Citations * taken from the
« Dictionary of Minor Planet Names » (ed. 1997, Lutz D. Schmadel)
the « Minor Planet Circulars ».
* All citations written by Eric W. Elst, unless otherwise quoted.
1987 BV1. Discovered 1987 January 25 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named by the discoverer in honor of his daughter, who has a lively interest in astronomy and who accompanied him on his mission from Belgium to the Bulgarian National Observatory last year. (MPC 12459)
1986 ULl. Discovered 1986 October 31 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of the great composer and pianist Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849).
1986 PM4. Discovered 1986 August 8 by E. W. Elst and V. G. Ivanova at Rozhen.
Named for an ancient town in Bulgaria. (MPC 14030)
1988 CG3. Discovered 1988 February 13 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of the discoverer’s youngest daughter. (MPC 14030)
3903 Kliment Ohridski
1987 SV2. Discovered 1987 September 20 by E. W. Elst and V. G. Shkodrov and V. G. Ivanova at Rozhen.
Named in memory of Kliment Ohridski (840-916), one of the first Bulgarian philosophers. A disciple of Konstantin, he took holy orders in Rome in 868. A pupil and collaborator of Kyril and Methodius, he established a school where he taught some 3.500 students the Bulgarian alphabet and contributed to development of the Bulgarian language. This minor planet, named on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the University of Sofia, of wich he is considered the patron, is testament to Ohridski’s influence on Bulgarian science and culture. (MPC 14208)
1988 SF. Discovered 1988 September 16 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of Franz Liszt (1811-1886), legendary master of the piano and a courageous fighter for progress in the musical art. A grand and many-sided composer, his works ranged from Hungarian rhapsodies to symphonic poems.While a student at the University of Bonn, the discover became acqainted with Lady Elisabeth von Loe-Schultz, who was priviliged to have known the composer. At her home the discoverer regularly played before a small audience of students several of Liszt’ famous piano etudes. (MPC 15575)
Name endorsed by F. Börngen, Tautenburg, who independently proposed the name for another minor planet, and who notes that from 1848 to 1861 Liszt was the conductor of the court orchestra in Weimar, not far from Tautenburg.
1988 SG. Discovered 1988 September 16 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named for the ancient legendary city featured in the works of Homer (see planet (5700)). The historical site of Troy was found in 1872 at Hissarlik, Turkey, by Schliemann (see planet (3302)). (MPC 14208)
1988 PE1. Discovered 1988 August 13 by E. W. Elst and G. Sause at St. Michel.
Named in memory of the well-known Belgian artist Jacques Brel (1929-1978), famous also for his songs and poems. The songs Marieke and Le plat pays are a tribute to Flanders. (MPC 14030)
1987 QH2. Discovered 1987 August 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Kristina Leterme, professor of French and Russian literature, life partner to the discoverer, for her encouragement and love. (MPC 15090)
1987 YT1. Discovered 1987 December 17 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Greek hero ordered by Sthenelos (see planet(3794)) to bring the horses captured from Aeneas (see planet(1172)) to the Greek vessels. (MPC 15090)
1989 RE. Discovered 1989 September 1 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named for the Flemish priest Jozef De Veuster (1840-1889) on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his death. At the age of 19 he entered the Congregation of the Fathers of the Sacred Hearts (Picpus Fathers) and chose for himself the new name of Damiaan. In 1863 Pater Damiaan (Father Damiaan) was sent as a missionary to Hawaii, where he was ordained a priest one year later. After eight years on Kohala he asked to be transferred to the leper colony at Kalawao on the island of Molokai. There he devoted all his energy to the improvement of the conditions at the settlement until he finally contracted leprosy himself. (MPC 15576)
Name endorsed by E. Goffin, who found the identifications involving this planet, and endorsed by the discoverer.
1987 QO9. Discovered 1987 August 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of Sigmund Freud (1865-1939), father of psychoanalysis. In 1885 he went to Paris and studied under the neurologist Jean Charcot, who stimulated him to investigate hysteria from a psychological point of view. This view was strengthened by Josef Breuer, who cured hysterical symptoms by putting the patient under hypnosis. Soon afterward Freud replaced hypnotism by the method of free association. Among his writings are The Interpretations of Dreams (1900) and Moses and Monotheism (1939), the latter an elucidation of a historical-cultural problem that had always fascinated him. (MPC 16045)
1988 CR1. Discovered 1988 February 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the great organist and composer Dietrich Buxtehude (1637-1707), undoubtedly the most eminent master of the organ before Johann Sebastian Bach (see planet (1814)). His inspired creative power is particularly evident in chorales such as «Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern ». In 1668 he became the successor of Franz Tunder as organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck, a position he held until his death. (MPC 16046)
1988 CM2. Discovered 1988 February 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla. Named in memory of the composer and pianist Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943), considered to be the last great figure in the tradition of Russian romanticism, and whose compositions embrace symphonies and piano concerti and preludes. Although his greatest productivity occurred in St. Petersburg and Moscow around the turn of the century, he composed the beautiful « Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini » in the United States in 1934, during the exile in wich he was principally a concert performer. (MPC 16046)
1988 PB2. Discovered 1988 August 14 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in honor of Edward H. Geyer (1930- ), since 1965 the head of the Hoher List Observatory, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Geyer has left his mark in many fields of astronomy, spanning from instrumental development via stellar systems to variable stars and solar-like activity. His work in solar system astronomy has included, for example, the detection of the splitting of the nucleus of Comet West (1976VI). He is also an enthusiastic teacher, especially in the field of observational astronomy. Like many other visiting astronomers at Hoher List, the discoverer has often been supported by Geyer, long a friend of minor planets. (MPC 16249)
Citation prepared by M. Geffert at the request of the discoverer.
4457 van Gogh
1989 RU. Discovered 1989 September 3 by E.W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of the famous Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) on the 100th anniversary of his death in Auvers sur Oise by his own hand. Deeply concerned with human suffering, van Gogh went in 1879 to the Borinage, a poor mining district in southern Belgium, to do some missionary work. It was there that he discovered his true vocation, not as a preacher but as a painter. This first great spiritual crisis in his life is testified by his early dark realistic pictures, wich bear a social-critical message. In 1886 he went to Paris, where he met the « pointillists ». In his later works color acquired a special function, providing a vision that influenced the upcoming expressionistic generation in the twentieth century. During his period in the Provence his landscapes expressed more and more his inner emotions. The colors become extremely vivid, although he was always in search of rest and harmony. (MPC 15595)
Citation prepared by Kristina Leterme, at the request of the discoverer.
1987 SB. Discovered 1987 September 22 by E. W. Elst and V. G. Shkodrov at Rozhen.
Named for the Indo-Iranian god of the heavenly light that led to mithraism, one of the last oriental mystery cults to reach the west, where it became the chief rival to and opponent of christianity. In Babylonia, Chaldaean astrology was incorporated, while Greek art, religion and philosophy provided the models for mithraic iconography and the mithraic mysteries. The two religions have much in common: a divine lord by whom man was assured of elevation, a sacramental meal and a ritual of baptism. Many ruins of mithraic sanctuaries are still to be found in Europe, near Frankfurt and Heidelberg, for example. This minor planet is of Apollo type, and in Asia Minor around 330 B.C. the god Mithra was identified with the god Apollo ( see planet (1862)). (MPC 16885)
Citation prepared by E. W. Elst.
1988 SH. Discovered 1988 September 17 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of Claude Debussy (1862-1918), famous French impressionistic composer, known particularly for his Clair de Lune, Jardins sous la Pluie and Feux d’Artifice, and more generally for his brilliant suites for the piano, such as Estampes, Bergamasque and Images. While his music is the spontaneous expression, the reflection and the image of sensation, it reaches the innermost part of one’s subconscious. This effect is obtained by using free harmonies, different scales (from other cultures, e.g., in « Jardins sous la Pluie ») and daring mixtures of tones. Debussy was a fervent admirer of Chopin (see planet (3784)), even to the extent of also composing two books of twelve Préludes and an album of Etudes. (MPC 17031)
1989 CJ3. Discovered 1989 February 4 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the legendary king of Thessalon, who directed forty vessels at the siege of Troy. He was hit by an arrow from Paris (see planet (3317)) but was rescued by Patroclus (see planet(617)). (MPC 17031)
1990 EW2. Discovered 1990 March 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the great Belgian composer César Franck (1822-1890), well known for his piano and organ works and beautiful symphony in D minor. His ancestry included members of the famous school of Wallonian painters, and his admiration for them influenced his way of composing -as a « musician painter ». After only a year’s study in Paris he received « grand prix d’honneur » for piano, and a few years later the first prize for fugue, the art of which in France he restored following a lengthy period of discredit. For organ he achieved only the second prize, because the jury was not inclined to accept his genial and daring way of combining the theme of the fugue with the free theme cyclic principle. Appointed organist at St. Clothilde in 1859, he became a master in the art of improvisation. (MPC 17467)
Name endorsed by J. Vanvinckenroye.
1988 CT3. Discovered 1988 February 13 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Guido and Oscar Pizarro, who operate the 1-m Schmidt telescope and who exposed the plates on which this minor planet was discovered. For almost 20 years the two brothers have been renowned for their patient and effective work with the telescope. They took the plates for the ESO sky surveys and have taken several thousand plates for general programs, including many specifically for the detection and follow-up of comets and minor planets. (MPC 17658)
Citation prepared by H.-E. Schuster at the request of the discoverer.
1986 RU4. Discovered 1986 September 7 by E. W. Elst at Rozhen.
Named in memory of the great French mathematician, astronomer and physicist, Pierre-Simon Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827). Although Newton had concluded that divine intervention was periodically required to preserve the solar system in equilibrium, Laplace managed to prove in 1773, by applying Newtonian gravitation, the invariability of planetary mean motions to the cubes of the eccentricities and inclinations. In 1786 he showed that the effects of planetary perturbations were conservative and periodic, not cumulative and disruptive; the eccentricities and inclinations of planetary orbits to each other will remain small, constant and self-correcting. In 1796 he published his famous Exposition du système du monde, which treats also his « nebular hypothesis », which ascribes the origin of the solar system to the contraction of a gaseous nebula. His monumental Traité de mécanique céleste, published between 1798 and 1827, offered a complete mechanical interpretation of the solar system. Laplace is also well known for his investigations on probability. (MPC 18460)
1988 BJ1. Discovered 1988 January 21 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of the French poet Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891) on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of his death. At the age of 17 he was already known for his Dormeur du Val and Le Bateau ivre, the latter, together with Voyelles, probably being his most famous work. In 1872 he traveled with Paul Verlaine (see planet (6871)) to England and Belgium, their friendship ending with two gunshots fired by Verlaine at Rimbaud. In 1873 Rimbaud published Une Saison en Enfer, an autobiographical and psychological work. After Les Illuminations, written at the age of 19 and issued by Verlaine only in 1886, nothing remains of the work of this great poet. As a precursor of symbolism Rimbaud enormously influenced Verlaine and the following generation. (MPC 18645)
Name proposed and citation prepared by Kristina Leterme at the request of the discoverer.
1988 CJ5. Discovered 1988 February 13 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the beautiful South American country in which the European Southern Observatory is located. Noted for its great wines, Chile is chiefly mountainous, with the Andes dominating the landscape. The extension of Chile across some 38 degrees of latitude embraces nearly all climates. The fascinating Chilean people are racially a mixture of Europeans (the conquistadores from Spain, Basque families) and indigenous tribes (Atacamenos, Diaguitas, Picunches, Araucanians, Huilliches, Pehuenches and Cuncos). Today the proud Araucanian Indians form the only significant ethnic minority. (MPC 19697)
1989 SU1. Discovered 1989 September 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the Flemish cartographer Gerard De Kremer (1512-1594), known under the Latinised form of his name Gerardus Mercator. After receiving a master’s degree from the University of Leuven in 1532, he studied mathematics, geography and astronomy and became a skillful engraver. He established himself in that city as an independent scientific-instrument maker and cartographer in 1537 and began to build his reputation as the most important geographer of his time. Appointed court cosmographer to the Duke of Cleve in 1564, he perfected his cylindrical map projection now known as « Mercator projection » in 1569. To him we owe the term « atlas » for a collection of geographical maps. (MPC 19339)
Name proposed by the discoverer following a suggestion by E. Goffin, who also prepared the citation.
Mercator is also honored by a lunar crater.
1989 XC1. Discovered 1989 December 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the great French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), who proved that fermentation and disease are caused by micro-organisms. His invention of the principle of immunization was successfully applied for the first time against rabies in 1885. In 1888 the celebrated Pasteur Institute was established in Paris, and the process of pasteurization is well known throughout the whole world. (MPC 19340)
Pasteur is also honored by craters on Mars and on the Moon.
1988 CS2. Discovered 1988 February 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the city near the coast of the Pacific, north of Los Angeles. After the conference « Near-Earth Asteroids » at San Juan Capistrano in July 1991 the discoverer and his family spent a most enjoyable time there at the home of friends. (MPC 19340)
1986 PT4. Discovered 1986 August 9 by E. W. Elst and V.G. Ivanova at Rozhen.
Named in honor of Waltraud C. Seitter (1930- ), director of the Münster (Westfalen) Astronomical Institute, famous for her spectroscopic researches on novae and a good friend of the discoverer. (MPC 19341)
4943 Lac d’Orient
1987 OQ. Discovered 1987 July 27 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named for the lake Lac de la Forêt d’Orient, situated about 20 km east of the city of Troyes (in the département de l’Aube, France). The region has great historical interest for its « commanderies » of the so-called Knights of the Temple. The discoverer favors this place very much for vacations, especially in the summer. (MPC 20838)
1987 CJ. Discovered 1987 February 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named by the Minor Planet Names Committee for the Minor Planet Circulars, the series established in 1947 for the publication of astrometric observations, orbital elements and limited ephemerides of minor planets - as well as for the announcement of new names. The abbreviation also honors the Minor Planet Center, which operates through IAU Commission 20 to issue the Circulars. Originally located at the Cincinnati Observatory, the Minor Planet Center moved to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in 1978. Data on comets also now appear in the publication, which has the alternate title Minor Planets and Comets. (MPC 19342)
1987 SS3. Discovered 1987 September 20 by E. W. Elst at Rozhen.
Named for Philips Marnix van Sint Aldegonde (1538-1598), mayor of Antwerp during 1583-1585 and player of a major role in defending the city against the Spanish troops. He was concerned with the religious struggle between catholics and protestants and is considered to be the composer of the beautiful Dutch national hymn ‘Wilhelmus’. (MPC 20162)
Citation based on information supplied by R. Grignard.
1990 PF. Discovered 1990 August 15 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of the great poet from the Provence, Frederic Mistral (1830-1914), whose entire life was dedicated to the restoration of the original dialect of the Langue d’Oc, the language of the ‘troubadours’. In 1859 he published the poem Mir Entire Provence. In 1886 he finished his Lou tresor dou felibrige, a Provencal-French dictionary. He was honored with the Nobel prize for literature (in 1904 together with J. Echegaray). The Northern wind that blows through the Rhone valley and sweeps all the clouds from the sky bears the same name. (MPC 20163)
Citation prepared by Kristina Leterme at the request of the discoverer.
1987 QG2. Discovered 1987 August 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous organist and composer Vincent Lübeck (1654-1740), born in Paddingbüttel, near Dorum (Bremen area). In 1675 he became organist at St. Casmae et Damiani in Stade, retaining this post for more than 27 years. There he had one of the most beautiful north German organs made by Arp Schnitger at his disposal. In 1702 he went to Hamburg and became organist at St. Nicolai, which housed Schnitger’s largest organ (four manuals, pedal and 66 voices). In 1721 the composer and organist Johann Mattheson wrote: « This unusual organ has an unusual organist. I need only say the name Vincent Lübeck and the whole panegyric is complete. » (MPC 20164)
1988 CD4. Discovered 1988 February 13 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Dirk Frimout, the first Belgian astronaut. On 1992 Mar. 24 he went into orbit with his American colleagues on board of the space shuttle Atlantis. He is member of BIRA, the Belgian Institute of Space Aeronomy at Uccle. The main purpose of this flight was the study of the ozone layer. (MPC 20164)
1989 CO3. Discovered 1989 February 4 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous organist and composer Nicolaus Bruhns (1665-1697), born at Schwabstedt, near Husum (Schleswig in the north of Germany), as a descendant of an old family of musicians. He got his first lessons at the organ from his father Paul Bruhns, a pupil of Franz Tunder. In 1681 he went to the city of Lübeck, to study the organ and composition with Dietrich Buxtehude (see planet (4344)) and the violin and viola da gamba with his uncle Peter Bruhns. He was noted for his virtuosity, sometimes playing the upper parts on the violin with accompaniment from an appropriate pedal bass part with his feet. (MPC 20522)
1990 QY7. Discovered 1990 August 16 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of Aristide Cavaillé-Coll (1811-1899), the most famous member of a family of organ builders and considered the initiator of the orchestral style of French organ building and composing. His first large organ, that at the basilica of Saint-Denis (completed in 1841), became a model for many later French organs. Napoleon III put him in charge of rebuilding a number of important cathedral organs; more than 600 instruments bore his name, a number of them in England. He made important improvements in mechanism and pipework, aiming at making the organ as expressive as symphony orchestra, and the typical romantic sound influenced a new school of composers, such as César Franck (see planet (4546)) and Charles-Marie Widor. One of the most beautiful organs by Cavaillé-Coll is at Saint-Sulpice in Paris. (MPC 20524)
1988 CN2. Discovered 1988 February 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Greek philosopher Herakleitos (540-480 B.C.) of Ephesus. By means of his metaphoric clash (« life and death are the same so opponents that become metaphorical are identified with each other ») he constructed and visualized relations of a higher conceptual order. He was thereby able to give a unique and decisive contribution to the history of thought. He is well known for his sayings such as « no one can step twice into the same river » and his famous « panta rhei » (everything changes). (MPC 21133)
Herakleitos is also honored by a lunar crater.
1988 PR1. Discovered 1988 August 14 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named for Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678) on the 400th anniversary of his birth. This famous Flemish painter of Antwerp was a pupil of Adam van Noort and a contemporary of P.P. Rubens. His paintings were inspired by family life and popular situations, like the joy of daily life in the villages. His well-known painting « So als de ouden songhen so pijpen de jonghen » is typically nationalistic and representative of the revival of Flemish art, putting it on an equal level with more internationalistic tendencies. (MPC 21610)
Citation prepared by Kristina Leterme at the request of the discoverer.
1986 VG1. Discovered 1986 November 7 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named for the Latin form of Odysseus (see planet (1143)), hero of Homer’s (see planet (5700)) Iliad and Odyssey. In the Iliad Ulysses is characterised by intelligence, experience (as a builder of machines) and endurance. He caused the chief commander Agamemnon (see planet (911)) to be restored and rallied the disaffected Greeks. The killing of the Trojan Dolon by Ulysses (which means « giver of pain ») and Diomedes (see planet (1437)) was a tragic episode. Ulysses invented the strategem of the wooden horse, and it was first mentioned in the Odyssey, his journey of more than nine years after the battle of Troy. The pleasant episode of Ulysses and Nausikaa (see planet (192)) at Scheria has inspired many writers and composers. In James Joyce’s famous novel « Ulysses » the man of hostility becomes a man of peace. (MPC 21134)
1989 RH. Discovered 1989 September 2 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in honor of Philippe Véron, director of the Observatoire de Haute Provence. In addition to conducting research on quasars and active galaxies, Véron is a student of early cometary books and broadsides. (MPC 21957)
1989 GL1. Discovered 1989 April 3 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Erik V. Petersen (1911- ), Danish amateur astronomer, who has contributed to astronomy through his study of minor planets, especially of (51) Nemausa. During 1955-1965 Petersen used the refractor at the Copenhagen University Observatory to take 712 plates, on wich he measured 2,562 positions of minor planets. This is the largest single project ever carried out with that telescope. The data were used in an international collaboration, and Petersen’s work received a special commendation at the IAU General Assembly in Prague in 1967. (MPC 21611)
Name proposed by B. Reipurth, who prepared the citation at the request of the discoverer.
1989 SG5. Discovered 1989 September 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of Denis Diderot (1713-1784), French author of dramas, novels and philosophical essays. Together with d’Alembert (see planet (5956)), he will be remembered for his Encyclopedia, a huge task that took almost 20 years of his life and resulted in more than one thousand articles on philosophy, literature, religion, politics, economics and applied sciences. (MPC 23540)
Citation by K. Leterme at the request of the discoverer.
1988 PK1. Discovered 1988 August 13 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named for the site, in Siberia, of the presumed impact of a 60-meter minor planet on the 85th anniversary of the great explosion that occurred there on 1908 June 30. (MPC 22250)
5522 De Rop
1991 PJ5. Discovered 1991 August 3 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Willy De Rop (1933- ), astronomer at the Royal Observatory, Uccle, on the occasion of his retirement. Besides his professional work in positional astronomy, timekeeping and rotation of the earth, De Rop has been involved in the popularization of astronomy and several other cultural societies in Belgium. For several years he was most helpful in taking care of the communication of telexes between the discoverer and observation sites, and also the Minor Planet Center. (MPC 22251)
Citation prepared by J. Denoyelle at the request of the discoverer.
1991 CA2. Discovered 1991 February 14 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
In honor of Gilles Traversa, technical night-assistant at the Observatory of Haute Provence. He has been involved mainly in the Fehrenbach (see planet (3433)) Program of Radial Velocities and has made observations at Zeekoegat (South Africa), La Silla (Chile) and Haute Provence, where he has observed with the Grand Prisme Objectif (GPO), the PPM (Petit Prisme Objectif) and the Schmidt telescope. From 1986 to 1993 he has been of irreplaceable help to, and has become a very good friend of, the discoverer during the observations at Haute Provence. (MPC 23353)
1989 YF5. Discovered 1989 December 28 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
1990 EJ2. Discovered 1990 March 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the French lyric poet Jean de la Fontaine (1621-1695), on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. He is well known from the « fables » (first published in six books in 1668, with a total of 12 books by 1694) and his « contes ». The fables were inspired by Greek and Latin writers such as Aesop and Phaedrus, and the contes, mainly by the French writers Rabelais (see planet (5666)) and Marguerite de Navarre. Although la Fontaine continued the classical tradition, he created his own style and language that exhibits versatility and fecundity. He is considered one of the greatest classical French writers. (MPC 23541)
Citation material provided by K. Leterme at the request of the discoverer.
1989 SB3. Discovered 1989 September 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Greek poet Archilochos (fl. 700 B.C.) who, through his provocative attitude against the established moral values of his time, confronted his subjective comprehension of reality, his personal experience and his own notion of morality to the heroic myths of his epoch. (MPC 23793)
Name proposed and citation prepared by Antonia Svarna on the request of the discoverer.
1986 PS4. Discovered 1986 August 9 by E. W. Elst and V. G. Ivanova at Rozhen.
Named for the great Greek philosopher Leukippos, born around 450 B.C., probably at Miletus, on the west coast of Asia Minor. His main concern was to harmonize Ionic cosmology with Greek ontology. Although it was Demokritos (see planet (6129)) who brilliantly elaborated many of his ideas, the atomistic theory of matter originated with Leukippos. Only a few fragments of his work remain, and these show that he made a clear distinction between empty space and matter. (MPC 24918)
1987 QS1. Discovered 1987 August 19 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the great philosopher Epikouros (341-270 B.C.), well known for his exposition of the atomistic theory of physics, inspired by the teachings of Demokritos (see planet (6129)). He was also celebrated for his ethical teaching, to which we owe « epicurism ». Living in an age when the Greeks had lost their political freedom in Macedonia, Epikouros wanted to restore mental freedom by means of his physics to ensure « quietude of the mind ». (MPC 24765)
1988 CF5. Discovered 1988 February 13 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of Jean Le Rond d’Alembert (1717-1783), French philosopher and mathematician, famous for his mechanical principle (1742). He introduced the calculus of partial differences and solved the problem of the precession of the equinoxes. He is perhaps best remembered for his association with Diderot (see planet (5351)) in the preparation of the Encyclopedia. D’Alembert was much interested in music, both as a science and as an art. (MPC 23793)
d’Alembert is also honored by a lunar crater.
1988 CP2. Discovered 1988 February 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the famous Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus (c.625-547 B.C.). None of Thales’writings has come down to us, but from Aristoteles (see planet (6123)) we know that he was the first to suggest a single substratum (water) for the Universe. The correct prediction of the solar eclipse of -584 May 28 contributed considerably to his reputation as an astronomer. Thales’ significance, however, lies in the fact that he attempted to explain natural phenomena by causes within nature itself, rather than by caprices of anthropomorphic gods. He must be credited with at least five important geometrical theorems. (MPC 24766)
Thales is also honored by a lunar crater.
1989 GB4. Discovered 1989 April 3 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the great Greek philosopher Anaximander of Miletus (610-546 B.C.). A pupil of Thales (see planet (6001)), he wrote treatises on geography, astronomy and cosmology. From all this only the so-called B 1 fragment remains. Although it barely embraces nine sentences, it may be considered as the oldest philosophical citation. Anaximander derived the world from the apeiron (unlimited), wich is the arche (beginning) and principal element, from wich all existing things owe their birth and to which they will eventually return. Although a rationalist, he described the emergence of particular substances in metaphors, drawn from human society, in which physical injustices (hot or cold may not prevail forever) are penalized. (MPC 24918)
Anaximandros is also honored by a lunar crater.
1993 BA8. Discovered 1993 January 23 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon (570-475 B.C.). He was in the first place a poet, using poetry to express his reflections about philosophical problems. Although he continued the tradition od Ionic philosophy (e.g., on nature), he spent much of his time attacking the idea of anthropomorphic gods, such as we know them from the work of Homer (see planet (5700)) and Hesiod. From this the idea of a more abstract god, in combination with ethic principles, has been evolved. Much later, Plato (see planet (5451)) took up this picture. However, the great achievement of Xenophanes remains his introduction of reflection on knowledge into philosophy. (MPC 24918)
Xenophanes is also honored by a lunar crater.
1987 OR. Discovered 1987 July 27 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
1988 CV3. Discovered 1988 February 13 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Steven Weinberg, elementary-particle physicist and recipient of the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physics. Weinberg is considered one of the world’s most creative scientists. He is also well known for his writings about science. In his latest book, Dreams of a Final Theory, he discusses quantum mechanics, beautiful theories, the weakness of philosophy and the honor of accepting a world without God. (MPC 24766)
1989 RS. Discovered 1989 September 3 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named for Parmenides of Elea, born around 515 B.C. and the founder of « Eleaticism ». From his lengthy poem On Nature, a hexametric work of which only a small part has been preserved, one learns that he considered the plurality of things as the appearance of only one eternal reality. Greek philosophers before him, such as Thales and Anaximenes (see planets (6001) and (6051), respectively), tried to explain the physical world by means of sometimes very remarkable hypotheses. Parmenides, probably influenced by the skeptical Xenophanes (see planet (6026)), wanted to be absolutely certain about the theory he put forward. He therefore investigated the validity of theories, not by experiments, but by means of the logical soundness of laws and concepts that had been incorporated. (MPC 24919)
1992 BX1. Discovered 1992 January 30 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the great Greek philosopher Anaximenes of Miletus. He was born in 545 B.C. and is to be considered, with Thales and Anaximander (see, respectively, planets (6001) and (6006)), one of the three first philosophers in the western world. His principal element was « aer » (vapor, air), from which the various types of matter can be derived by condensation. His thought is typical of the transition from mythology to science. However, he was not completely liberated from mystical tendencies (orphism), since he believed that there is a kind of overarching principle between microcosmos and macrocosmos. (MPC 24919)
Anaximenes is also honored by a lunar crater.
1987 SH2. Discovered 1987 September 19, by E. W. Elst at Rozhen.
Named for Aristoteles (384-322 B.C.), one of the most significant Greek philosophers, charging the demerits of his philosophy on the level of the knowledge at his era and ascribing the misuse of his ideas to human weakness. He was the first, and possibly the greatest, theoretician of the mechanism of thought and deduction, being at the same time well aware of the importance of what happens in the real world and in nature. (MPC 24766)
Citation prepared by A. Svarna and D. Sinachopoulos at the request of the discoverer. Proposal endorsed by V. Shkodrov.
Aristoteles is also honored by a lunar crater.
1989 RB2. Discovered 1989 September 4 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named for the Greek philosopher Demokritos of Abdera (460-380 B.C.), well-known for his atomistic theory of matter. He was a pupil of Leukippos (see planet (5950)), to whom he owed many ideas. His great concern was to harmonize Ionic cosmology with Greek ontology, and he is credited with at least 57 works on ethics, physics, nature, mathematics and art. He considered an observation to be the result of an interaction between observer and observed. (MPC 24919)
Demokritos is also honored by a lunar crater.
1993 JV. Discovered 1993 May 14 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the great Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras of Samos (580-500 B.C.). He contributed to the development of mathematics and is generally credited with the first mathematical foundation of theories about harmony in physics and the arts. Although it is difficult to distinguish his teaching from those of his disciples, Pythagorean principles strongly influenced the thought of Plato and to a somewhat lesser extent that of Aristoteles (see, respectively, planets (5451) and (6123)). (MPC 24919; MPC 25351)
Citation written by D. Sinachopoulos at the request of the discoverer.
Pythagoras is also honored by a lunar crater.
1989 GB3. Discovered 1989 April 3 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Greek philosopher Empedocles (490-430 B.C.). Only some 400 lines remain of his poem On Nature, which considered that matter is composed of the four basic elements of fire, air, water and earth. Nothing comes into being or is destroyed, but things are merely transformed. Like Herakleitos (see planet (5204)) he believed that two forces, love and hate, interact to bring together and to separate the four ingredients. Fewer than 100 verses are left of Purifications, another poem of Empedocles. (MPC 24919)
1988 CC2. Discovered 1988 February 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the great Greek philosopher and mathematician Zenon of Elea (494-430 B.C.). As a friend and pupil of Parmenides (see planet (6039)), he continued his teacher’s abstract and analytic thought, taking the theses of his opponents and refuting them by reductio ad absurdum. He tried to show that the assumption of the existence of a plurality of things in time and space carried with it more serious inconsistencies. He is especially known for the paradoxes he used for this purpose. (MPC 24919)
Citation by D. Sinachopoulos at the request of the discoverer.
1989 EY2. Discovered 1989 March 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Elisabeth Völk (1946- ), secretary at the European Southern Observatory’s headquarters in Garching, where she is chiefly responsible for the administration of the ESO Schmidt plates. During the July 1994 observing campaign on comet D/1993 F2 (Shoemaker-Levy 9) she did an excellent job solving so many problems that occurred at that hectic time. During all the years (1987-1994) of the Uccle-ESO observing program on minor planets she has become a very good friend to the discoverer. (MPC 24766)
Proposal endorsed by L. D. Schmadel, who independently suggested naming a minor planet for Mrs. Völk.
6240 Lucretius Carus
1989 SL1. Discovered 1989 September 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Latin philosopher and poet Titus Lucretius Carus. He was born around 90 B.C., probably in Rome, and he is known from his De rerum natura, a long poem written in Latin hexameters. In this he expounds on the physical theory of the Greek philosopher Epicurus (see planet (5954)), of whom he speaks with great admiration. The third part of the poem deals with atomic structure and the mortality of the soul, the latter with the famous words ‘Death means nothing to us’. (MPC 25445)
Lucretius is also honored by a lunar crater.
1987 SO9. Discovered 1987 September 20 by E. W. Elst at Rozhen.
1990 SS5. Discovered 1990 September 22 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the city, site of the grandiose palace and start of the French revolution in 1789. In 1624 Louis XIII had a small castle built there, some 17 km from Paris, to serve as a lodge after his hunts in the surrounding woods. The present palace was built by Louis XIV, who moved his entire staff there in 1682, while carefully maintaining the old hunting lodge. The palace was substantially altered by Louis XV, and it is known for its magnificent gardens and ‘Salle du jeu de paume’. (MPC 25445)
1988 CX1. Discovered 1988 February 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the well-known German piano teacher and composer Karl Czerny (1791-1857). His first piano lessons were from his father, his later lessons from Beethoven (see planet (1815)). He became a piano teacher at 14 and was soon world famous, counting Liszt (see planet (3910)) and Thalberg among his pupils. Occupied with composing in the evening, he earned a living by giving piano lessons during the day. Among his enormous number of compositions the 848 etudes are in the arsenal of every pianist. (MPC 25655)
1988 CF3. Discovered 1988 February 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the German piano teacher Antoine Schmoll, who at the age of seven received his first piano lessons and tuition in the art of composing. He left his native country to become a piano teacher, first in Toulouse (1864), later in Brussels (1873) and Paris (1875). In 1881, he published his famous Nouvelle méthode de piano, théorique, pratique et récréative (with 16 editions in less than 14 years), in which the difficulty of the lessons increases gradually. (MPC 25445)
6304 Josephus Flavius
1989 GT3. Discovered 1989 April 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Jewish historian Josephus Bar Mattheus, born around A.D. 37 in Jerusalem. He was a member of the Pharisees, an ancient Jewish sect noted for the strict observance of rites and ceremonies of the traditional law. In 66 he organised a revolt against the Roman occupation, but he was defeated and led before Vespasianus. Because of a correct prophesy he acquired his liberty and added the last part of his name. He left several Greek writings, such as The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities. (MPC 25445)
1990 EM3. Discovered 1990 March 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous Flemish writer Willem Elsschot, pseudonym of Alfons de Ridder (1882-1960). His work is very personal and deeply human. He never belonged to any literary school. In his poems and stories he shows great sincerity, sometimes evolving into bitter cynism about human mediocrity. His style is sober and shows a remarkable pureness. The cosmopolitical character of his first novel Villa des Roses was a complete change from the Flemish literature of that time, still trapped in a regional mentality. Because of his obvious atheism, he was for a long time despised by the catholic critics. (MPC 25445)
Citation by K. Leterme at the request of the discoverer.
1990 UP3. Discovered 1990 October 16 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the infamous Dreyfus case, which dominated French politics, reinforced religious feelings, disrupted the old party system and divided the nation for more than 10 years. In 1894 a French Jewish army officer, Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935), was wrongfully convicted of high treason. The famous French writer Emile Zola came to his defense by writing the emotional article « J’accuse » in the journal l’Aurore. In 1906 Dreyfus was rehabilitated and decorated with the légion d’honneur. (MPC 25446)
1990 WJ3. Discovered 1990 November 19 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the Russian cosmonaut Georgij Beregovoj (1921-1995). In October 1968 he orbited the earth 64 times in a Soyuz 3 spacecraft and was safely recovered on land at Karaganda. He also performed space maneuvers near an unmanned Soyuz 2 spacecraft. Author of more than 300 scientific articles, he always put an emphasis on the importance of the role of the human factor in cosmic flights. Beregovoj was a member of the organizing committee for the 1995 international meeting « ecological consequences of the collision of the earth with small bodies of the solar system ». His efforts led to the acquisition from the Russian government of a military airplane for use in the 37th expedition to Vanavara-Tunguska, and he hoped to participate in this exploration of the site of the 1908 impact. Sadly, he died unexepectedly during medical treatment shortly beforehand. (MPC 25655)
1991 PS6. Discovered 1991 August 6 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the town near the Podkammenaya (stony) Tunguska river in Siberia (see planet (5471)). On 1908 June 30 a large bolide, probably an asteroid fragment, exploded in the atmosphere, almost 70 km north of Vanavara. Almost 2000 square kilometers of the taiga forest were suddenly flattened. Tungus reindeer herders, living in the forests, were thrown to the ground, and many of them lost their herds and tepees. Several houses in Vanavara were damaged. On the occasion of the 37th expedition to Tunguska, the discoverer was very warmly received by the people of Vanavara. (MPC 25979)
1987 QS7. Discovered 1987 August 28 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1988 PM1. Discovered 1988 August 12 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of the great Italian composer Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757). He spent the first half of his life under the shadow of his father, Alessandro Scarlatti. After leaving Italy for Portugal in 1719, and particularly after his father’s death in 1725, he developed a style that made him one of the greatest keyboard composers of all time. At the Portuguese court he served as music master for the young Princess Maria Barbara. In 1729 she moved with him to Spain, where he spent the rest of his life. Most of his known 550 harpsichord sonatas were dedicated to this pincess, who herself was unusually gifted musically. (MPC 26766)
1990 EO4. Discovered 1990 March 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Nikolaj Vasil’ev, scientific director of the Interdisciplinary Independent Tunguska Expeditions. A professor of medicine and a well-known oncologist at the Institute for Microbiology in Kharkov, he has for many years been interested in the history and scientific investigation of the Tunguska event (see planet (5471)). In his capacity as IITE director he and other members of the group succeeded in having 4000 square kilometers of the Tunguska region set aside as a national reserve for the next 20 years. (MPC 26425)
1991 CX2. Discovered 1991 February 12 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of the Provençal writer Jean Giono (1895-1970). Born in Manosque, he left this small town only to make short trips around Provence and to Italy. His natural writing style makes his work easy to read, showing remarkable strength and a sense of humor. The wealth of poetic images, inspired by the splendid and at the same time rough nature of the Provence, evokes his personal ideas on the irreplacable things of life. In Refus d’obéissance (1937) rural anarchism and courageous pacifism is proclaimed, an attitude that led to difficulties with the authorities, who imprisoned him. Giono’s well-known writings include the Trilogy of Pan and Que ma joie demeure. (MPC 25979)
Citation prepared by C. Leterme at the request of the discoverer.
1988 PX1. Discovered 1988 August 13 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
Named in memory of the Russian composer Alexandr Nikolaevich Skryabin (1872-1915). Though one of the most fascinating phenomena at the beginning of the twentieth century, his music was largely unappreciated because of his contradictory philosophical ideas. His most important symphonies, sonatas and other pieces for the piano were composed to an ever-increasing degree following his bold aim to create a mystery that should unite all the arts in a grand liturgic-artistical action to uplift and redeem humanity above itself into a condition of supreme ecstasy. (MPC 26766)
1987 QZ1. Discovered 1987 August 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of former director Luiz Muniz Barreto of the National Observatory in Rio de Janeiro, who stimulated the development of astrophysics in Brazil and was responsible for the creation in Itajubà of the Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica. He also established research groups in astronomy and geophysics, such as the Observatory of Piedade in Minas Gerais. In 1994 he went to the Universidade Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, where he is currently involved in geophysical research. In the 1970s the discoverer was regularly invited by Muniz Barreto to carry out research at the National Observatory and to teach astrophysics at the Universidade Federal of Belo Horizonte. (MPC 26766)
Citation material supplied by R. Tarsia.
1990 QE8. Discovered 1990 August 16 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the greatest of the Greek epics, the Iliad of Homer (see planet (5700). This work was later divided, more or less arbitrarily, by Alexandrian scientists into 24 books of some 500-800 verses each. Although the Trojan War raged for ten years, Homer reviewed but a small episode of it. King Agamemnon (see planet (911)) was to render the captured Chryseis (see planet (202)) to her father, and he demanded Briseis (see planet (655)), the mistress of Achilles (see planet (588)), for himself. Thereupon Achilles withdrew himself and all his men from the battle. However, after his friend Patroclus (see planet (617)) was killed by Hektor (see planet (624)), Achilles resumed fighting and killed Hektor. The epic ends with the funeral of Patroclus. The name also honors Ilias, born 1995 Oct. 28, the first grandson of the discoverer and son of Sigyn and Philip de Jager-Elst. (MPC 26425)
1990 SM9. Discovered 1990 September 22 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1991 GG5. Discovered 1991 April 8 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Raymond Josse (1914- ), a graduate of the Ecole Militaire de l’Air and the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Aéronautique who has occupied important positions in the French aeronautical administration. He is also a member of the Société des Amis de Jean de La Fontaine, one of his ancestors, as well as of the Société Astronomique de France. He has authored about 100 articles on historical and on technical subjects. During the festivities in 1995 on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the death of de La Fontaine (see planet (5780)) at Château Thierry he became a very good friend of the Elst family. (MPC 26766)
1989 GF4. Discovered 1989 April 3 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the well-known Flemish philosopher Leo Apostel (1925-1995). He was a pupil of Chaim Perelman (Brussels), Jean Piaget (Geneva) and Rudolf Carnap (Chicago). In 1956-57 he joined the universities of Brussels and Ghent, teaching logic and epistemology there for many years. In 1990 he established the independent interdisciplinary investigation center, Worldviews, in which the discoverer has been asked to guide the group « cosmology ». (MPC 27129)
1990 ES3. Discovered 1990 March 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous Russian composer Alexandr Porfirevich Borodin (1833-1887). After studies in medicine and chemistry and a brief stay in the army as a doctor, he became a professor at the Medical Academy in St. Petersburg. But he was a musician at heart. He became acquainted with Balakirev (see planet (6777)), to whom he owed his further musical education. Among his principal works are two symphonies, his well-known In the Steppes of Central Asia and several pieces for piano. His unfinished opera Prince Igor was completed by Glazunov and Rimskij-Korsakov (see planet (4534)). (MPC 26767)
1993 JK1. Discovered 1993 May 14 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the French family that produced a succession of musicians from the early seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth century. Louis Couperin (1626-1661) was born in Chaumes and was the first of the many Couperins to become organist at the church of St. Gervais in Paris. His style was characterized by an almost aggressive use of dissonance and of baroque ornamentation. His nephew, François Couperin (1668-1733), often known as « Le Grand », is especially remembered for his keyboard pieces and for his somewhat ambiguous and obscure, theoretical work L’art de toucher le clavecin. François Couperin’s chamber and church music is also very important, well-known examples being his two organ masses and the four volumes for the harpsichord. He was held in great esteem by J. S. Bach (see planet(1814)). (MPC 26767)
1989 SD1. Discovered 1989 September 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), father of modern chemistry. In a memoir presented to the Paris Academy in 1777 he explained combustion as the result of the combination of a burning substance with oxygen (that name being due to Lavoisier). In his 1789 Traité élémentaire de Chimie he gave a list of simple substances that could not be further decomposed by any known process, thus providing the concept of a chemical element. He was also associated with committee on hygiene, coinage and public education. His membership in the Ferme Générale caused the authorities to be suspicious of him during the French Revolution, and he was condemned to the guillotine. The day after the execution, Lagrange (see planet (1006)) lamented. « It required only a moment to sever that head, and perhaps a century will not be sufficient to produce another like it ». (MPC 26933)
1991 BM1. Discovered 1991 January 18 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
1994 PW5. Discovered 1994 August 10 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the 2600-m high mountain in northern Chile, approximately 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, upon which the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory is being erected. Although La Silla (see planet (2187)) ranks among the best astronomical sites in the world, subsequent studies have shown that Paranal has a substantially lower frequency of clouds and very much lower humidity. The mean value of the seeing is less than 1 arcsecond. (MPC 27332)
1993 BE8. Discovered 1993 January 23 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the well-known French poet-symbolist Paul Verlaine (1844-1896). He was born in the grey and rainy Ardennes, a landscape that would never be far fom his sad life. In his early work he declared himself as doomed, a « poète maudit », torn between a mystic search for pureness and demonic sensuality. Alcohol ruined his health and mind, during a libertine and bohemian existence with his friend, the poet Arthur Rimbaud (see planet (4635)). Verlaine will be remembered for his splendid verse: « Il pleure dans mon coeur/ comme il pleut sur la ville./ Quelle est cette langueur/ qui pénètre mon coeur? ». (MPC 27129; MPC 27147)
Citation written by C. Leterme at the request of the discoverer.
1991 GQ2. Discovered 1991 April 8 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of Friedrich Melchior Baron von Grimm (1723-1807). After studying at the University of Leipzig he went to France, as delegate of the young Prince of Saxe-Gotha. There he became associated with writers of the Encyclopédie such as Rousseau, Voltaire and d’Alembert (see, respectively, planets (2950), (5676) and (5956)), but especially Diderot (see planet (5351)), for whom he felt great affection. The 17 volumes of his Correspondance littéraire, philosophique et critique, published a few years after his death, show that no eighteenth-century foreigner in France has known the country, its people and its language better than him. This correspondence, characterized by a dry and skeptical philosophy, remains an inexhaustible mine of anecdotes and judgements on men and their works. (MPC 27332)
1988 CX3. Discovered 1988 February 13 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous German philosopher Paul Heinrich Dietrich von Holbach (1723-1780), with Diderot, d’Alembert, Grimm, de Jaucourt and Helvetius one of the Encyclopedists. He spent almost his entire life in Paris, where his residence became the assembly of the greatest free-thinkers of his time. One of his numerous works, Système de la nature (1770), often called « The bible of materialism », became well known and had a great impact on the philosophy that there is nothing but material and motion. According to Holbach, the greatest enemy of natural morality is religion, a product of fantasy. (MPC 27463)
1992 GY3. Discovered 1992 April 4 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous French philosopher and Encyclopedist Claude Adrien Helvetius (1715-1771). While still very young he read Locke’s Essay concerning human understanding, which influenced his life. In 1758 Helvetius’ De l’Esprit was published. The book was immediately banned by parliament on the grounds that it was dangerous to the state and to religion. Another famous work, Les progrès de la raison dans la recherche (1775), espoused the idea that all knowledge comes from our sentences and that morality has to be based on a rational, moderate hedonism. He proposed a workday of only seven to eight hours and supported education and culture for all. (MPC 27463)
1993 OZ4. Discovered 1993 July 20 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the French writer Chevalier Louis de Jaucourt (1704-1779), who studied theology at Geneva and medicine at Cambridge and Leiden. He came into contact with the Encyclopedists and wrote for the Encyclopédie articles on physiology, chemistry, botany, pathology, history and politics. Diderot expressed his great esteem for de Jaucourt in a letter to Sophie Volland, remarking on his prodigious labors, often reading, dictating to six or seven secretaries for thirteen or fourteen hours each day, and on his great unhappiness when the work neared completion. (MPC 27463)
1987 QU1. Discovered 1987 August 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous British philosopher David Hume (1711-1776). He started to study law but found it distasteful. In 1744 he became a candidate for the chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh, but he was not successful, since his opponents found evidence for heresy and even atheism in his Treatise of Human Nature. In 1761 the Vatican put his writings on the Index. Hume regarded himself chiefly as a moralist. « It is our nature to find certain human qualities intrinsically good. However, we can not explain this, since any attempt would take us into the vacuum of metaphysics ». (MPC 27736)
1987 QH3. Discovered 1987 August 28 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous British philosopher John Locke (1632-1704), initiator of the Age of Enlightenment and Reason in England and France. Although he worked extensively on political ideas, his main concern was with epistemology, noting that human knowledge rests on experience of the external world and on reflection. Mathematical reasoning is deductive and is to be understood in terms of an intellectual intuition of relations between ideas. In his famous Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690), he set down the foundations of an epistemology of modern science. Citation prepared by S. Elst at the request of the discoverer. (MPC 28622)
1988 CH2. Discovered 1988 Feb. 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the great British political philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). In 1651 he published his masterpiece Leviathan, wherein he insisted that the first requirement of political and moral institutions is that they should provide citizens with security. He analyzed the conditions for peace and security and gave a recipe for constructing an ideal state: men can only live together in peace if they agree to subject themselves to an absolute and individual sovereign. He made a severe attack on the attempt of papists and presbyterians to challenge the rights of this sovereign. Citation prepared by S. Elst at the request of the discoverer. (MPC 28622)
1989 GT4. Discovered 1989 April 3 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the great German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), renowned for his criticisms on religion, philosophy and morality. One of his early writings, The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (1872), remains a classic in the history of esthetics. His best-known work is Thus spoke Zarathustra (1883-1885), in which he noted that most men can not accept the intrinsic meaninglessness of existence: they therefore seek supplanting absolutes to invest life with meaning (philosophy and religion). But now « God is dead ». The slaughter of rivals and the conquest of the earth will proceed, under the banners of universal brotherhood, democracy and socialism. (MPC 29148)
1990 QC8. Discovered 1990 August 16 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the celebrated German philosopher of pessimism, Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860). In 1813 he went to Weimar and came in intimate association with Goethe. Later he considered that Hindu scriptures, together with Plato and Kant, should constitute the foundations on which to erect his own philosophical system. In On Vision and Colours (1816) he supported Goethe against Newton. His main work was The world as Will and Idea (1819), wherein he develops the fundamental idea that « the world is my representation ». The world is only comprehensible with the aid of the constructs of man’s intellect– space, time and causality. (MPC 29148)
1992 GR2. Discovered 1992 April 4 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the French-Belgian-American writer Marguerite Yourcenar (Marguerite de Crayencour, 1903-1987). Well known for her novels, essays and short stories, she also did translational work. In the historical novel Mémoires d’Hadrien (1951), she explored the world and thoughts of the fascinating second-century Roman emperor and meditated on human destiny, morality and power. Her 1968 L’oeuvre au noir (The Abyss) is an erudite evocation of the medieval spirit in Flanders and Italy by means of the life of a fictitions sixteenth-century alchemist and philosopher. In 1980 she became the first woman writer to be elected to the prestigious French Academy. Citation prepared by K. Leterme at the request of the discoverer. (MPC 28622)
1989 SE2. Discovered 1989 September 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the great Danish religious philosopher Sf ren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), known as the « father of existentialism ». All his life he suffered from the influence of the overpowering personality of his father, who educated him in strict adherence to orthodox Lutheranism. His unfortunate relationship with Regine Olsen also severely influenced his life and writings. Kierkegaard believed in the necessity for each individual to make a fully conscious, responsible choice among the alternatives that life offers. His well-known Fear and Trembling and Repetition dealt with faith and the idea of sacrifice. In The Sickness unto Death he anticipated aspects of Freudian psychoanalysis. He made also severe attacks on Hegel’s attempt to systematize the whole of existence. (MPC 28622)
1991 PY5. Discovered 1991 August 6 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the French priest and philosopher Jean Meslier (1664-1729). After his death, a 1200-page manuscript Lettres aux Curés du Voisinage was discovered. This showed him as a fervent atheist, materialist and revolutionist: « The real original sin of men is to be born in poverty, in misery, in dependance and tyranny of the mighty one. We must do everything to free them from this disgusting and damned sin. » Although some copies of the manuscript circulated throughout the eighteenth century (eliciting comments from Voltaire and Holbach), the work was finally published only in 1864. (MPC 29148)
1992 OC5. Discovered 1992 July 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the French philosopher and writer Charles-Louis de Secondat (1689-1755). Better known by the name of his birthplace, Montesquieu is remembered especially for his De l’Esprit des lois (1748), an immense work on the laws and customs of mankind. (MPC 30799)
7079 1986 RR
Discovered 1986 September 5 by E. W. Elst and V. G. Ivanova at Rozhen.
7082 1987 YL1
Discovered 1987 December 17 by E. W. Elst and G. Pizarro at La Silla.
1989 CL3. Discovered 1989 Feb. 4 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the great German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), foremost thinker of the Enlightenment. His comprehensive and systematic works in the theory of knowledge, ethics and esthetics have greatly influenced all subsequent philosophy. Although he started his study with theology, he was principally attracted to mathematics and physics. In 1781 his most famous work, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, was published. This deals with the roots of knowledge and the conditions of possible experience. The human mind cannot arrive, by pure thought, at truths about entities that, by their very nature, can never be objects of experience. (MPC 29148)
1992 SB22. Discovered 1992 September 22 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the French medical doctor and philosopher Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751). After publishing Traité de l’Ame in 1745, he had to flee to Holland, where he published L’Homme-Machine (1748). « ’Soul’ is just an empty word. Matter by its own has the faculty of perception. » In his last work Discours préliminaire (1751), he wrote: « How can one possibly think that reasoning is dangerous? It has never led to fanatics, sects or even theologians. » (MPC 29672)
1993 TK39. Discovered 1993 Octber 9 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1996 HX25. Discovered 1996 April 20 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the famous German philosopher and moralist Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804-1872). In his Über Philosophie und Christentum (1839), he claimed that « Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind and is nothing more than an obsession ». But it is in his Das Wesen des Christentums (1841) that he put forward his ideas on religion: « God is merely the outward projection of man’s inward nature ». His views were later endorsed in Germany by extremists in the struggle between church and state. (MPC 29672)
1991 GJ4. Discovered 1991 April 8 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of Marin Cureau de la Chambre (1594-1669), a doctor of medicine and author of several scientific works. In 1635 he became one of the first members of the prestigeous Académie Française and will be remembered for his Traité de la Connaissance des Animaux (1647), a work that made clear that animals, like humans, have feelings, knowledge and thoughts. (MPC 30478)
1994 PC19. Discovered 1994 August 12 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Dutch-Jewish philosopher Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677). He incurred the disapproval of the synagogue authorities, and in 1656 he was excommunicated. Although acknowledging Descartes to be the father of modern philosophy, he did not agree with his metaphysics. In his masterpiece, Ethica (1663-1675), he constructed a metaphysical system entirely deductively in terms of Euclidean geometry. Spinoza was also an expert in grinding and polishing lenses, but the inhalation of glass dust contributed to his death. (MPC 30800)
1988 DE2. Discovered 1988 February 17 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the great Dutch writer Multatuli (« I have suffered much », pseudonym of Eduard Douwes Dekker, 1820-1887). In 1838 he went to the Dutch East Indies, where he held a number of governmental posts. In 1856 he resigned as assistant commissioner of Lebak, Java, because he was not supported by the government in his struggle to protect the Javanese from exploitation by their own chiefs. Back in Europe, he soon became internationally known with his novel Max Havelaar (1860), which enabled him to plead for justice in Java and to satirize the Dutch middle-class mentality. Name proposed by the discoverer, endorsed by C.-F. Merks and J. Meeus. (MPC 28622)
1991 GQ6. Discovered 1991 April 8 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the French philosopher and scientist Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655). Originally trained in theology, he came under the influence of the mathematician-theologian Mersenne. On 1631 Nov. 7 he made the first known observation of a transit of Mercury, thereby confirming the work of Kepler. As a philosopher, he revived Epicureanism as a substitute for Aristotelianism. At Mersenne’s request, he refuted Descartes’ Meditations in his Disquisitio Metaphysica (1644). In his great Syntagma Philosophicum, finally published as part of his opera omnia in 1658, he rejected the innate ideas of Descartes and favored the senses as the primary sources of knowledge. (MPC 31025)
1991 PQ1. Discovered 1991 August 5 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the well-known Brazilian musician Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959), one of the foremost Latin-American composers of the twentieth century. After traveling throughout his country he returned to Rio de Janeiro with a large collection of manuscripts and an intimate knowledge of Afro-Brazilian music. In 1930 he was appointed director of musical education in Sã o Paulo, and in 1945 he founded the Brazilian Academy of Music. His 2000 compositions include operas, ballets, symphonies and pieces for solo instrument. Bachianas brasileiras, one of his most characteristic works, shows the influence of Bach and some of the French composers by his use of contrapuntal techniques applied to themes of Brazilian origin. (MPC 28623)
1990 EX2. Discovered 1990 March 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Wilhelm Seggewiss (b. 1937), since 1995 head of the Hoher List Observatory, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. He works mainly on Wolf-Rayet stars and related topics. In 1981 he became a professor of astronomy at the University of Bonn. Seggewiss regularly gives lectures about subjects such as the history of the calendar and astrology, in order to put them in a proper perspective. Name endorsed and citation written by M. Geffert at the request of the discoverer. (MPC 30801)
1992 PW1. Discovered August 8 by E. W. Elst and C. Pollas at Caussols
Named for Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829), French biologist, renowned for his idea that acquired traits are inheritable. In 1778, after nine years of botanical field study, he published his three-volume Flore française. As a result of his urging, the Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle was founded in 1793. (MPC 30801)
1992 GE2. Discovered 1992 April 4 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Flemish composer Johannes Ockeghem (1420-1497), the most renowned polyphonist of the second half of the fifteenth century. He started his career at the Antwerp cathedral and later served at the court of several French kings. Among his compositions were motets, chansons, canons and a Deo gratias for 36 voices. He had a great influence on his fellow musicians and still fascinates contemporary composers. Citation written by K. Leterme at the request of the discoverer. (MPC 30801)
7346 1993 DQ2
Discovered 1993 February 20 by E. W. Elst at Caussols
7349 1993 QK4
Discovered 1993 August 18 by E. W. Elst at Caussols
1987 BC2. Discovered 1987 January 29 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1987 QW1. Discovered 1987 August 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1987 QW7. Discovered 1987 August 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1990 SL9. Discovered 1990 September 22 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the great Swedish botanist Carl von Linné (1707-1778). At an early age, Linnaeus developed a great love for flowers and herbs. This led him to develop the first major systematic system of nomenclature for the flora, and this became the internationaly accepted standard. He organized the large-scale collection of botanical specimens in far-away countries and had a lively correspondence with his contemporaries. (MPC 30801)
1990 WV4. Discovered 1990 November 16 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the Finnish writer Johannes Linnankoski, pseudonym of Vihtori Peltonen (1869-1913). He promoted Finnish independence from Russia. He became well known for his novel Laulu tulipunaisesta kukasta (1905), or « Song of the blood-red flower ». In 1960 the discoverer set much of this novel to music. (MPC 31025)
1991 RP11. Discovered 1991 September 4 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707-1788). In 1749 he started his project Histoire naturelle, an immense work of 36 volumes on nature, in which he treated in succession the history of the formation of the earth, the life of animals and plants and the world of minerals. In 1779 the work was completed with his famous Epoques de la nature. Buffon insisted on building his theories on facts, rather than on hypotheses, and he made experience the clue for scientific investigation. His elegant style raised writing on science to the ranks of great literature. (MPC 31025)
1992 RO5. Discovered 1992 September 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781), German dramatist and writer on philosophy and aesthetics. He abandoned an early interest in theology for literature, philosophy and art. In 1766, his great treatise on aesthetics, Laokoon: oder über die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie, was published. As a philosopher he is remembered for Nathan der Weise (1779), and especially for Die Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts (1780), in which he expressed his belief on the perfectability of the human race. Lessing’s last years were lonely and poor, and upon his death he was buried at public expense. (MPC 31025)
1993 OA4. Discovered 1993 July 20 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for Peter Hasse (1585-1640), the first well-known organist to be appointed at the famous Marienkirche in Lübeck. On his death, he was succeeded by Franz Tunder, who, according to the Lübeck custom, married Hasse’s eldest daughter. Another of his daughters married the famous organist Nicolaus Bruhns. (MPC 31025)
1996 HS8. Discovered 1996 April 17 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Belgian chemist and philantropist Ernest Solvay (1838-1922), prodigious industrialist, scientist and engaged citizen with audacious ideas on politics and society. Today he is considered a symbol of industrial Belgium. (MPC 31026)
1990 SP7. Discovered 1990 September 22 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the North German organist Georg Böhm (1661-1733), who studied under Buxtehude in Lübeck. In 1698 Böhm was appointed organist at the St. Johannis church in Lüneburg. There he wrote his imposing Prelude and Fugue in C major. This opens with a virtuoso pedal solo, highly characteristic of North German organ composers. (MPC 31026)
1992 CF3. Discovered 1992 February 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the North German organist Matthias Weckmann (1619-1674). Appointed organist at St. Jacobi’s church in Hamburg in 1655, he had the mighty Arp Schnitger organ at his disposal until his death. A pupil of Heinrich Schütz, he worked under the direction of Praetorius and Scheidemann. In 1668 he founded the important Collegium musicum. Many of his organ and cembalo compositions (toccatas, canzones, suites and sonatas) survive. His Fantasia in D minor is a multisectional piece that is thoroughly contrapunctal in nature, and it reflects the great seriousness of Weckmann’s style. (MPC 31026)
1989 SR2. Discovered 1989 September 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for a small village in the French Ardennes, close to the Belgian border. (MPC 30478)
1990 SV5. Discovered 1990 Sept. 22 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the French navigator Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), best remembered for his circumnavigation on the Bondeuse (1766-1769) and his discovery of several archipelagos in Polynesia. His adventures are recounted in his Voyage autour du monde (1771), wherein he expounds theories about the goodness and the moral virtues of man living in harmony with nature. (MPC 30802)
1990 VD6. Discovered 1990 Nov. 15 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Don Villeneuve, anthropologist and friend of the discoverer. (MPC 30478)
1994 PK38. Discovered 1994 August 10 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the North German organist Johann Adam Reincken (1623-1722), a central figure of Hamburg’s musical life who lived to a legendary age of 99 years. A pupil of Scheidemann, he was appointed organist at the Katherinenkirche in Hamburg in 1663. In 1678 he was co-founder of Hamburg’s famous opera. Reincken was one of the principal representatives of the art of playing the organ in North Germany, although his style was sometimes too virtuoistic. J.S. Bach went to Hamburg several times to hear the master play. In addition to his Hortus musicus, there survives his famous Prelude and Fugue in G minor, a piece that every organist likes to play, because of its extremely brilliant and fluent style. (MPC 31026)
7755 1989 YO5
Discovered 1989 Dec. 28 by E. W. Elst at St. Michel.
7763 1990 UT5
Discovered 1990 Oct. 16 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1987 QN. Discovered 1987 Aug. 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the sad Trojan hero who figures in Doloneia, the tenth book of the Iliad. Dolon penetrated the Greek’s camp at night to learn of their intentions but was caught and killed without pity by Ulysses and Diomedes. (MPC 30803)
1990 SW4. Discovered 1990 September 22 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the organist Franz Tunder (1614-1667), founder of the North German school of organ composition. In 1641 he became organist in Lübeck at the Marienkirche, with its beautiful organ that was destroyed in 1945. It was Tunder also who started the famous « Abendmusiken », which his successor, Dietrich Buxtehude, continued and raised to further glory. (MPC 31027)
1992 RC7. Discovered 1992 Sept. 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the German organist Johann Christian Schieferdecker (1679-1732), who became Dietrich Buxtehude’s successor at the Marienkirche in Lübeck, by marying the rather undesirable eldest daughter of his predecessor, apparently one of the side conditions for getting the job. Schieferdecker was a fine harpsichordist and had come to Lübeck in order to learn from Buxtehude the art of sacred composition. (MPC 31027)
1996 HT17. Discovered 1996 April 18 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the German organist Johann Nicolaus Hanff (1665-1711). In 1696 he became organist and conductor to the Bishop of Lübeck. Hanff’s style, with the melody moving slowly but with rich ornamentation above a slow-moving and not very clearly individualized accompaniment, was favored by Buxtehude. (MPC 31027)
1996 HV24. Discovered 1996 April 20 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Italian composer Tomaso Albinoni (1671-1750). Although he considered himself an amateur composer, his 50 or so operas and instrumental works achieved wide popularity. Particularly notable are this concerti for solo violin and for one or two oboes, as well as his famous « Adagio » for strings. (MPC 31027)
1989 GP4. Discovered 1989 April 3 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the Belgian painter René Magritte Lessines (1898-1967), well known for his magical surrealistic style. In the 1930s composed his Magritte dictionary, placing ordinary objects, such as apples, stones and pipes, in a surrealistic context, thereby aiming to surprise and alienate. The philosophy of his work may best be summarized as « creating the unknown with known things ». Citation written by K. Leterme at the request of the discoverer. (MPC 31298)
7934 1989 SG1
Discovered 1989 Sep. 26 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1992 BE2. Discovered 1992 January 30 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the controversial freethinker John Toland (1670-1722). In 1696 he published his celebrated Christianity not Mysterious, a classic exposition on deism. Later, in his Letters to Serena (1704), he severely attacked the deism of both Spinoza and Newton with the remark « That after admitting the Activity of Matter, there seems to be no need of a presiding Intelligence », thus anticipating Holbach’s Système de la nature. (MPC 31028)
1994 PW16. Discovered 1994 August 10 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named for the French philosopher of the Enlightenment, Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794), an advocate of educational reform and a believer in the indefinite perfectability of mankind. At an early age, Condorcet showed remarkable mathematical abilities, notably in probability theory, and as a friend of d’Alembert he took an active part in the preparation of the Encyclopédie. But he is mainly remembered for his Esquisse d’un tableau historique des progrès de l’esprit humain (1795), with its fundamental idea of the continuous progress of humankind to an ultimate perfection. Suspected as a Girondin, he had to flee, but eventually he was captured and imprisoned at Bourg-La-Reine, where he was poisoned. (MPC 31028)
1996 N2. Discovered 1996 July 14 by E. W. Elst and G. Pizarro at La Silla.
Originally classified as a comet because of the persistent appearance of a tail, this newly-numbered Themis-family minor planet is being given the same name it has had as a comet. (MPC 30803)
8003 1987 RJ
Discovered 1987 Sep. 1 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1989 GB1. Discovered 1989 April 3 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in honor of Hermann Böhnhardt (b. 1955), astronomer at the European Southern Observatory, known for his observational and theoretical studies of comets. He took a particular interest in (7968) Elst-Pizarro, a Themis-family minor planet that also appeared in the guise of comet 133P/1996 N2. In addition to the main, sunward tail temporarily exhibited by this strange object, Böhnhardt detected a faint anti-sunward tail, which he had predicted by means of Finson-Probstein modeling. (MPC 31299)
8039 1993 RB16
Discovered 1993 Sep. 15 by H. Debehogne and E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1993 OW3. Discovered 1993 July 20 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the French writer Emile Zola (1840-1902), founder of the naturalist movement in literature. His writings show a credulous faith in science and an uncritical acceptance of scientific determinism. Although he believed that human nature was completely determined by heredity, he thought that it could be perfected. The controversial views expressed in his famous « J’accuse », published in the newspaper l’Aurore on 1898 Jan. 13, forced his flight to England. Nevertheless, he received a public funeral in France, and his remains are preserved in the Panthéon, although he never became a member of the Académie. (MPC 31299)
1996 HA15. Discovered 1996 April 17 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Named in memory of the French physicist Jean Perrin (1870-1942), who studied Brownian motion and thereby confirmed the atomic nature of matter. At the same time he formed his ideas about the atom and its electrons, envisaging an atom as a small solar system, thereby anticipating the model by Rutherford. In 1926 he was honored with the Nobel prize in physics. The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Palais de la Découverte in Paris were created through his efforts. French astronomers especially honor him for his creation of the Observatoire de Haute Provence in 1936. (MPC 31299)
8154 1988 CQ7
Discovered 1988 Feb. 15 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8164 1990 UO3
Discovered 1990 Oct. 16 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8165 1990 WQ3
Discovered 1990 Nov. 21 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8169 1991 PO2
Discovered 1991 Aug. 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8175 1991 VV5
Discovered 1991 Nov. 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8190 1993 ON9
Discovered 1993 Jul. 20 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
1993 OX9. Discovered 1993 Jul. 20 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8203 1994 CP10
Discovered 1994 Feb. 7 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8205 1994 PE10
Discovered 1994 Aug. 10 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8221 1996 NA4
Discovered 1996 Jul. 14 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8275 1990 VR8
Discovered 1990 Nov. 11 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8277 1991 GV8
Discovered 1991 Apr. 8 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8279 1991 PN7
Discovered 1991 Aug. 6 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8291 1992 RV1
Discovered 1992 Sep. 2 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8297 1993 QJ4
Discovered 1993 Aug. 18 by E. W. Elst at Caussols
8298 1993 SQ10
Discovered 1993 Sep. 22 by H. Debehogne and E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8299 1993 TP24
Discovered 1993 Oct. 9 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
8308 1996 HD13
Discovered 1996 Apr. 17 by E. W. Elst at La Silla.
Acknowlegdements: With thanks to J. Pierre Olivier who has typed all citations.