The Indonesian archipelago consists of 17,508 islands with a land area of 2,027,087 sq km (1,266,900 square miles). The islands stretch from 94°45' to 141°05' east longitude and lies between 6°08' north latitude to 11°15' south latitude. The main islands are Sumatra (473,606 sq km); Java/Madura (132,107 sq km); Kalimantan, which comprises two-thirds of the island of borneo and measures 539,460 sq km; sulawesi (189,216 sq km); and irian jaya (421,981 sq km).
Stretch along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate and only two seasons. The climate changes every six months. The dry season is between april and October and the rainy season between November and March, with December and January having the heaviest rainfall.
Due to the large
number of islands and mountains in the country, average temperatures may
be classified as follows :
coastal plains : 28° C
inland and mountain areas : 26° C
Higher mountain areas : 23° C, varying with the altitude. Being in a tropical zone, Indonesia has an average relative humidity between 70% and 90%, with a minimum of 73% and a maximum of 87%.
With a population of about 200 million, Indonesia's population is the fifth largest in the world after China, India, Fed Russia and USA. More than 60% of the entire Indonesian population lives on the island of Java and Bali.
All major religious are represented in Indonesia. Moslems accounting for 87.1% of the entire Indonesian people, are spread throughout the country. Protestant constitute 5.7% of the population and are mostly found in North Sulawesi, Irian Jaya, East Nusa Tenggara and North Sumatra. Catholics, making up 2.9% of the population, are found in Yogyakarta, The Minahasa in Northern Sulawesi, East Timor, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Followers of Hinduism are found in Bali island, constituting 2% of the Indonesian population while followers of Buddhism constitute 1% of the population.
The Indonesian lingua franca is the Indonesian language or the "Bahasa Indonesia" as determined by the second Indonesian Youth congress on 28th October 1928.
Indonesia's three time zones are as follows:
The Republic of Indonesia first saw light on August 17, 1945. Pancasila became the ideological and philosophical basis of the Republic, and on August 18, 1945 the constitution was adopted as the basic law of the country Following the provisions of the constitution, the country is headed by a President, He is assisted by a Vice-President and a cabinet of ministers. The president of the Republic of Indonesia is both Head of State and Head of Government, elected to five years terms by the People's Consultative Assembly, which also elects the Vice-President.
Pancasila, meaning five pillars of five principles is the state philosophy of the Republic of Indonesia. The Five Principles are mutually inter-linked and are inseparable from one another. they are :
The Constitution of the Republic Indonesia, or generally referred to as the 1945 constitution, came into force on 18th August 1945. It is a written cnstitution and constitutes the basic law of the Republic of Indonesia. The 1945 constitution comprises the Preamble, 16 chapters containing 37 articles, 4 transitional clauses and 2 additional provisions. it contains basic arrangements concerning the functioning of the state, its objectives, and social security for the whole of the Indonesian people.
Indonesia's National Anthem is entitled "Indonesia Raya" meaning Great Indonesia. It and was first introduced by its composer W.R. Supratman at the second Indonesian Youth congress on 28th October 1928 in Jakarta.
The Indonesian national flag is called "Sang Saka Merah Putih". The flag is made up of two colors, red on top of white. its width is two-thirds of its length. The historical flag, or "bendera pusaka", was flown for the last time on August 17, 1968. Since than it has been preserved and replaced by a replica woven of pure Indonesian silk.
The Indonesian Coat of Arms takes the shape of an eagle with its head turned to the right. The front part of the eagle's body is covered by a heart-shaped shield. The eagle's claws grip a banner on which is enshrined an old Javanese motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", meaning Unity in Diversity. The eagle or "Garuda" is the mystical bird which is known in Indonesian arts and literature, and often appears on the walls of many ancient temples.
PROFILE OF THE NATIONAL UNITY CABINET
Copyright © 2001 Indonesian Embassy, Addis Ababa - Ethiopia