (Prerequisite PHYS350)

**PHYS447: Advanced Optics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Wave nature of light, principles of wave motion, coherence, interference of light, multiple reflection in thin films, theory of multilayer films, diffraction of light, resolving power of optical instruments, polarization of light, optical activity, Kerr's and Faraday's effects, birefringence in crystals, principle of laser action, a description of some laser systems, characteristics of laser light, some laser applications, holography, optical fibres, matrix method in paraxial optics. (Prerequisites: PHYS245 and PHYS350)

**PHYS250: Modern Physics I -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Nature and characteristics of modem physics, experimental basis and basic postulates of the special theory of relativity, lengths and time intervals in special relativity, relativistic dynamics, the mass-energy relation, introduction to quantum physics, particle nature of radiation wave nature of particles, X-ray and electron diffraction, the wave function and Schrodinger's equation, the hydrogen atom. (Prerequisite: PHYS105)

**PHYS315: Intermediate Physics Laboratory III -- 1 Credit(0+3)**

Experiments in modern physics including : the Franck-Hertz experiment, the spectrum of hydrogen, ionization potentials for inert gases, critical potentials, Zeeman effect, Geiger counter, absorption of beta particles, range of alpha particles in air, X-ray diffraction, Faraday's effect, Magnetic Hysteresis (Prerequisite: PHYS350 or concurrent)

**PHYS343: Atomic and Molecular Physics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Electronic structure of many-electron atoms, angular momentum, selection rules, emission and absorption spectra of many electron atoms, spectroscopy, effect of electric and magnetic fields on atomic spectra, molecular binding, electronic spectra of diatomic molecules, vibrational and rotational spectra, spectra of polyatomic molecules, Raman spectroscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy. (Prerequisite : PHYS350)

**PHYS352: Modern Physics II -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

The hydrogen atom, angular momentum of atoms, electron spin and magnetic moment, the Stern-Gerlach experiment, Pauli's principle and the periodic table, characteristic X-rays, free electron theory of metals, band theory of solids, classification of solids, semiconductor devices, nuclear structure and binding energies, nuclear reactions and radioactivity, nuclear reactors. (Prerequisite: PHYS250)

**PHYS353: Quantum Mechanics I -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Experimental basis of quantum mechanics, free particle wave packets and the uncertainty principle, postulates of quantum mechanics, the wave function and its physical meaning, Schrodinger's equation, stationary states, boundary conditions, operators and their eigenvalues, expectation values, piecewise constant potentials in one-dimension, the harmonic oscillator, central forces, the hydrogen atom. (Prerequisite: PHYS250)

**PHYS454: Quantum Mechanics II -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Operators in quantum mechanics and Dirac notations. Angular momentum: operators, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, matrix representations, Paul spin matrices, spin-orbit coupling. Time-independent perturbation theory: non-degenerate and degenerate energy levels. Time-dependent perturbation theory. Scattering: Born approximation. (Prerequisite: 50225353)

**PHYS361:
Mathematical Physics I -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Fourier series (Dirichlet's conditions, determination of expansion coefficients, Fourier sine and cosine series, changing the period, expansion in terms of complex exponential, some applications in physics), linear transformations, Fourier transforms, Laplace transforms, series solution of ordinary differential equations, the method of Frobenius, the gamma and beta functions, the Bessel functions, Legendre polynomials. (Prerequisite or concurrent with: MATH230)

**PHYS362: Mathematical Physics II -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Complex numbers, functions of a complex variable, analytic functions and the Cauchy - Riemann condition, line integrals, Cauchy's theorem, Taylor's theorem, the Laurent series, conformal mappings, applications, partial differential equations, Laplace's and Poisson's equations, the wave equation, the heat conduction equation, method of separation of variables, initial-value problems and boundary-value problems, tensors. (Prerequisite: PHYS361)

**PHYS463: Computational Physics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Principles of numerical analysis, some important numerical algorithms, mathematical modeling of physical systems, application of numerical techniques to mathematical models, computer simulation of physical systems, the Monte-Carlo method, some applications. (Prerequisites: MATH125 and MATH230)

**PHYS115: Physics and Engineering Applications I -- 3 Credits(2+2)**

Units and dimensions of physical quantities, kinematics, vectors, vector kinematics, Newton's Laws of motion and its engineering applications, work and energy, impulse and linear momentum, rotational motion about an axis, equilibrium of rigid bodies and its engineering applications. (Prerequisite : -)

**PHYS120: Physics and Engineering Applications II -- 3 Credits(2+2)**

Coulomb's Law, the electrostatic field, the electrostatic potential, capacitance and dielectrics, magnetic field and magnetic forces, sources of magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, AC circuits, engineering applications in electricity and magnetism, light, optical instruments. (Prerequisite: PHYS115)

**PHYS404: Experimental Physics I -- 3 Credits(1+2*)**

Theoretical some properties of solids and the techniques used in studying them. Experimental experiments about the work function, X-ray diffraction, variation of resistance with temperature, the energy gap of semiconductors, the Hall effect, photo-conductivity, superconductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of solids, electron-spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance. (Prerequisite: PHYS350)

**PHYS471: Solid State Physics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Crystal lattice, reciprocal lattice, X-ray diffraction and crystal lattice, crystal binding, crystal lattice vibrations and phonons, heat capacity of solids, free-electron and Fermi gas, electrical and heat conduction in solids, band theory in solids, semiconductors and semimetals, magnetic properties of solids. (Prerequisite: PHYS350)

**PHYS382: Radiation Physics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

X-ray production and characteristics, radioactivity, interaction of radiation with matter, absorption of radiation, radiation damage, radiation detection, neutron production and detection, radiation doses. effect of radiation on living organisms, radiation safety, applications (radioactive dating, medical and industrial applications). (Prerequisite: PHYS250)

**PHYS406: Experimental Physics II -- 3 Credits(1+2*)**

Theoretical : some experimental and instrumentation techniques used in nuclear and radiation physics. Interaction of alpha, beta and gamma with matter. Experimental : experiments dealing with : the Geiger counter, gamma-ray spectroscopy, alpha-particle spectroscopy, beta absorption, neutron activation analysis, radiation flux, radiation dosemetry. (Prerequisite: PHYS350)

**PHYS483: Nuclear Physics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

General properties of nuclei, nuclear binding energies and nuclear stability, nuclear models (the liquid-drop model and the shell model), nuclear decay, nuclear reactions and accelerators, nuclear detectors, nuclear reactors, introduction to high energy physics and elementary particles. (Prerequisites: PHYS350 and PHYS353 or concurrent)

**PHYS294: Astrophysics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Introduction, spherical astronomy, solar and lunar eclipses, the solar system, the active sun, stars: structure, evolution, formation, properties, interstellar matter, star clusters, galaxies, cosmology. (Prerequisite: PHYS105)

**PHYS392: Biophysics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Studying DNA and biopolymers using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cell membranes and membrane potentials, electrical activity of nerve cells, fundamentals of measuring circuits and systems, measuring temperature and pressure, measuring cell potentials. (Prerequisite: PHYS110)

**PHYS407: Experimental Applied Physics -- 3 Credits(1+2*)**

It includes a few advanced experiments and micro-projects in applied physics such as: laser and their applications, solid state physics, Materials Science, Electronics and Biophysics. (Prerequisite: PHYS315)

**PHYS493: Special Topics in Physics -- 3 Credits(3+0)**

Set by the Department. (Prerequisite: Department Consent)

**PHYS495: Research Project -- 2 Credits**

Under the supervision of a faculty member, the student writes a report about a topic approved by the Department, and defends it publicly. (Prerequisite: Department Consent)

**PHYS498: Practical Training -- 2 Credits**